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Article: Exorcism
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'''Exorcism''' (from Greek ἐξορκισμός, ''exorkismos'' - binding by oath) is the religious practice of evicting [[demon]]s or other spiritual entities from a person or an area which they are believed to have [[spirit possession|possessed]].<ref>{{cite journal|last=Jacobs|first=Louis|title=Exorcism|journal=Oxford Reference Online|year=1999|issue=Oxford University Press|url=http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t96.e208|accessdate=24 Jan. 2011}}</ref> Depending on the spiritual beliefs of the [[exorcist]], this may be done by causing the entity to swear an oath, performing an elaborate [[ritual]], or simply by commanding it to depart in the name of a higher power. The practice is ancient and part of the belief system of many cultures and religions.
 
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Exorcism is when a person is posessed by demons and was requested regularly in the 1950s to the 1970s. People asked to be posessed, thinking it would help them.
 
Requested and performed exorcisms occurred rarely until the latter half of the 20th century where the public saw a sharp rise due to the media attention exorcisms were getting. There was “a 50% increase in the number of exorcisms performed between the early 1960s and the mid-1970s”.<ref>{{cite book|last=Martin|first=M|title=Hostage to the Devil: The Possession and Exorcism of Five Contemporary Americans|year=1992|publisher=Harper San Francisco|location=San Francisco|pages=120}}</ref>
 
 
==Christianity==
 
{{Main|Exorcism in Christianity|Exorcism in the Catholic Church}}
 
In Catholic Christianity, exorcisms are performed in the name of [[Jesus Christ]].<ref name="Catechismof">
 
{{Citation
 
| work = Catechism of the Catholic Church
 
| isbn = 978-1-57455-110-5
 
| url = http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/_INDEX.HTM
 
| accessdate = Feb 15, 2012
 
| editor = Libreria Editrice Vaticana
 
| editor2 = Pope John Paul II
 
| publication-date = 4/28/2000
 
| title = Part II: The Celebration of The Christian Mystery, Section II: The Seven Sacraments of The Church, Chapter IV: Other Liturgical Celebrations
 
| chapter = Article 1: Sacramentals
 
| chapter-url = http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P58.HTM
 
| edition = 2ND
 
| publisher = United States Conference of Catholic Bishops
 
| publication-place = Citta del Vaticano
 
| pages = 928
 
| at = 1673
 
}}</ref> A distinction is made between a formal exorcism, which can only be conducted by a priest during a baptism or with the permission of a Bishop, and "prayers of deliverance" which can be said by anyone.
 
 
The Catholic rite for a formal exorcism, called a "Major Exorcism", is given in Section 13 of the [[Rituale Romanum]].<ref>[http://www.ewtn.com/library/prayer/roman2.txt THE ROMAN RITUAL Translated by PHILIP T. WELLER, S.T.D.]</ref> The [[Rituale Romanum|Ritual]] lists guidelines for conducting an exorcism, and for determining when a formal exorcism is required.<ref name="TheRite">The Rite by Matt Baglio; Doubleday, New York, 2009.</ref> Priests are instructed to carefully determine that the nature of the affliction is not actually a psychological or physcial illness before proceeding.<ref name="Catechismof" />
 
 
In Catholic practice the person performing the exorcism, known as an exorcist, is often a member of the church, or an individual thought to be graced with special powers or skills. The exorcist may use [[prayer]]s, and religious material, such as set formulas, [[gesture]]s, [[symbol]]s, [[icon]]s, [[amulet]]s, etc. The exorcist often invokes [[God]], [[Jesus]], a litany of saints, and/or several different [[angel]]s and [[archangel]]s to intervene with the exorcism. It may take several weekly exorcisms over several years to expel a deeply entrenched demon.<ref name="TheRite" /><ref>An Exorcist Tells His Story by Fr. Gabriele Amorth; Ignatius Press, San Francisco, 1999. However, recent research by Mohr and Royal (2012) in which they surveyed nearly 200 Christian exorcists revealed stark contrasts to Catholic practices. In fact, the research revealed that Protestant Christian exorcists believed any "mature Christian" has the authority and ability to cast out demons. Further, experienced exorcists claim most exorcisms do not resemble anything on tv or in the movies. Simply invoking the authority of Jesus' name is sufficient for a Christian, and demons must obey the commands of the Christian exorcist. This is contrary to the Catholic tradition in which exorcisms are performed only be "elect" individuals, prayers are continually repeated, symbols and other artifacts are employed, and angels and other "good" spirits are asked to assist.</ref>
 
