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Article: Rocket
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[[Chemical rocket]]s are the most common type of rocket and they typically create their exhaust by the combustion of [[rocket propellant]]. Chemical rockets store a large amount of energy in an easily released form, and can be very dangerous. However, careful design, testing, construction and use minimizes risks.
 
[[Chemical rocket]]s are the most common type of rocket and they typically create their exhaust by the combustion of [[rocket propellant]]. Chemical rockets store a large amount of energy in an easily released form, and can be very dangerous. However, careful design, testing, construction and use minimizes risks.
   
  +
this is a person which has 2 dogs
==History of rockets==
 
{{Main|History of rockets}}
 
{{See also|Timeline of rocket and missile technology}}
 
 
===In antiquity===
 
{{See also|List of Chinese inventions}}
 
[[Image:Chinese rocket.gif|thumb|left|upright|Early Chinese rocket.]]
 
The availability of black powder ([[gunpowder]]) to propel projectiles was a precursor to the development of the first solid rocket. Ninth century [[Chinese people|Chinese]] [[Taoist]] [[alchemy|alchemists]] discovered black powder while searching for the [[elixir of life]]; this accidental discovery led to experiments as weapons such as [[bomb]]s, [[cannon]], incendiary [[fire arrow]]s and rocket-propelled fire arrows.{{#tag:ref|"With its ninth century AD origins in China, the knowledge of gunpowder emerged from the search by alchemists for the secrets of life, to filter through the channels of Middle Eastern culture, and take root in Europe with consequences that form the context of the studies in this volume."<ref>{{Harvnb|Buchanan|2006|p=2}}</ref>|group=nb}}{{#tag:ref|"Without doubt it was in the previous century, around +850, that the early alchemical experiments on the constituents of gunpowder, with its self-contained oxygen, reached their climax in the appearance of the mixture itself."<ref>{{Harvnb|Needham|1986|p=7}}</ref>|group=nb}} The discovery of gunpowder was probably the product of centuries of alchemical experimentation in which [[Taoist]] alchemists were trying to create an elixir of immortality that would allow the person ingesting it to become physically immortal.<ref name=chase>{{Harvnb|Chase|2003|pp=31–32}}</ref>
 
 
Exactly when the first [[flight]]s of rockets occurred is contested. A problem is that Chinese ''fire arrows'' can be either arrows with explosives attached, or arrows propelled by gunpowder. There were reports of fire arrows and 'iron pots' that could be heard for 5 [[league (unit)|leagues]] (25&nbsp;km, or 15 miles) when they exploded, causing devastation for a radius of 600 meters (2,000 feet), apparently due to shrapnel.<ref name="nasa"/> A common claim is that the first recorded use of a rocket in battle was by the Chinese in 1232 against the [[Mongol]] hordes at [[Kaifeng|Kai Feng Fu]].<ref name="Martin">This is based on an old Mandarin civil service examination question that reads "Is the defense of Kai Feng Fu against the Mongols (1232) the first recorded use of cannon?".Another question from the examinations read "Fire-arms began with the use of rockets in the dynasty of Chou (B. C. 1122-255)--in what book do we first meet with the word p'ao, now used for cannon?". {{Citation |author= [[W. A. P. Martin]] | title=The Lore of Cathay or The Intellect of China |year=1901 |location=New York |publisher=Fleming H. Revell Company | page = 25|url=http://www.archive.org/stream/loreofcathayorin00martiala#page/26/mode/2up}}</ref> However, the lowering of iron pots there may have been a way for a besieged army to blow up invaders.{{#tag:ref|(正大九年)其守城之具有火砲名「震天雷」者,铁罐盛药,以火点之,砲起火发,其声如雷,闻百里外,所爇围半亩之上,火点著甲铁皆透。(蒙古)大兵又为牛皮洞,直至城下,掘城为龛,间可容人,则城上不可奈何矣。人有献策者,以铁绳悬「震天雷」者,顺城而下,至掘处火发,人与牛皮皆碎迸无迹。又「飞火枪」,注药以火发之,辄前烧十余步,人亦不敢近。(蒙古)大兵惟畏此二物云。(Rough translation: Year 1232: Among the weaponry at the defense city [[Kaifeng]] are the "thundercrash", which are made of iron pot, filled with drugs [[black powder]], that exploded after being lighted with fire, and made a noise like thunder. They could be heard from over 100 [[li (unit)|li]], and could spread on more than a third of an [[acre]], moreover they could penetrate the armours and the iron. The [[Mongol]] soldiers employed a siege carriage cloaked with cowskin, advanced to the city below, then grubbed a niche on the city-wall, which could spare a man between. The [[Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)|Jin]] defenders atop did not know what to do, but they got an advice later. Thus, they dropped the pot with an iron string from the fortress, and the pot reached to the niche area and exploded, blowing men and carriage to pieces without trace. The defenders also have the "flying [[fire-lance]]", which they infused with [[black powder]] and ignited it. This lance flamed within a range of over ten paces on the front, and no one dared to approach it. It was said that the [[Mongol]] soldiers could only be deterred by these two devices.) <ref>History of Jin ch. 113</ref>|group=nb}} A scholarly reference occurs in the Ko Chieh Ching Yuan (The Mirror of Research), states that in 998 AD a man named Tang Fu invented a fire arrow of a new kind having an iron head.<ref name="Martin"/>
 
 
Less controversially, one of the earliest devices recorded that used internal-combustion rocket propulsion, was the 'ground-rat,' a type of [[firework]] recorded in 1264 as having frightened the Empress-Mother Kung Sheng at a feast held in her honor by her son the [[Emperor Lizong]].<ref>{{harvnb|Crosby|2002|pp=100–103}}</ref>
 
 
Subsequently, one of the earliest texts to mention the use of rockets was the ''[[Huolongjing]]'', written by the Chinese artillery officer [[Jiao Yu]] in the mid-14th century. This text also mentioned the use of the first known [[multistage rocket]], the 'fire-dragon issuing from the water' (huo long chu shui), used mostly by the Chinese navy.<ref>{{Harvnb|Needham|1986|p=510}}</ref>
 
 
===Spread of rocket technology===
 
[[File:Chichibu ryusei Fes 1.jpg|thumb|upright=1.05|''[[:ja:龍勢祭り|Ryusei Festival]]'' at [[Yoshida, Saitama|Yoshida town]], [[Chichibu, Saitama|Chichibu city]], [[Saitama Prefecture|Saitama]], Japan]]
 
Rocket technology first became known to [[Europe]]ans following its use by the [[Mongol]]s [[Genghis Khan]] and [[Ögedei Khan]] when they conquered parts of Russia, Eastern, and Central Europe. The Mongolians had acquired the Chinese technology by conquest of the northern part of China and by the subsequent employment of Chinese rocketry experts as [[mercenaries]] for the Mongol military. Reports of the [[Battle of Mohi]] in the year 1241 describe the use of rocket-like weapons by the Mongols against the [[Magyars]].<ref name="nasa">{{cite web|url=http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/rocket-history.txt|title=A brief history of rocketry|work=NASA Spacelink |accessdate=2006-08-19}}</ref> Rocket technology also spread to [[Korea]], with the 15th century wheeled [[hwacha]] that would launch [[singijeon]] rockets.
 
Additionally, the spread of rockets into Europe was also influenced by the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottomans]] at the siege of [[Constantinople]] in 1453, although it is very likely that the Ottomans themselves were influenced by the Mongol invasions of the previous few centuries. In their history of rockets published on the Internet, [[NASA]] says "Rockets appear in Arab literature in 1258 A.D., describing Mongol invaders' use of them on February 15 to capture the city of Baghdad."<ref name="nasa"/>
 
 
Between 1270 and 1280, Hasan al-Rammah wrote ''al-furusiyyah wa al-manasib al-harbiyya'' (''The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices''), which included 107 gunpowder recipes, 22 of which are for rockets.<ref name=Gunpowder>{{harvnb|Hassan|a}}</ref> According to [[Ahmad Y Hassan]], al-Rammah's recipes were more explosive than rockets used in China at the time.<ref name=Hassan-Chemical>{{harvnb|Hassan|b}}</ref>{{Verify credibility|date=September 2010}} The terminology used by al-Rammah indicated a Chinese origin for the gunpowder weapons he wrote about, such as rockets and fire lances.<ref name="Jack Kelly 2005 22">{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=8xfs8tC8Ow0C&pg=PA22&dq=Around+1240+the+Arabs+acquired+knowledge+of+saltpeter+(%E2%80%9CChinese+snow%E2%80%9D)+from+the+East,+perhaps+through+India.+They+knew+of+gunpowder+soon+afterward.+They+also+learned+about+fireworks+(%E2%80%9CChinese+flowers%E2%80%9D)+and+rockets+(%E2%80%9CChinese+arrows%E2%80%9D).&hl=en&ei=-63mTuyHJIX10gHyipT-CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Around%201240%20the%20Arabs%20acquired%20knowledge%20of%20saltpeter%20(%E2%80%9CChinese%20snow%E2%80%9D)%20from%20the%20East%2C%20perhaps%20through%20India.%20They%20knew%20of%20gunpowder%20soon%20afterward.%20They%20also%20learned%20about%20fireworks%20(%E2%80%9CChinese%20flowers%E2%80%9D)%20and%20rockets%20(%E2%80%9CChinese%20arrows%E2%80%9D).&f=false|title=Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, and Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World|author=Jack Kelly|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition=illustrated |series= |volume= |date= |year=2005 |month= |publisher=Basic Books |location= |language= |isbn=0-465-03722-4 |page=22 |pages= |quote=Around 1240 the Arabs acquired knowledge of saltpeter (“Chinese snow”) from the East, perhaps through India. They knew of gunpowder soon afterward. They also learned about fireworks (“Chinese flowers”) and rockets (“Chinese arrows”). Arab warriors had acquired fire lances by 1280. Around that same year, a Syrian named Hasan al-Rammah wrote a book that, as he put it, "treat of machines of fire to be used for amusement of for useful purposes." He talked of rockets, fireworks, fire lances, and other incendiaries, using terms that suggested he derived his knowledge from Chinese sources. He gave instructions for the purification of saltpeter and recipes for making different types of gunpowder. }}</ref> [[Ibn al-Baitar|Ibn al-Baytar]], an Arab from Spain who had immigrated to Egypt, gave the name "snow of China" ({{lang-ar|ثلج الصين}} thalj al-Sin) to describe saltpetre. Al-Baytar died in 1248.<ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=fNZBSqd2cToC&pg=PA22&dq=The+first+definite+mention+of+saltpetre+in+an+Arabic+work+is+that+in+al-Baytar+(d.+1248),+written+towards+the+end+of+his+life,+where+it+is+called+%22snow+of+China.%22+Al-Baytar+was+a+Spanish+Arab&hl=en&ei=IQbUTs7uGene0QGKkr2bBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20first%20definite%20mention%20of%20saltpetre%20in%20an%20Arabic%20work%20is%20that%20in%20al-Baytar%20(d.%201248)%2C%20written%20towards%20the%20end%20of%20his%20life%2C%20where%20it%20is%20called%20%22snow%20of%20China.%22%20Al-Baytar%20was%20a%20Spanish%20Arab&f=false |title=A history of Greek fire and gunpowder |author=James Riddick Partington |accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition=reprint, illustrated |series= |volume= |date= |year=1960 |month= |publisher=JHU Press |location= |language= |isbn=0-8018-5954-9 |page=22 |pages= |quote=The first definite mention of saltpetre in an Arabic work is that in al-Baytar (d. 1248), written towards the end of his life, where it is called "snow of China." Al-Baytar was a Spanish Arab, although he travelled a good deal and lived for a time in Egypt. }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=X7e8rHL1lf4C&pg=PA45&dq=William+of+Rubruck+(or+Ruysbroek).+He+returned+in+1257,+and+in+the+following+year+there+are+reports+of+experiments+with+gunpowder+and+rockets+at+Cologne.+Then+a+friend+of+William+of+Rubruck,+Roger+Bacon,+gave+the+first+account+of+gunpowder+and+its+use+in+fire&hl=en&ei=yLbVTpDPOILz0gGqo_z7AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=William%20of%20Rubruck%20(or%20Ruysbroek).%20He%20returned%20in%201257%2C%20and%20in%20the%20following%20year%20there%20are%20reports%20of%20experiments%20with%20gunpowder%20and%20rockets%20at%20Cologne.%20Then%20a%20friend%20of%20William%20of%20Rubruck%2C%20Roger%20Bacon%2C%20gave%20the%20first%20account%20of%20gunpowder%20and%20its%20use%20in%20fire&f=false|title=Technology in world civilization: a thousand-year history |author=Arnold Pacey|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition=reprint, illustrated |series= |volume= |date= |year=1991 |month= |publisher=MIT Press |location= |language= |isbn=0-262-66072-5 |page=45 |pages= |quote=Europeans were prompted by all this to take a closer interest in happenings far to the east. Four years after the invasion of 1241, the pope sent an ambassador to the Great Khan's capital in Mongolia. Other travellers followed later, of whom the most interesting was William of Rubruck (or Ruysbroek). He returned in 1257, and in the following year there are reports of experiments with gunpowder and rockets at Cologne. Then a friend of William of Rubruck, Roger Bacon, gave the first account of gunpowder and its use in fireworks to be written in Europe. A form of gunpowder had been known in China since before AD 900, and as mentioned earlier...Much of this knowledge had reached the Islamic countries by then, and the saltpetre used in making gunpowder there was sometimes referred to, significantly, as 'Chinese snow'.}}</ref> The earlier Arab historians call saltpeter "Chinese snow" and " Chinese salt;" <ref>Original from the University of Michigan{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=ZivnAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA1033&dq=The+Arabs+learned+of+gunpowder+during+this+century+and+they+called+saltpeter+%22+Chinese+snow%22+and+the+rocket+%22Chinese&hl=en&ei=UobmTr_CIsLl0QGr1ZTzCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=The%20Arabs%20learned%20of%20gunpowder%20during%20this%20century%20and%20they%20called%20saltpeter%20%22%20Chinese%20snow%22%20and%20the%20rocket%20%22Chinese&f=false|title=The people's cyclopedia of universal knowledge with numerous appendixes invaluable for reference in all departments of industrial life... |author=|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition= |series= |volume=Volume 2 of The People's Cyclopedia of Universal Knowledge with Numerous Appendixes Invaluable for Reference in All Departments of Industrial Life |date= |year=1897 |month= |publisher=Eaton & Mains |location=NEW YORK |language= |isbn= |page=1033 |pages= |quote=Fire-arms may be defined as vessels—of whatever form— used in the propulsion of shot, shell, or bullets, to a greater or less distance, by the action of gunpowder exploded within them. The prevalent notion that gunpowder was the invention of Friar Bacon, and that cannon were first used by Edward III. of England, must be at once discarded. It is certain that gunpowder differed in no conspicuous degree from the Chreekfire of the Byzantine emperors, nor from the terrestrial thunder of China and India, where it had been known for many centuries before the chivalry of Europe began to fall beneath its leveling power. Niter is the natural and daily product of China and India; and there, accordingly, the knowledge of gunpowder seems to be coeval with that of the most distant historic