 
In general, [[Demonic possession|possessed persons]] are not regarded as [[evil]] in themselves, nor wholly responsible for their actions.<ref>p.33, An Exorcist Tells His Story by Fr. Gabriele Amorth; Ignatius Press, San Francisco, 1999.</ref> Therefore, practitioners regard exorcism as more of a cure than a punishment. The mainstream rituals usually take this into account, making sure that there is no violence to the possessed, only that they be tied down if deemed necessary for their own protection and that of the practitioner.<ref>Malachi M. (1976) Hostage to the Devil: the possession and exorcism of five living Americans. San Francisco, Harpercollins p.462 ISBN 0-06-065337-X</ref>
 
 
==Hinduism==
 
Beliefs and practices pertaining to the practice of exorcism are prominently connected with Hindus. Of the four [[Vedas]] (holy books of the [[Hindus]]), the [[Atharva Veda]] is said to contain the secrets related to magic and alchemy.<ref>{{Harvnb|Werner|1994|p=166}}</ref><ref>{{Harvnb|Monier-Williams|1974|pp=25–41}}</ref>
 
The basic means of exorcism are the ''[[mantra]]'' and the ''[[yajna]]'' used in both [[Vedic]] and [[tantra|Tantric]] traditions. Vaishnava traditions also employ a recitation of names of [[Narasimha]] and reading scriptures, notably the ''[[Bhagavata Purana]]'' aloud.
 
 
According to Gita Mahatmya of Padma Purana, reading the 3rd, 7th and 9th chapter of [[Bhagavad Gita]] and mentally offering the result to departed persons helps them to get released from their ghostly situation. ''[[Kirtan]]'', continuous playing of mantras, keeping scriptures and holy pictures of the deities ([[Shiva]], [[Vishnu]], [[Brahma]], [[Shakti]], etc.) (especially of Narasimha) in the house, burning incense offered during a ''[[Puja (Hinduism)|Puja]]'', sprinkling water from holy rivers, and blowing conches used in ''puja'' are other effective practices.{{Citation needed|date=August 2009}}
 
 
The main [[Purana|puranic]] resource on ghost and death-related information is [[Garuda Purana]].{{Citation needed|date=August 2009}}
 
 
A complete description of birth and death and also about the human soul are explained in Katō Upanishad, a part of Yajur Veda. A summary of this is also available as a separate scripture called Kāttakaṃ.
 
 
==Islam==
 
{{Main|Exorcism in Islam}}
 
In Islam, exorcism is called ''ruqya''. It is used to repair the damage caused by ''sihr'' or [[witchcraft]]. Exorcisms today are part of a wider body of contemporary Islamic alternative medicine called '''al-Tibb al-Nabawi''' (Medicine of the Prophet).<ref>http://www.theblaze.com/stories/some-asian-muslims-giving-up-western-meds-for-islamic-exorcisms-treatments/</ref>
 
 
Islamic exorcisms consist of the treated person lying down, while a white-gloved therapist places a hand on a patient’s head while chanting verses from the Quran.<ref>http://www.theblaze.com/stories/some-asian-muslims-giving-up-western-meds-for-islamic-exorcisms-treatments/</ref> The drinking of [[holy water]] may also take place.<ref>http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/05/14/214122.html</ref>
 
 
Specific verses from the [[Quran]] are recited, which glorify God (e.g. [[Al-Baqara 255|The Throne Verse]] (Arabic: آية الكرسي ''Ayatul Kursi''), and invoke God's help. In some cases, the ''[[adhan]]''/"ah-zan" (the call for daily prayers) is also read, as this has the effect of repelling non-angelic unseen beings or the ''[[jinn]]''.
 
 
The Islamic prophet Muhammad taught his followers to read the last three ''[[sura]]s'' from the Quran, [[Surat al-Ikhlas]] (The Fidelity), [[Surat al-Falaq]] (The Dawn) and [[Surat al-Nas]] (Mankind).
 
 
==Judaism==
 
[[Josephus]] reports exorcisms performed by administering poisonous root extracts and others by making sacrifices.<ref>[http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/josephus/war7.html Josephus, "B. J." vii. 6, § 3]; Sanh. 65b.</ref> The [[Dead Sea Scrolls]] mention that exorcisms were done by the [[Essene]] branch of Judaism.
 
 
In more recent times, Rabbi [[Yehuda Fetaya]] authored the book ''Minchat Yahuda'', which deals extensively with exorcism, his experience with possessed people, and other subjects of Jewish thought. The book is written in Hebrew and was translated into English.
 