events. The earlier Arab historians call saltpeter "Chinese snow" and " Chinese salt;" and the most ancient records of China itself show that fireworks were well known several hundred yrs. before the Christian era. From these and other circumstances it is indubitable that gunpowder was used by the Chinese as an explosive compound in prehistoric times; when they first discovered or applied its power as a propellant is less easily determined. Stone mortars, throwing missiles of 12 lbs. to a distance of 800 paces, are mentioned as having been employed in 767 A.D. by Thang's army; and in 1282 A.D. it is incontestable that the Chinese besieged in Cai'fong-fou used cannon against their Mongol enemies. Thus the Chinese must be allowed to have established their claim to an early practical knowledge of gunpowder and its effects. }}</ref><ref>Original from Harvard University {{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=9mgMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA1033&dq=The+Arabs+learned+of+gunpowder+during+this+century+and+they+called+saltpeter+%22+Chinese+snow%22+and+the+rocket+%22Chinese&hl=en&ei=UobmTr_CIsLl0QGr1ZTzCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEgQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=The%20Arabs%20learned%20of%20gunpowder%20during%20this%20century%20and%20they%20called%20saltpeter%20%22%20Chinese%20snow%22%20and%20the%20rocket%20%22Chinese&f=false|title=The standard American encyclopedia of arts, sciences, history, biography, geography, statistics, and general knowledge, Volume 3 |author=|editor=John Clark Ridpath|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year=1897 |month= |publisher=Encyclopedia publishing co. |location=156 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK |language= |isbn= |page=1033 |pages= |quote=Fire-arms may be defined as vessels—of whatever form— used in the propulsion of shot, shell, or bullets, to a greater or less distance, by the action of gunpowder exploded within them. The prevalent notion that gunpowder was the invention of Friar Bacon, and that cannon were first used by Edward III. of England, must be at once discarded. It is certain that gunpowder differed in no conspicuous degree from the Greek fire of the Byzantine emperors, nor from the terrestrial thwuler of China and India, where it had been known for many centuries before the chivalry of Europe began to fall beneath its leveling power. Niter is the natural and daily product of China and India; and there, accordingly, the know ledge of gunpowder seems to be coeval with that of the most distant historic events. The earlier Arab historians call saltpeter "Chinese snow" and " Chinese salt j" and the most ancient records of China itself show that fireworks were well known several hundred yrs. before the Christian era. From these and other circumstances it is indubitable that gunpowder was used by the Chinese as an explosive compound in prehistoric times; when they first discovered or applied its power as a propellant is less easily determined. Stone mortars, throning missiles of 12 lbs. to a distance of 300 paces, are mentioned as having been employed in 757 A.D. by Thaug's army; and in 1232 A.D. it is incontestable that the Chinese besieged in Cai'fong-fou used cannon against their Mongol enemies. Thus the Chinese must be allowed to have established their claim to an early practical knowledge of gunpowder and its effects. }}</ref> The Arabs also used the name "Chinese arrows" to refer to rockets.<ref>Original from the University of Michigan{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?ei=yYrmTsm5Gabk0QGUqYTJBQ&ct=result&id=fmptAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Arabs+learned+of+saltpetre+around+the+end+of+the+thirteenth+century+when+they+were+introduced+to+it+as+%27Chinese+snow%27+and+began+to+use+rockets+which+they+called+%27Chinese+arrows%27.&q=snow+arrows|title=China considers the Middle East |author=Lillian Craig Harris|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition=illustrated |series= |volume= |date= |year=1993 |month= |publisher=Tauris |location= |language= |isbn=1-85043-598-7 |page=25 |pages= |quote=now known precisely but, as with many other commodities, the Mongol campaigns served as one conduit. The Arabs learned of saltpetre around the end of the thirteenth century when they were introduced to it as 'Chinese snow' and began to use rockets they called 'Chinese arrows'. }}</ref><ref>Original from the University of Michigan {{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?ei=uYvmTpzlKqb00gH2z9DvBQ&ct=result&id=NZRFAAAAMAAJ&dq=Following+the+Mongol+conquest+of+much+of+Asia+the+Arabs+became+acquainted+with+saltpeter+sometime+before+the+end+of+the+thirteenth+century.+They+called+it+Chinese+snow%2C+as+they+called+the+rocket+the+Chinese+arrow.+Roger+Bacon+%7Bca&q=snow+arrow|title=The invention of printing in China and its spread westward |author=Thomas Francis Carter|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition=2 |series= |volume= |date= |year=1955 |month= |publisher=Ronald Press Co. |location= |language= |isbn= |page=126 |pages= |quote=the Khitan, and again in the wars against the invading Jurchen in 1125-27 and 1161-62. Following the Mongol conquest of much of Asia the Arabs became acquainted with saltpeter sometime before the end of the thirteenth century. They called it Chinese snow, as they called the rocket the Chinese arrow. Roger Bacon (ca. 1214 to ca. 1294) is the first European writer to mention gunpowder, though whether he learned of it through his study of}}</ref><ref>Original from the University of Michigan {{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?ei=CInmTrfFMMna0QGr5YFz&ct=result&id=O2k5AAAAMAAJ&dq=Gunpowder+appeared+in+Europe+in+the+thirteenth+century.+The+Arabs+learned+of+gunpowder+during+this+century+and+they+called+saltpeter+%22Chinese+snow%22+and+the+rocket+%22Chinese+arrow.%22+Roger+Bacon+was+the+first+European+to+mention+gunpowder&q=snow+arrow|title=American sociological review, Volume 10 |coauthors=Frank Hamilton Hankins, American Sociological Association, American Sociological Society, JSTOR (Organization)|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year=1963 |month= |publisher=American Sociological Association |location= |language= |isbn= |page=598 |pages= |quote=Gunpowder appeared in Europe in the thirteenth century. The Arabs learned of gunpowder during this century and they called saltpeter "Chinese snow" and the rocket "Chinese arrow." Roger Bacon was the first European to mention gunpowder and he may have learend it from the Arabs or from his fellow Franciscan, Friar William of Rubruck. Friar William was in Mongolia in}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?ei=CInmTrfFMMna0QGr5YFz&ct=result&id=yqI1AAAAIAAJ&dq=Gunpowder+appeared+in+Europe+in+the+thirteenth+century.+The+Arabs+learned+of+gunpowder+during+this+century+and+they+called+saltpeter+%22Chinese+snow%22+and+the+rocket+%22Chinese+arrow.%22+Roger+Bacon+was+the+first+European+to+mention+gunpowder&q=snow+arrow|title=Perspectives on the social order: readings in sociology |author=|editor=Hugh Laurence Ross|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year=1963 |month= |publisher=McGraw-Hill |location= |language= |isbn= |page=129 |pages= |quote=Gunpowder appeared in Europe in the thirteenth century. The Arabs learned of gunpowder during this century and they called saltpeter "Chinese snow" and the rocket "Chinese arrow." Roger Bacon was the first European to mention gunpowder and he may have learend it from the Arabs or from his fellow Franciscan, Friar William of Rubruck. Friar William was in Mongolia in 1254 and Roger Bacon was personally acquainted with him after his return }}</ref><ref>Original from the University of California {{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?ei=PovmTrK0DuHb0QHd29jbBQ&ct=result&id=gN-6AAAAIAAJ&dq=The+Arabs+learned+of+saltpetre+around+the+end+of+the+thirteenth+century+when+they+were+introduced+to+it+as+%27Chinese+snow%27+and+began+to+use+rockets+which+they+called+%27Chinese+arrows%27.