 
Rabbi Gershon Winkler of [[New Mexico]] explains that the procedure for a Jewish exorcism is intended not only to drive away the possessing force, but to help both the possessor and the possessed in an act of healing. The Jewish exorcism ritual is performed by a [[rabbi]] who has mastered practical [[Kabbalah]]. Also present is a [[minyan]] (a group of ten adult males), who gather in a circle around the possessed person. The group recites [[Psalm 91]] three times, and then the rabbi blows a [[shofar]] (a ram's horn).<ref>[http://www.ghostvillage.com/legends/2003/legends32_11292003.shtml An interview with a Rabbi concerning the Jewish view of possession and exorcism.]</ref>
 
 
The shofar is blown in a certain way, with various notes and tones, in effect to "shatter the body" so that the possessing force will be shaken loose. After it has been shaken loose, the rabbi begins to communicate with it and ask it questions such as why it is possessing the body of the possessed. The minyan may pray for it and perform a ceremony for it in order to enable it to feel safe, and so that it can leave the person's body.<ref>[http://www.ghostvillage.com/legends/2003/legends32_11292003.shtml An interview with a Rabbi concerning the Jewish view of possession and exorcism.]</ref>
 
 
===Eric Sorensen's Hypothesis===
 
{{essay-entry|date=October 2012}}
 
The origins of exorcism can be found in the effects of Zoroastrian and ancient Near Eastern beliefs on early Judaism and Christianity. Zoroastrianism’s dualistic beliefs and apocalypticism is a nurturing ground for ideas of exorcisms and possession. “The spirit of Ahura Mazda is said to be with the one who chooses good [Yasna 33.14], and one can assume the same of the evil spirit for those who chose evil. Mary Boyce underscores the importance of possession in Zoroastrian doctrine: ‘The concepts of divinity and of humanly possessed power seem frequently to blend, through the thought of that power proceeding from the divinity, who has himself actually entered into the person.” <ref>Sorensen, Eric. In Possession and exorcism in the New Testament and early Christianity. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2002.</ref> (p.&nbsp;37)
 
 
Zoroastrianism also introduces a connection between the spirit world and its human host, albeit not in the same manner that characterizes later Jewish and Christian thought. (p.&nbsp;38) After person choses between good and evil, a “mutually supportive symbiosis, takes place between the individual and the spirit of choice,” according to Eric Sorensen. (p.&nbsp;38) Identifying a person with his good or evil benefactor converges with the rhetoric used by Jewish sectarians and early Christians to consecrate their fellow believers and demonize their opponents – Sorensen gathers the evidence for this from E.H. Pagels’ The Origin of Satan. (p.&nbsp;39)
 
 
Evidence for quasi-exorcisms in Zoroastrianism lie in the laws of the Vendidad that provide purification rituals for physical contaminations caused by demons. (p.&nbsp;39) According to James Darmesteter, the Zoroastrian understanding of “impurity or uncleanness may be described as the state of a person or thing that is possessed of a demon; and the object of purification is to expel the demon.”(p.&nbsp;39) This however, is not considered an exorcism in the manner in which it is thought of today. “The closest analogy to exorcism in the early Zoroastrian literature is a reference to the followers of the Wise Lord (Ahura Mazda) as the “expellers of fury,” where “fury” is thought to be Aeshma, “the only demon mentioned by name in the Gathas, according to Boyce. (p.40)
 
 
However, this is still unlike the Christian accounts of demonic possession in which a demon invades the host’s body and must be cast out to restore the body to its natural and healthy state. (p. 40) The difference lies in the nature of choice that is associated with Zoroastrian dualism. A person who allies himself with evil is not necessarily a victim of it from whom malevolent influence must be driven out; instead, he is seen to voluntarily involve himself with evil. (p. 40) The “expulsion” of demons was more an attempt to destroy those who sided themselves with evil than remove evil influence. Yet, such “expulsions,” don’t directly translate to exorcisms. A possible influence is seen in the use of incantations for physical purifications from demons, seen in the Vendidad. (p.&nbsp;41)
 
 
Despite the likely evidence, “the influence of Zoroastrianism upon Hellenism and Judaism has so far been difficult to prove,” according to Sorensen. (p.&nbsp;43) It is, however, widely noted that there are, “striking affinities between Zoroastrianism and Judaism…the angelologies, demonologies, and the subjugation of evil evident in late canonical and intertestamental writings such as Tobit, Daniel, and Qumran’s Community Rule offer tantalizing suggestions of Zoroastrianism’s influence upon Jewish thought.” (p.&nbsp;45) “The most explicit evidence of Zoroastrian views on early Judaism is the demon Asmodeus in Tobit (II BCE). The name Asmodeus derives from the Avestan words aēšma daēuua (“Demon of Wrath”).” (p. 45)
 