&q=snow|title=The invention of printing in China and its spread westward |author=Thomas Francis Carter|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year=1925 |month= |publisher=Columbia university press |location= |language= |isbn= |page=92 |pages= |quote=When the use of these grenades first began is still obscure. They were apparently used in the battles of 1161 and 1162 , and again by the northern Chinese against the Mongols in 1232. The Arabs became acquainted with saltpeter some time before the end of the thirteenth century and calledin Chinese snow, as the called the rocket the Chinese arrow. Roger Bacon (c. 1214 to c. 1294) is the first European writer to mention gunpowder, though whether he learned of it. }}</ref><ref>Original from the University of Michigan {{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?ei=S6zmTvmUEYLl0QGwvtzwCQ&ct=result&id=bRJmAAAAMAAJ&dq=However%2C+the+first+Arab+mention+of+saltpetre+occurs+towards+the+end+of+the+thirteenth+century%2C+when+it+is+called+%27Chinese+snow%27.+In+any+case%2C+gunpowder+became+known+in+Europe+a+short+time+after+it+was+used+in+warfare+in+China&q=However%2C+the+first+Arab+mention+of+saltpetre+occurs+towards+the+end+of+the+thirteenth+century%2C+when+it+is+called+%27Chinese+snow%27.+In+any+case%2C+gunpowder+became+known+in+Europe+a+short+time+after+it+was+used+in+warfare+in+China|title=East-West passage: the travel of ideas, arts, and inventions between Asia and the Western world, Volume 1971, Part 2 |author=Michael Edwardes|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition=illustrated |series= |volume= |date= |year=1971 |month= |publisher=Taplinger |location= |language= |isbn= |page=82 |pages= |quote=However, the first Arab mention of saltpetre occurs towards the end of the thirteenth century, when it is called 'Chinese snow'. In any case, gunpowder became known in Europe a short time after it was used in warfare in China }}</ref><ref>Original from the University of California {{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?ei=UobmTr_CIsLl0QGr1ZTzCA&ct=result&id=zd66AAAAIAAJ&dq=The+Arabs+learned+of+gunpowder+during+this+century+and+they+called+saltpeter+%22+Chinese+snow%22+and+the+rocket+%22Chinese&q=snow|title=The invention of printing in China and its spread westward |author=Thomas Francis Carter|accessdate=2011 November 28 |edition=2 |series= |volume= |date= |year=1955 |month= |publisher=Ronald Press Co. |location= |language= |isbn= |page=126 |pages= |quote=Following the Mongol conquest of much of Asia the Arabs became acquainted with saltpeter sometime before the end of the thirteenth century. They called it Chinese snow, as they called the rocket the Chinese arrow. Roger Bacon {ca |}}</ref> The Arabs attached "Chinese" to various names for gunpowder related objects. "Chinese flowers" was the name for fireworks, while "Chinese Snow" was given to saltpeter and "Chinese arrows" to rockets.<ref name="Jack Kelly 2005 22"/> While saltpeter was called "Chinese Snow" by Arabs, it was called "Chinese salt" by the Iranians/Persians.<ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=CVNoJydnGAoC&pg=PA304&dq=The+Arabic+term+for+saltpetre+is+'Chinese+snow'+while+the+Persian+usage+is+'Chinese+salt'.28&hl=en&ei=b6vmToLRM8jd0QHeyeTlCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Arabic%20term%20for%20saltpetre%20is%20'Chinese%20snow'%20while%20the%20Persian%20usage%20is%20'Chinese%20salt'.28&f=false|title=Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention, from Fire to Freud |author=Peter Watson|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition=illustrated, annotated |series= |volume= |date= |year=2006 |month= |publisher=HarperCollins |location= |language= |isbn=0-06-093564-2 |page=304 |pages= |quote=The first use of a metal tube in this context was made around 1280 in the wars between the Song and the Mongols, where a new term, chong, was invented to describe the new horror...Like paper, it reached the West via the Muslims, in this case the writings of the Andalusian botanist Ibn al-Baytar, who died in Damascus in 1248. The Arabic term for saltpetre is 'Chinese snow' while the Persian usage is 'Chinese salt'.28 }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=1h9zzSH-NmwC&pg=PA365&dq=In+either+case,+there+is+linguistic+evidence+of+Chinese+origins+of+the+technology:+in+Damascus,+Arabs+called+the+saltpeter+used+in+making+gunpowder+%22+Chinese+snow,%22+while+in+Iran+it+was+called+%22Chinese+salt.%22+Whatever+the+migratory+route&hl=en&ei=ia3mTuHsD8HL0QHepZHtCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=In%20either%20case%2C%20there%20is%20linguistic%20evidence%20of%20Chinese%20origins%20of%20the%20technology%3A%20in%20Damascus%2C%20Arabs%20called%20the%20saltpeter%20used%20in%20making%20gunpowder%20%22%20Chinese%20snow%2C%22%20while%20in%20Iran%20it%20was%20called%20%22Chinese%20salt.%22%20Whatever%20the%20migratory%20route&f=false|title=The age of wars of religion, 1000-1650: an encyclopedia of global warfare and civilization |author=Cathal J. Nolan|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition=illustrated |series= |volume=Volume 1 of Greenwood encyclopedias of modern world wars |date= |year=2006 |month= |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |location= |language= |isbn=0-313-33733-0 |page=365 |pages= |quote=In either case, there is linguistic evidence of Chinese origins of the technology: in Damascus, Arabs called the saltpeter used in making gunpowder " Chinese snow," while in Iran it was called "Chinese salt." Whatever the migratory route }}</ref><ref>Original from the University of Michigan {{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?ei=RonmTrvUGsbz0gH_xuH9BQ&ct=result&id=uY_fAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Chinese+were+certainly+acquainted+with+saltpetre%2C+the+essential+ingredient+of+gunpowder.+They+called+it+Chinese+Snow+and+employed+it+early+in+the+Christian+era+in+the+manufacture+of+fireworks+and+rockets.&q=snow|title=Artillery: its origin, heyday, and decline |author=Oliver Frederick Gillilan Hogg|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition=illustrated |series= |volume= |date= |year=1970 |month= |publisher=Archon Books |location= |language= |isbn= |page=123 |pages= |quote=The Chinese were certainly acquainted with saltpetre, the essential ingredient of gunpowder. They called it Chinese Snow and employed it early in the Christian era in the manufacture of fireworks and rockets. }}</ref><ref>Original from the University of Michigan {{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?ei=qInmTpz6KePy0gGig7DmBQ&ct=result&id=aG0gAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Chinese+were+certainly+acquainted+with+saltpetre%2C+the+essential+ingredient+of+gunpowder.+They+called+it+Chinese+Snow+and+employed+it+early+in+the+Christian+era+in+the+manufacture+of+fireworks+and+rockets.&q=snow|title=English artillery, 1326-1716: being the history of artillery in this country prior to the formation of the Royal Regiment of Artillery |author=Oliver Frederick Gillilan Hogg|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year=1963 |month= |publisher=Royal Artillery Institution |location= |language= |isbn= |page=42 |pages= |quote=The Chinese were certainly acquainted with saltpetre, the essential ingredient of gunpowder. They called it Chinese Snow and employed it early in the Christian era in the manufacture of fireworks and rockets. }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?ei=EormTvOcPOTX0QGTreTjBQ&ct=result&id=6DfRYDE0ViwC&dq=The+Chinese+were+certainly+acquainted+with+saltpetre%2C+the+essential+ingredient+of+gunpowder.+They+called+it+Chinese+snow+and+used+it+early+in+the+Christian+era+in+the+manufacture+of+fireworks+and+rockets.&q=snow|title=Clubs to cannon: warfare and weapons before the introduction of gunpowder |author=Oliver Frederick Gillilan Hogg|accessdate=2011-11-28 |edition=reprint |series= |volume= |date= |year=1993 |month= |publisher=Barnes & Noble Books |location= |language= |isbn=1-56619-364-8 |page=216 |pages= |quote=The Chinese were certainly acquainted with saltpetre, the essential ingredient of gunpowder. They called it Chinese snow and used it early in the Christian era in the manufacture of fireworks and rockets. }}</ref>
 
 
The name ''Rocket'' comes from the [[Italian language|Italian]] ''Rocchetta'' (i.e. ''little fuse''), a name of a small firecracker created by the Italian artificer Muratori in 1379.<ref name="vonbraunrocketry">{{harvnb|von Braun|Ordway|1966}}{{Page needed|date=September 2010}}</ref>
 
 
[[Image:Conrad Kyeser's Bellifortis c 1405 fig 1.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Kyeser was infatuated with the [[Alexander romance|legend of Alexander the Great]]: here Alexander holds a rocket, the first depiction of one]]
 
 
[[Konrad Kyeser]] described rockets in his famous military treatise [[Bellifortis]] around 1405.<ref>"Rockets and Missiles: The Life Story of a Technology", A. Bowdoin Van Riper,p.10</ref>
 
 
Between 1529 and 1556 [[Conrad Haas]] wrote a book that described rocket technology that combined [[fireworks]] and weapons technologies. This manuscript was discovered in 1961, in the Sibiu public records (Sibiu public records ''Varia II 374''). His work dealt with the theory of motion of multi-stage rockets, different fuel mixtures using [[liquid fuel]], and introduced [[delta (letter)|delta]]-shape [[fin]]s and bell-shaped [[nozzle]]s.<ref>[http://www.sibiweb.de/vip/haas/ CONRAD HAAS Raketenpionier in Siebenbürgen (german)]</ref>
 
 
''Lagari Hasan Çelebi'' was a [[legend]]ary [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]] aviator who, according to an account written by [[Evliya Çelebi]], made a successful manned rocket [[flight]]. Evliya Çelebi purported that in 1633 Lagari Hasan Çelebi launched in a 7-winged rocket using 50 okka (140&nbsp;lbs) of [[gunpowder]] from [[Sarayburnu]], the point below [[Topkapı Palace]] in [[Istanbul]].
 
 
[[Image:Lagari.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Lagâri Hasan Çelebis rocket flight depicted in a 17th-century engraving]]
 
 
For over two centuries, the work of [[Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]] [[szlachta|nobleman]] [[Kazimierz Siemienowicz]] "''Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima''" ("Great Art of Artillery, the First Part", also known as "The Complete Art of Artillery"), was used in [[Europe]] as a basic artillery manual.<ref name="Nowak182">{{harvnb|Nowak|1969|p=182}}</ref> First printed in [[Amsterdam]] in 1650 it was translated to [[French language|French]] in 1651, [[German language|German]] in 1676, [[English language|English]] and [[Dutch language|Dutch]] in 1729 and [[Polish language|Polish]] in 1963. The book provided the standard designs for creating rockets, [[Incendiary device|fireballs]], and other [[pyrotechnic]] devices. It contained a large chapter on caliber, construction, production and properties of rockets (for both military and civil purposes), including [[Multistage rocket|multi-stage]] rockets, batteries of rockets, and rockets with [[delta wing]] [[stabilizer (aircraft)|stabilizer]]s (instead of the common guiding rods).
 
 
===Metal-cylinder rocket artillery===
 
In 1792, the first [[Mysorean Rockets|iron-cased rockets]] were successfully developed and used by [[Hyder Ali]] and his son [[Tipu Sultan]], rulers of the [[Kingdom of Mysore]] in [[India]] against the larger [[British East India Company]] forces during the [[Anglo-Mysore Wars]]. The British then took an active interest in the technology and developed it further during the 19th century. The Mysore rockets of this period were much more advanced than the British had previously seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missile (up to 2&nbsp;km range). After Tipu's eventual defeat in the [[Fourth Anglo-Mysore War]] and the capture of the Mysore iron rockets, they were influential in British rocket development, inspiring the [[Congreve rocket]], which was soon put into use in the [[Napoleonic Wars]].<ref>Roddam Narasimha (1985). [http://www.nal.res.in/pdf/pdfrocket.pdf Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750-1850 A.D.] National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science.</ref>
 
 
===Accuracy of early rockets===
 
[[Image:Congreve rockets.gif|thumb|The [[Congreve rocket]] ]]
 
[[William Congreve (inventor)|William Congreve]], son of the Comptroller of the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, London, became a major figure in the field. From 1801, Congreve researched on the original design of [[Mysorean Rockets|Mysore rockets]] and set on a vigorous development program at the Arsenal's laboratory.<ref name="congreve">{{harvnb|Stephen|1887}} [http://www.archive.org/stream/dictionarynatio36stepgoog#page/n21/mode/1up p. 9]</ref> Congreve prepared a new propellant mixture, and developed a rocket motor with a strong iron tube with conical nose. This early [[Congreve rocket]] weighed about 32 pounds (14.5 kilograms). The Royal Arsenal's first demonstration of solid fuel rockets was in 1805. The rockets were effectively used during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. Congreve published three books on rocketry.<ref>{{harvnb|Van Riper|2004}}{{Page needed|date=September 2010}}</ref>
 