 
There is an increasing emphasis on possession, not in terms of physical ailments, but with ethical decision-making that is seen in early Jewish Pseudepigrapha; in a Sibylline Oracle, the Sibyl dictates that God will “dwell in the maiden.” (p.&nbsp;62) Ethical decision-making is reminiscent of the choice one has to make in dualistic Zoroastrianism. Sven Hartman sees an example of Zoroastrian’s influence on Judaism’s apocalyptic thought in the figure of the devil, “whom he considers the Jews to have modeled after Angra Mainyu after their exposure to the Achaemenian and Parthian periods of dominance in the Near East.” (p.&nbsp;45)
 
 
Exorcism finds its closest analogies in the Hebrew Bible in two specific passages: “David’s soothing of Saul in 1 Samuel and God’s rebuke of Satan in the book of Zechariah.” (p.&nbsp;53) In the former passage, an evil spirit plagues, but does not explicitly possess, Saul’s body; David plays a lyre as, “an exorcistic function,” to restore Saul to a well state of being by making the evil spirit depart. (p.&nbsp;53) In the latter passage, God’s rebuke of Satan contains language similar to what is found in New Testament exorcisms. (p.&nbsp;54)
 
 
Other evidence is found in Tobit, the only apocryphal book in the Septuagint that supplies to the ideas of exorcism. Eric Sorensen’s linguistic research has concluded that in the stories of Moses, Daniel, and Joseph, “four of the six terms used of magical practitioners have their origins in the Mesopotamian cultures of Assyria and Babylonia. Linguistically, then, the Mesopotamian cultic and occult practices influenced how Hellenistic Judaism interpreted magic and illicit conjurations [precursors to exorcism].” (p.&nbsp;57)
 
 
The practice of exorcism and demonology becomes more prominent in language and content in other Jewish intertestamental literature. Particularly in their testaments and apocalypses, the documents from the scrolls from the Judean desert and the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, offer near-contemporary views of possession and exorcism as viewed in the New Testament; this is seen an sign that Near Eastern practices and beliefs came into the same setting from which New Testament writings and other the synoptic sources were to emerge. (p.&nbsp;59)
 
 
In the words of Eric Sorensen, “Although the Hebrew Bible does not offer explicit evidence of exorcism, the Hellenistic period does introduce the semantic groundwork for the demonology that would become standard to the later presentations of exorcism in the New Testament. During this time the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek, and most of the apocryphal documents were composed in Greek. Though Near Eastern demonic personalities do not enter into the early Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible (Old Greek Version), its derivatives are used to translate various Hebrew terms for spiritual entities. These will come to refer often and exclusively to evil spirits in the New Testament.” (p.&nbsp;55)
 
 
==Scientific view==
 
[[Demonic possession]] is not a valid [[psychiatry|psychiatric]] or medical diagnosis recognized by either the [[Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders|DSM-IV]] or the [[International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems|ICD-10]]. Those who profess a belief in demonic possession have sometimes ascribed the symptoms associated with mental illnesses, such as [[hysteria]], [[mania]], [[psychosis]], [[Tourette's syndrome]], [[epilepsy]], [[schizophrenia]] or [[dissociative identity disorder]], to possession.<ref name="How Exorcism Works">[http://science.howstuffworks.com/exorcism5.htm How Exorcism Works]</ref><ref>[https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/dspace/handle/1794/1530 J. Goodwin, S. Hill, R. Attias "Historical and folk techniques of exorcism: applications to the treatment of dissociative disorders"]</ref><ref>[http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327752jpa6603_4 Journal of Personality Assessment (abstract)]</ref> In cases of [[dissociative identity disorder]] in which the alter personality is questioned as to its identity, 29% are reported to identify themselves as demons.<ref>[http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/erlendsson_01_jun_03.pdf Microsoft Word - Haraldur Erlendsson 1.6.03 Multiple Personality<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Additionally, there is a form of [[monomania]] called demonomania or demonopathy in which the patient believes that he or she is possessed by one or more demons.
 
 
The illusion that exorcism works on people experiencing symptoms of possession is attributed by some to [[placebo]] effect and the power of [[suggestion]].<ref>[http://www.livescience.com/strangenews/050830_emilyrose.html Voice of Reason: Exorcisms, Fictional and Fatal]</ref> Some supposedly possessed persons are actually narcissists or are suffering from low self-esteem and act like a "demon possessed person" in order to gain attention.<ref name="How Exorcism Works"/>
 
 
Psychiatrist [[M. Scott Peck]] researched exorcisms and claimed to have conducted two himself. He concluded that the Christian concept of possession was a genuine phenomenon. He derived diagnostic criteria somewhat different from those used by the Roman Catholic Church. He also claimed to see differences in exorcism procedures and progression. After his experiences, and in an effort to get his research validated, he attempted but failed to get the psychiatric community to add the definition of "Evil" to the [[DSM-IV]].<ref>{{cite book|author=Peck M. MD|year=1983|title=People of the Lie: the Hope for Healing Human Evil|publisher=Touchstone|location=New York}}</ref>
 