 
From there, the use of military rockets spread throughout the western world. At the [[Battle of Baltimore]] in 1814, the rockets fired on [[Fort McHenry]] by the [[rocket vessel]] [[HMS Erebus (1807)|HMS ''Erebus'']] were the source of the ''rockets' red glare'' described by [[Francis Scott Key]] in [[The Star-Spangled Banner]].<ref>[http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/hh/5/hh5l.htm British Rockets] at the US National Parks Service, Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine. Retrieved February 2008.</ref> Rockets were also used in the [[Battle of Waterloo]].<ref>[http://www.napoleonic-literature.com/Articles/Rockets/History_of_Rockets.htm History of the Rocket - 1804 to 1815] by [[Gareth Glover]]</ref>
 
 
Early rockets were very inaccurate. Without the use of spinning or any [[gimbal]]ling of the thrust, they had a strong tendency to veer sharply off of their intended course. The early [[Mysorean rockets]] and their successor British [[Congreve rocket]]s<ref name="congreve"/> reduced this somewhat by attaching a long stick to the end of a rocket (similar to modern bottle rockets) to make it harder for the rocket to change course. The largest of the Congreve rockets was the 32-pound (14.5&nbsp;kg) Carcass, which had a 15-foot (4.6 m) stick. Originally, sticks were mounted on the side, but this was later changed to mounting in the center of the rocket, reducing drag and enabling the rocket to be more accurately fired from a segment of pipe.
 
 
The accuracy problem was greatly improved in 1844 when [[William Hale (British inventor)|William Hale]]<ref name="SMITH">{{harvnb|Space History Division|1999}}</ref> modified the rocket design so that thrust was slightly [[thrust vectoring|vectored]], causing the rocket to spin along its axis of travel like a bullet. The Hale rocket removed the need for a rocket stick, travelled further due to reduced air resistance, and was far more accurate.
 
 
===Theories of interplanetary rocketry===
 
[[Image:Tsiolkovsky.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Konstantin Tsiolkovsky published the first work on space travel, which was inspired by the writings of Jules Verne]]
 
At the beginning of the 20th Century, there was a burst of scientific investigation into interplanetary travel, largely driven by the inspiration of fiction by writers such as [[Jules Verne]] and [[H.G.Wells]]. Scientists seized on the rocket as a technology that was able to achieve this in real life.
 
 
In 1903, high school mathematics teacher [[Konstantin Tsiolkovsky]] (1857–1935), published ''Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами''<ref>[http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/dorev-knigi/ciolkovskiy/issl-03st.html Tsiolkovsky's Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами - ''The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices'' (Russian paper)]</ref> (''The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices''), the first serious scientific work on space travel. The [[Tsiolkovsky rocket equation]]—the principle that governs rocket propulsion—is named in his honor (although it had been discovered previously).<ref>{{harvnb|Johnson|1995|pp=499–521}}</ref> He also advocated the use of liquid hydrogen and oxygen for propellant, calculating their maximum exhaust velocity. His work was essentially unknown outside the Soviet Union, but inside the country it inspired further research, experimentation and the formation of the [[Society for Studies of Interplanetary Travel]] in 1924.
 
 
In 1912, [[Robert Esnault-Pelterie]] published a lecture<ref>{{harvnb|Esnault-Pelterie|1913}}</ref> on rocket theory and interplanetary travel. He independently derived Tsiolkovsky's rocket equation, did basic calculations about the energy required to make round trips to the Moon and planets, and he proposed the use of atomic power (i.e. Radium) to power a jet drive.
 
 
[[Image:Dr. Robert H. Goddard - GPN-2002-000131.jpg|thumb|upright|Robert Goddard]]
 
In 1912 [[Robert Goddard (scientist)|Robert Goddard]], inspired from an early age by H.G.Wells, began a serious analysis of rockets, concluding that conventional solid-fuel rockets needed to be improved in three ways.
 
First, fuel should be burned in a small combustion chamber, instead of building the entire propellant container to withstand the high pressures. Second, rockets could be arranged in stages. Finally, the exhaust speed (and thus the efficiency) could be greatly increased to beyond the speed of sound by using a [[De Laval nozzle]]. He patented these concepts in 1914.<ref>[http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=1,102,653.PN.&OS=PN/1,102,653&RS=PN/1,102,653 US patent 1,102,653]</ref> He also independently developed the mathematics of rocket flight.
 
 
In 1920, Goddard published these ideas and experimental results in ''[[A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes]]''.<ref>{{harvnb|Goddard|1919}}</ref> The work included remarks about sending a solid-fuel rocket to the Moon, which attracted worldwide attention and was both praised and ridiculed. A New York Times editorial suggested:
 
{{cquote|That Professor Goddard, with his 'chair' in Clark College and the countenancing of the Smithsonian Institution, does not know the relation of action to reaction, and of the need to have something better than a vacuum against which to react -- to say that would be absurd. Of course he only seems to lack the knowledge ladled out daily in high schools.|||New York Times, 13 January 1920<ref>{{Cite news|first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Topics of the Times |url=http://it.is.rice.edu/~rickr/goddard.editorial.html |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080209230323/http://it.is.rice.edu/~rickr/goddard.editorial.html |archivedate=2008-02-09 |publisher=New York Times |date=January 13, 1920 |accessdate=2007-06-21 }}</ref>}}
 
 
In 1923, [[Hermann Oberth]] (1894–1989) published ''Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen'' ("The Rocket into Planetary Space"), a version of his doctoral thesis, after the University of Munich rejected it.<ref name="ianzer">Jürgen Heinz Ianzer, [http://www.aspera.ro/dl/oberth.pdf ''Hermann Oberth, pǎrintele zborului cosmic''] ("Hermann Oberth, Father of Cosmic Flight") (in Romanian), pp. 3, 11, 13, 15.</ref>
 
 
In 1924, Tsiolkovsky also wrote about [[multi-stage rocket]]s, in 'Cosmic Rocket Trains'<ref>[http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blrocketTsiolkovsky.htm Konstantin Tsiolkovsky - Rockets from Russia<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 
 
===Modern rocketry===
 
 
====Pre-World War II====
 
[[Image:Goddard and Rocket.jpg|thumb|upright|Robert Goddard and the first liquid-fueled rocket.]]
 
Modern rockets were born when Goddard attached a supersonic ([[de Laval nozzle|de Laval]]) nozzle to a liquid-fueled rocket engine's combustion chamber. These nozzles turn the hot gas from the combustion chamber into a cooler, [[hypersonic]], highly directed jet of gas, more than doubling the thrust and raising the engine efficiency from 2% to 64%.<ref>{{harvnb|Goddard|2002|pp=2,15}}</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Clary|2003|pp=44–45}}</ref> In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket in [[Auburn, Massachusetts|Auburn]], Massachusetts.
 