 
Although Peck's earlier work was met with widespread popular acceptance, his work on the topics of evil and possession generated significant debate and derision. Much was made of his association with (and admiration for) the controversial [[Malachi Martin]], a [[Roman Catholic]] [[priest]] and a former [[Jesuit]], despite the fact that Peck consistently called Martin a liar and manipulator.<ref name = "Woods"/><ref>[http://www.beliefnet.com/story/159/story_15928.html The Patient Is the Exorcist], an interview with M. Scott Peck by Laura Sheahen</ref> Other criticisms leveled against Peck included claims that he had transgressed the boundaries of [[professional ethics]] by attempting to persuade his patients to accept Christianity.<ref name="Woods">[http://www.natcath.org/NCR_Online/archives2/2005b/042905/042905m.htm The devil you know], ''National Catholic Reporter, April 29, 2005, a commentary on ''Glimpses of the Devil'' by Richard Woods</ref>
 
 
==Notable exorcisms==
 
{{See also|Louviers possessions|Aix-en-Provence possessions|Loudun possessions}}
 
* An [[Wainuiomata Mākutu Lifting|October 2007 mākutu lifting]] in the [[Wellington]], [[New Zealand]] suburb of [[Wainuiomata]] led to the death by drowning of a woman and the hospitalization of a teen. After a long trial, five family members were convicted and sentenced to non-custodial sentences.<ref name="Stuff.co.nz_2497284">{{cite web |url=http://www.stuff.co.nz/dominion-post/wellington/2497284/Deadly-curse-verdict-five-found-guilty |title=Deadly curse verdict: five found guilty |date=13 June 2009 |work=[[The Dominion Post (Wellington)|The Dominion Post]] |accessdate=30 September 2011}}</ref>
 
* [[Mother Teresa]] allegedly underwent an exorcism late in life under the direction of the Archbishop of Calcutta, Henry D'Souza, after he noticed she seemed to be extremely agitated in her sleep and feared she "might be under the attack of the evil one."<ref>[http://archives.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/south/09/04/mother.theresa.exorcism/ Archbishop: Mother Teresa underwent exorcism] CNN 04 September 2001</ref>
 
* [[Anneliese Michel]] was a Catholic woman from Germany who was said to be possessed by six or more demons and subsequently underwent a secret ten-month-long voluntary exorcism in 1975. Two motion pictures, ''[[The Exorcism of Emily Rose]]'' and ''[[Requiem (2006 film)|Requiem]]'' are loosely based on Anneliese's story. The documentary movie ''Exorcism of Anneliese Michel'' <ref>{{youtube|y0Ak-3wS7cQ}}</ref> (in Polish, with English subtitles) features the original audio tapes from the exorcism. The two priests and her parents were convicted of negligent manslaughter for failing to call a medical doctor to address her eating disorder. When she died she weighed 68 pounds. The case has been labelled a misidentification of mental illness, negligence, abuse, and religious hysteria.
 
* [[Bobby Jindal]], governor of Louisiana, wrote an essay in 1994 about his personal experience of performing an exorcism on an intimate friend named "Susan" while in college.<ref>name="Bobby Jindal's Exorcism problem">{{cite web|url = http://www.motherjones.com/mojo/2012/05/bobby-jindal-exorcised-his-college-girlfriend</ref> Jindal's exorcism took place at Brown University and was a success.
 
* [[Michael Taylor (Ossett)|Michael Taylor]] in 1974.
 