 
During the 1920s, a number of rocket research organizations appeared worldwide. In 1927 the German car manufacturer [[Opel]] began to research rocket vehicles together with Mark Valier and the solid-fuel rocket builder Friedrich Wilhelm Sander.<ref>[http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/O/Opel-RAK.html The Internet Encyclopedia of Science, history of rocketry: Opel-RAK]</ref> In 1928, Fritz von Opel drove with a rocket car, the [[Opel-RAK]].1 on the Opel raceway in Rüsselsheim, Germany. In 1928 the [[Lippisch Ente]] flew, rocket power was used to launch the manned glider, although it was destroyed on its second flight. In 1929 von Opel started at the Frankfurt-Rebstock airport with the [[Opel RAK.1|Opel-Sander RAK 1-airplane]], which was damaged beyond repair during a hard landing after its first flight.
 
 
In the mid-1920s, [[Weimar Republic|German]] scientists had begun experimenting with rockets that used liquid propellants capable of reaching relatively high altitudes and distances. In 1927 and also in Germany, a team of amateur rocket engineers had formed the ''[[Verein für Raumschiffahrt]]'' (German Rocket Society, or VfR), and in 1931 launched a liquid propellant rocket (using [[oxygen]] and [[petrol|gasoline]]).<ref>[http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/V/Verein_fur_Raumschiffahrt.html History of Rocketry: Verein für Raumschiffahrt (VfR)]</ref>
 
 
From 1931 to 1937 in Russia, extensive scientific work on rocket engine design occurred in [[Leningrad]] at the Gas Dynamics Laboratory there. Well-funded and staffed, over 100 experimental engines were built under the direction of [[Valentin Glushko]]. The work included [[regenerative cooling (rocket)|regenerative cooling]], [[hypergolic propellant]] ignition, and [[fuel injector]] designs that included swirling and bi-propellant mixing injectors. However, the work was curtailed by Glushko's arrest during [[Great Purge|Stalinist purges]] in 1938. Similar work was also done by the Austrian professor [[Eugen Sänger]] who worked on rocket-powered [[spaceplanes]] such as [[Silbervogel]] (sometimes called the 'antipodal' bomber.)<ref>[http://www.astronautix.com/data/saenger.pdf A Rocket Drive For Long Range Bombers by E. Saenger and J. Bredt, August 1944]</ref>
 
 
On November 12, 1932 at a farm in Stockton NJ, the American Interplanetary Society's attempt to static fire their first rocket (based on German Rocket Society designs) failed in a fire.<ref>{{Citation | last1 = Winter| first1 = Frank H | last = van der Linden| first2 = Robert | title = Out of the Past | magazine = Aerospace America |date = November 2007|pages=p39}}</ref>
 
 
In 1930s, the ''[[Reichswehr]]'' (which in 1935 became the ''[[Wehrmacht]]'') began to take an interest in rocketry.<ref>{{harvnb|Zaloga|2003|p=3}}</ref> Artillery restrictions imposed by the [[Treaty of Versailles]] limited Germany's access to long distance weaponry. Seeing the possibility of using rockets as long-range [[artillery]] fire, the Wehrmacht initially funded the VfR team, but because their focus was strictly scientific, created its own research team. At the behest of military leaders, [[Wernher von Braun]], at the time a young aspiring [[rocket scientist]], joined the military (followed by two former VfR members) and developed long-range weapons for use in [[World War II]] by [[Nazi Germany]].<ref>[http://www.russianspaceweb.com/a4.html The V-2 ballistic missile]</ref>
 
 
====World War II====
 
[[Image:V-2 Rocket On Meillerwagen.jpg|left|thumb|A German V-2 rocket on a [[Meillerwagen]]]]
 
[[Image:V-2 rocket diagram (with English labels).svg|thumb|upright|Layout of a V2 rocket]]
 
In 1943, production of the [[V-2 rocket]] began in Germany. It had an operational range of {{convert|300|km|mi|abbr=on}} and carried a {{convert|1000|kg|lb|abbr=on}} warhead, with an [[amatol]] explosive charge. It normally achieved an operational maximum altitude of around {{convert|90|km|mi|abbr=on}}, but could achieve {{convert|206|km|mi|abbr=on}} if launched vertically. The vehicle was similar to most modern rockets, with [[turbopump]]s, [[guidance system|inertial guidance]] and many other features. Thousands were fired at various [[Allies of World War II|Allied]] nations, mainly Belgium, as well as England and France. While they could not be intercepted, their guidance system design and single conventional warhead meant that it was insufficiently accurate against military targets. A total of 2,754 people in England were killed, and 6,523 were wounded before the launch campaign was ended. There were also 20,000 deaths of slave labour during the construction of V-2s. While it did not significantly affect the course of the war, the V-2 provided a lethal demonstration of the potential for guided rockets as weapons.<ref name=Hunt>{{harvnb|Hunt|1991|pp=72–74}}</ref><ref name=Beon>{{harvnb|Béon|1997}}{{Page needed|date=September 2010}}</ref>
 
 
In parallel with the guided missile programme in [[Nazi Germany]], rockets were also used on aircraft, either for assisting horizontal take-off ([[JATO]]), vertical take-off ([[Bachem Ba 349]] "Natter") or for powering them ([[Me 163]],<ref name="ww2-planes">[http://www.world-war-2-planes.com/Messerschmitt-Me-163-Komet.html "Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet."] ''World War 2 Planes''. Retrieved: 22 March 2009.</ref> etc.). During the war Germany also developed several guided and unguided air-to-air, ground-to-air and ground-to-ground missiles (see [[list of World War II guided missiles of Germany]]).
 
 
The Allies rocket programs were much less sophisticated, relying mostly on unguided missiles like the Soviet [[Katyusha rocket launcher|Katyusha rocket]].
 
 
====Post World War II====
 
[[Image:Dornberger-Axter-von Braun.jpg|thumb|upright|Dornberger and Von Braun after being captured by the Allies]]
 
[[Image:Semyorka Rocket R7 by Sergei Korolyov in VDNH Ostankino RAF0540.jpg|left|thumb|upright|R-7 8K72 "[[Vostok rocket|Vostok]]" permanently displayed at the Moscow Trade Fair at [[Ostankino District|Ostankino]]; the rocket is held in place by its railway carrier, which is mounted on four diagonal beams that constitute the display pedestal. Here the railway carrier has tilted the rocket upright as it would do so into its launch pad structure -- which is missing for this display.]]
 
At the end of World War II, competing Russian, British, and US military and scientific crews raced to capture technology and trained personnel from the German rocket program at [[Peenemünde]]. Russia and Britain had some success, but the United States benefited the most. The US captured a large number of German rocket scientists (many of whom were members of the [[National Socialist German Workers Party|Nazi Party]], including von Braun) and brought them to the United States as part of [[Operation Overcast]].<ref>[http://www.archives.gov/iwg/declassified-records/rg-330-defense-secretary/ Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency. US National Archives and Records Administration]</ref> In America, the same rockets that were designed to rain down on [[United Kingdom|Britain]] were used instead by scientists as research vehicles for developing the new technology further. The V-2 evolved into the American [[Redstone rocket]], used in the early space program.<ref>{{harvnb|von Braun|1963|pp=452–465}}</ref>
 
 
After the war, rockets were used to study high-altitude conditions, by radio [[telemetry]] of temperature and pressure of the atmosphere, detection of [[cosmic rays]], and further research; notably for the [[Bell X-1]] to break the sound barrier. This continued in the US under von Braun and the others, who were destined to become part of the US scientific community.
 
 
Independently, in the [[Soviet space program|Soviet Union's space program]] research continued under the leadership of the chief designer [[Sergei Korolev]].<ref>[http://www.nmspacemuseum.org/halloffame/detail.php?id=15 International Space Hall of Fame: Sergei Korolev]</ref> With the help of German technicians, the V-2 was duplicated and improved as the [[R-1 (rocket)|R-1]], [[R-2 rocket|R-2]] and [[R-5 (rocket)|R-5]] missiles. German designs were abandoned in the late 1940s, and the foreign workers were sent home. A new series of engines built by Glushko and based on inventions of [[Aleksei Mihailovich Isaev]] formed the basis of the first ICBM, the [[R-7 (rocket)|R-7]].<ref>
 
{{cite web| url = http://www.energia.ru/english/energia/launchers/rocket-r7.html | title = Rocket R-7 | publisher = S.P.Korolev RSC Energia}}</ref> The R-7 launched the first satellite- [[Sputnik 1]], and later [[Yuri Gagarin]]-the first man into space, and the first lunar and planetary probes. This rocket is still in use today. These prestigious events attracted the attention of top politicians, along with additional funds for further research.
 
 
One problem that had not been solved was [[atmospheric reentry]]. It had been shown that an orbital vehicle easily had enough kinetic energy to vaporize itself, and yet it was known that meteorites can make it down to the ground. The mystery was solved in the US in 1951 when [[H. Julian Allen]] and [[Alfred J. Eggers|A. J. Eggers, Jr.]] of the [[National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics]] (NACA) made the counterintuitive discovery<ref>{{harvnb|Hansen|1987}} [http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4305/ch12.htm Chapter 12.]</ref> that a blunt shape (high drag) permitted the most effective heat shield. With this type of shape, around 99% of the energy goes into the air rather than vehicle, and this permitted safe recovery of orbital vehicles.
 
 
The Allen and Eggers discovery, though initially treated as a military secret, was eventually published in 1958.<ref>{{harvnb|Allen|Eggers|1958}}</ref> The Blunt Body Theory made possible the heat shield designs that were embodied in the [[Mercury program|Mercury]] and all other space capsules and space planes, enabling astronauts to survive the fiery re-entry into Earth's atmosphere.
 
[[Image:Mk 2.jpg|thumb |left|upright|Prototype of the Mk-2 Reentry Vehicle (RV), based on [[Atmospheric reentry#Blunt body entry vehicles|blunt body theory]] ]]
 
 
====Cold War====
 
Rockets became extremely important militarily as modern [[intercontinental ballistic missiles]] (ICBMs) when it was realized that [[nuclear weapons]] carried on a rocket vehicle were essentially impossible for existing defense systems to stop once launched, and ICBM/Launch vehicles such as the R-7, [[Atlas (rocket family)|Atlas]] and [[Titan (rocket family)|Titan]] became the delivery platform of choice for these weapons.
 
 
[[File:VonBraunTeam1961.jpg|thumb|Von Braun's rocket team in 1961]]
 
Fueled partly by the [[Cold War]], the 1960s became the decade of rapid development of rocket technology particularly in the Soviet Union ([[Vostok rocket|Vostok]], [[Soyuz (rocket family)|Soyuz]], [[Proton rocket|Proton]]) and in the United States (e.g. the [[X-15]]<ref>[http://history.nasa.gov/monograph18.pdf (PDF) ''Hypersonics Before the Shuttle: A Concise History of the X-15 Research Airplane'' (NASA SP-2000-4518, 2000)]</ref> and [[X-20 Dyna-Soar]]<ref>{{harvnb|Houchin|2006}}{{Page needed|date=September 2010}}</ref> aircraft). There was also significant research in other countries, such as Britain, Japan, Australia, etc., and a growing use of rockets for [[Space exploration]], with pictures returned from the far side of the [[Moon]] and unmanned flights for [[Mars exploration]].
 
 
In America the manned programmes, [[Project Mercury]], [[Project Gemini]] and later the [[Apollo programme]] culminated in 1969 with the first manned [[moon landing|landing on the moon]] via the [[Saturn V]], causing the New York Times to retract their earlier editorial implying that spaceflight couldn't work:
 
 
{{Cquote|Further investigation and experimentation have confirmed the findings of Isaac Newton in the 17th century and it is now definitely established that a rocket can function in a vacuum as well as in an atmosphere. The Times regrets the error.|||New York Times, 17 June 1969 - A Correction<ref>[http://www.nytimes.com/2001/11/14/news/150th-anniversary-1851-2001-the-facts-that-got-away.html New York Times 17 June 1969 - A Correction]</ref>}}
 
 
In the 1970s America made further lunar landings, before cancelling the Apollo programme in 1975. The replacement vehicle, the partially reusable '[[Space Shuttle]]' was intended to be cheaper,<ref>{{harvnb|GAO|1972}}{{Page needed|date=September 2010}}</ref> but this large reduction in costs was largely not achieved. Meanwhile in 1973, the expendable [[Ariane (rocket)|Ariane]] programme was begun, a launcher that by the year 2000 would capture much of the [[Geosynchronous satellite|geosat]] market.
 
 
====Current day====
 
[[Image:SpaceShipOne Nose.jpg|thumb|upright|SpaceShipOne]]
 
Rockets remain a popular military weapon. The use of large battlefield rockets of the V-2 type has given way to guided [[missiles]]. However rockets are often used by [[helicopter]]s and light aircraft for ground attack, being more powerful than [[machine gun]]s, but without the recoil of a heavy [[cannon]] and by the early 1960s [[air-to-air missile]]s became favored. Shoulder-launched rocket weapons are widespread in the anti-tank role due to their simplicity, low cost, light weight, accuracy and high level of damage. Current artillery systems such as the [[MLRS]] or [[BM-30 Smerch]] launch multiple rockets to saturate battlefield targets with munitions.{{Citation needed|date=June 2009}}
 
 
Economically, rocketry is the enabler of all [[space technology|space technologies]] particularly [[satellite]]s, many of which impact people's everyday lives in almost countless ways.<ref>[http://www.losangeles.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=5311 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS WING]</ref>
 
 
Scientifically, rocketry has opened a window on the universe, allowing the launch of [[space probe]]s to explore the [[solar system]] and space-based [[telescopes]] to obtain a clearer view of the rest of the [[universe]].<ref>[http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/postsecondary/features/F_NASA_Great_Observatories_PS.html NASA's great observatories]</ref>
 
 
However, it is probably [[manned spaceflight]] that has predominantly caught the imagination of the public. Vehicles such as the [[Space Shuttle]] for scientific research, the [[Soyuz spacecraft|Soyuz]] increasingly for orbital tourism and [[SpaceShipOne]] for suborbital tourism may show a trend towards greater commercialisation of manned rocketry.<ref>[http://www.futron.com/pdf/resource_center/white_papers/SpaceTourismMarketStudy.pdf Futron report]</ref>
 
   
 
==Types==
 
==Types==
Reason: ANN scored at 0.975384
Reporter Information
Reporter: JimmiXzS (anonymous)
Date: Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:38:40 PM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:11:24 PM #100435
Bradley (anonymous)

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Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:38:45 PM #106420
JimmiXzS (anonymous)

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