* A boy identified as [[Robbie Mannheim]],<ref name="John Spencer, Anne Spencer">{{cite book|url = http://books.google.com/?id=9x_o_go-nM8C&q=Luther+Miles+Schulze&dq=Luther+Miles+Schulze&cd=3|title= Powers of the mind|quote= The Reverend Luther Miles Schulze, was called in to help and took Mannheim to his home where he could study the phenomenon at close range;|publisher = TV Books|accessdate = 2007-12-31|isbn = 978-1-57500-028-2|date = 1999-05}}</ref><ref name="Dr. Mehra Shrikhande">{{cite book|url = http://books.google.com/?id=SpeXY898fkYC&pg=PA129&dq=Luther+Miles+Schulze&cd=4#v=onepage&q=Luther%20Miles%20Schulze|title= Paranormal Experiences|quote= A thirteen-year-old American boy named, Robert Mannheim, started using an...The Reverend Luther Miles Schulze, who was called to look into the matter,...|publisher = Unicorn Books|accessdate = 2007-12-31|isbn = 978-81-7806-166-5|date = 2009-06-08}}</ref> was the subject of an exorcism in 1949, which became the chief inspiration for ''[[The Exorcist]]'', a horror novel and film written by [[William Peter Blatty]], who heard about the case while he was a student in the class of 1950 at [[Georgetown University]]. Robbie was taken into the care of [[Luther Miles Schulze|Rev. Luther Miles Schulze]], the boy's [[Lutheran]] pastor, after [[psychiatrist|psychiatric]] and [[medical doctor]]s were unable to explain the disturbing events associated with the teen; the minister then referred the boy to [[Edward Hughes (exorcist)|Rev. Edward Hughes]], who performed the first exorcism on the teen.<ref name="Emissary">{{cite book|url = http://books.google.com/?id=q469xc7mbksC&pg=PA69&dq=Walter+Halloran+exorcism+ouija&cd=13#v=onepage&q=Walter%20Halloran%20exorcism%20ouija| title = A Faraway Ancient Country|publisher = [[Lulu (company)|Lulu]]|accessdate = 2010-03-27|isbn = 978-0-615-15801-3|year = 2007}}</ref> The subsequent exorcism was partially performed in both [[Cottage City, Maryland]] and [[Bel-Nor, Missouri]]<ref>[http://www.riverfronttimes.com/Issues/2005-10-26/news/feature.html St. Louis - News - Hell of a House<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> by Father [[William S. Bowdern]], S.J., Father Raymond Bishop S.J. and a then [[Jesuit]] scholastic Fr. [[Walter Halloran]], S.J.<ref>[http://www.strangemag.com/exorcistpage1.html Part I - The Haunted Boy: the Inspiration for the Exorcist<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 
* [[Salvador Dalí]] is reputed to have received an exorcism from Italian [[friar]] Gabriele Maria Berardi while he was in France in 1947. Dali created a sculpture of Christ on the cross that he gave the friar in thanks.<ref>[http://www.cathnews.com/news/510/72.php Dali's gift to exorcist uncovered] Catholic News 14 October 2005</ref>
 
* [[Clara Germana Cele]] was a [[South Africa]]n school girl who claimed to be possessed in 1906.
 
* [[Johann Blumhardt]] performed the exorcism of Gottliebin Dittus over a two year period in Möttlingen, Germany from 1842-1844. Pastor Blumhardt's parish subsequently experienced growth marked by confession and healing, which he attributed to the successful exorcism.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://davidkeames.googlepages.com/blumhardt%27sbattle| title = Blumhardt's Battle: A Conflict With Satan|publisher = Thomas E. Lowe, LTD|accessdate = 2009–09–23}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.plough.com/ebooks/pdfs/Awakening.pdf| title = The Awakening: One Man's Battle With Darkness| author = Friedrich Zuendel|publisher = The Plough|accessdate = 2009–09–23}}</ref>
 
* [[George Lukins]] in 1778.
 
 
== Cultural references ==
 
Exorcism has been a popular subject in fiction, especially [[Horror fiction|horror]].
 
* ''[[The Dybbuk]]'' (1914 play by [[S. Ansky]])
 
* ''[[The Exorcist]]'' (1971 novel by [[William Peter Blatty]]; inspired by exorcism of [[Robbie Mannheim]])
 
* ''[[The Exorcist (film)|The Exorcist]]'' (1973 film, and its sequels and prequels, were inspired by the exorcism of [[Robbie Mannheim]] and the Roman Catholic ritual of exorcism; based on the novels by [[William Peter Blatty]]).
 
* ''[[Repossessed]]'' (1990 comic movie starring [[Linda Blair]] and [[Leslie Nielsen]])
 
* ''[[Days of Our Lives]]'' (1995 saw the first ever excorcism performed on a daytime soap opera)
 
* ''[[Marley Davidson]]'' (1995 comic book series debut of Marley Davidson, an exorcist in a fictionalized South Bronx)
 
* ''[[Stigmata (film)|Stigmata]]'' (1999 film starring Patricia Arquette and Gabriel Bryne)
 
* ''[[Possessed (2000 film)|Possessed]]'' (2000 film inspired by exorcism of [[Robbie Mannheim]])
 
* ''[[Exorcist: The Beginning]]'' (2004 movie) a prequel to the 1973 film [[The Exorcist (film)|The Exorcist]].
 
* ''[[Supernatural (TV series)|Supernatural]]'' (2005 television series, has many exorcisms throughout)
 
* ''[[Constantine (film)|Constantine]]'' (2005 movie) is based on the [[DC Comics|DC]]/[[Vertigo Comics|Vertigo]] [[comic book]] ''[[Hellblazer]]''.
 
* ''[[The Exorcism of Emily Rose]]'' (2005 movie) was inspired by the [[Anneliese Michel]] case.
 
* ''[[Dominion: Prequel to the Exorcist]]'' (2005 movie) was an alternate prequel to [[The Exorcist (film)|The Exorcist]] directed by [[Paul Schrader]].
 
* ''[[A Haunting]]'' (2005 Discovery Channel TV series about reportedly true stories, many involving demons and exorcisms.)
 
* ''[[Requiem (2006 film)|Requiem]]'' (2006 German-language movie by Hans-Christian Schmid) is based on the [[Anneliese Michel]] case.
 
* ''[[D.Gray-man]]'' (2006 Japanese animation series by [[Hoshino Katsura]])
 
* ''[[Grudge 2]]'' (2006 English movie based on the [[Japan]]ese [[Ju-on]] series)
 
* ''[[Apparitions (TV series)|Apparitions]]'' (2008 BBC TV series)
 
* ''[[Boys Do Cry]]'' (2007 Family Guy episode about the town of Quahog trying to exorcise Stewie, forcing the family to leave Rhode Island)
 
* ''[[Bullshit!|Penn & Teller: Bullshit!]]'' (Showtime TV series) Season 5, Episode 5 - "Exorcism", air date: April 19, 2007. Provides some skeptical commentary on the usefulness and scientific validity of exorcisms.
 
* ''[[1920 (film)|1920]]'' (2008 Bollywood movie)
 
* ''[[True Blood]]'' (2008 HBO television series)
 
* ''[[Paranormal State]]'' (2008 A&E TV series)
 
* ''[[The Unborn (2009 film)|The Unborn]]'' (2009 film)
 
* ''[[Blue Exorcist]]'' (2009 Japanese manga)
 
* ''[[The Last Exorcism]]'' (2010 American mockumentary horror film)
 
* ''[[The Rite (2011 film)|The Rite]]'' (2011 film)
 
* ''[[Season of the Witch (2011 film)|Season of the Witch]]'' (2011 film)
 
* ''[[6 Days on Earth]]'' (2011 film)
 
* ''[[The Devil Inside (film)|The Devil Inside]]'' (2012 film)
 
* ''[[The Possession (2012 film)|The Possession]]'' (2012 film)
 
 
== See also ==
 
* [[Exorcist]]
 
* [[Deliverance ministry]]
 
* [[International Association of Exorcists]]
 
* [[Kecak]]
 
* [[List of exorcists]]
 
* [[Yoruba religion]]
 
* [[Gay exorcism]]
 
 
== References ==
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
 
== Further reading ==
 
* Mohr, M. D., & Royal, K. D. (2012). "Investigating the Practice of Christian Exorcism and the Methods Used to Cast out Demons", ''Journal of Christian Ministry'', 4, p. 35. Available at: http://journalofchristianministry.org/article/view/10287/7073.
 
* William Baldwin, D.D.S., Ph.D., "Spirit Releasement Therapy". ISBN 1-882658-00-0. Practitioner & Instructor of Spirit Releasement Therapy, containing an extensive bibliography.
 
* [[Shakuntala Modi]], M.D., "Remarkable Healings, A Psychiatrist Discovers Unsuspected Roots of Mental and Physical Illness." ISBN 1-57174-079-1 Gives cases, and statistical summaries of the kinds of maladies remedied by this therapy.
 
* [[Bobby Jindal]], [http://web.archive.org/web/20061213075345/http://images.dailykos.com/images/jindal.pdf ''BEATING A DEMON: Physical Dimensions of Spiritual Warfare'']. (New Oxford Review, December 1994)
 
* [[David M. Kiely]] and [[Christina McKenna]], ''The Dark Sacrament : True Stories of Modern-Day Demon Possession and Exorcism''. San Francisco: HarperOne, 2007. ISBN 0-06-123816-3. Ten detailed accounts from the casebooks of two exorcists, one Roman Catholic, the other Anglican. The cases are very recent.
 
* [[Malachi Martin]], ''Hostage to the Devil: The Possession and Exorcism of Five Living Americans''. ISBN 0-06-065337-X.
 
* [[M. Scott Peck]], ''Glimpses of the Devil : A Psychiatrist's Personal Accounts of Possession, Exorcism, and Redemption''. ISBN
 
* [[Max Heindel]], ''[http://www.archive.org/details/webofdestinyhowm00heinrich The Web of Destiny]'' (Chapter I - Part III: "The Dweller on the Threshold" Earth-Bound Spirits, Part IV: The "Sin Body"--Possession by Self-Made Daemons—Elementals, Part V: Obsession of Man and of Animals), ISBN 0-911274-17-0
 
* Frederick M Smith, ''The Self Possessed: Deity and Spirit Possession in South Asian Literature and Civilization''. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-231-13748-6
 
* [[Gabriele Amorth]], ''An Exorcist Tells His Story''. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1999. Vatican's chief exorcist tells about Roman Catholic practice of exorcism with numerous anecdotes from his own experience.
 
* G. Paxia, ''The Devil's Scourge - Exorcism during the Italian Renaissance'', Ed. WeiserBooks 2002.
 
* J McCarthy ''The Exorcists Handbook - Approaches the subject of exorcism in a clear non-religious manner. Golem Media Publishers Berkeley CA ISBN 978-1-933993-91-1
 
*Piero Cantoni, ''Demonologia e prassi dell’esorcismo e delle preghiere di liberazione'', en Fides Catholica 1 (2006,. [http://www.scribd.com/doc/5555670/Pietro-CantoniTeologia-dell-esorcismo].
 
*Catechism of the Catholic Church, nn. 391-395; 407.409.414.
 
*Don Gino Oliosi, ''Il demonio come essere personale.'' Una verità di fede, Fede & Cultura, 2008.
 
 
== External links ==
 
*[http://www.audiosancto.org/sermon/20081007-An-Evening-with-an-Exorcist.html "An Evening with an Exorcist," a talk given by Fr. Thomas J. Euteneuer]* [http://esorcismi.altervista.org/ Catholic Exorcism - Web Site]
 
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20061213075345/http://images.dailykos.com/images/jindal.pdf Bobby Jindal. BEATING A DEMON: Physical Dimensions of Spiritual Warfare. (New Oxford Review, December 1994)]
 
* {{CathEncy|wstitle=Exorcism}}
 
* [http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=553&letter=E&search=Exorcism Jewish Encyclopedia: Exorcism]
 
* [http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/EUD_FAT/EXORCISM_Gr_EEopd_av_to_conjure.html Encyclopædia Britannica: Exorcism]
 
* [http://www.cofe-worcester.org.uk/work_of_the_diocese/chaplaincy_deliverance.php Diocese of Worcester webpages on Ministry of Deliverance] Anglican View
 
* [http://www.goarch.org/ourfaith/ourfaith7079 Exorcism in the Orthodox Church]
 
* [http://www.catholicdoors.com/prayers/latin/latin040.htm The Catholic Prayer of Exorcism in Latin]
 
 
[[Category:Exorcism| ]]
 
[[Category:Greek loanwords]]
 
 
[[az:Ekzorsizm]]
 
[[be:Экзарцызм]]
 
[[bg:Екзорсизъм]]
 
[[bs:Egzorcizam]]
 
[[ca:Exorcisme]]
 
[[cs:Exorcismus]]
 
[[da:Eksorcisme]]
 
[[de:Exorzismus]]
 
[[el:Εξορκισμός]]
 
[[es:Exorcismo]]
 
[[eo:Ekzorcismo]]
 
[[fa:جن‌گیری]]
 
[[fr:Exorcisme]]
 
[[gd:Driuchaidean]]
 
[[gu:વળગાડ મુક્તિ]]
 
[[ko:엑소시즘]]
 
[[hy:Էկզորսիզմ]]
 
[[hi:भूत-प्रेत का अपसारण]]
 
[[hr:Egzorcizam]]
 
[[id:Eksorsisme]]
 
[[it:Esorcismo]]
 
[[he:גירוש שדים]]
 
[[kn:ಭೂತೋಚ್ಚಾಟನೆ]]
 
[[ka:ეგზორციზმი]]
 
[[lb:Exorzismus]]
 
[[lt:Egzorcizmas]]
 
[[hu:Exorcizmus]]
 
[[mk:Егзорцизам]]
 
[[nl:Exorcisme]]
 
[[ja:エクソシスム]]
 
[[no:Eksorsisme]]
 
[[pl:Egzorcyzm]]
 
[[pt:Exorcismo]]
 
[[ro:Exorcism]]
 
[[ru:Экзорцизм]]
 
[[simple:Exorcism]]
 
[[sl:Eksorcizem]]
 
[[sr:Егзорцизам]]
 
[[sh:Egzorcizam]]
 
[[fi:Manaus]]
 
[[sv:Exorcism]]
 
[[ta:பேயோட்டுதல்]]
 
[[te:భూతవైద్యం]]
 
[[tr:Egzorsizm]]
 
[[uk:Екзорцизм]]
 
[[zh:驅魔]]
 
Reason: ANN scored at 0.902759
Reporter Information
Reporter: Anonymous (anonymous)
Date: Friday, the 18th of September 2015 at 05:37:05 PM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 18th of September 2015 at 05:37:05 PM #101108
Anonymous (anonymous)

I have no idea what this is about. I have never edited anything. Ever. Go away!

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