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Article: Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
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{{About|the Seven Ancient Wonders| the other Wonders|Wonders of the World (disambiguation)}}
 
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[[File:SevenWondersOfTheWorld.png|thumb|276px|The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (from left to right, top to bottom): [[Great Pyramid of Giza]], [[Hanging Gardens of Babylon]], [[Temple of Artemis]] at Ephesus, [[Statue of Zeus at Olympia]], [[Mausoleum at Halicarnassus]], [[Colossus of Rhodes]], and the [[Lighthouse of Alexandria]] as depicted by 16th-century Dutch artist [[Maarten van Heemskerck]].]]
 
[[File:Pyramide Kheops.JPG|thumb|300px|The [[Great Pyramid of Giza]], the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing.]]
 
The '''Seven Wonders of the World''' (or the '''Seven Wonders of the Ancient World''') refers to remarkable constructions of [[classical antiquity]]<ref name=Anon>Anon. 1993''The Oxford Illustrated Encyclopedia'' First Edition Oxford:Oxford University</ref> listed by various authors in guidebooks popular among the ancient [[Ancient Greece|Hellenic]] tourists, particularly in the 1st and 2nd centuries BC. The most prominent of these, the versions by [[Antipater of Sidon]] and an observer identified as [[Philo of Byzantium]], comprise seven works located around the eastern Mediterranean rim.
 
The original list inspired [[Wonders of the World|innumerable versions]] through the ages, often listing seven entries. Of the original Seven Wonders, only one—the [[Great Pyramid of Giza]], the oldest of the ancient wonders—remains relatively intact.
 
 
==Background==
 
[[Image:Maerten van Heemskerck - Panorama with the Abduction of Helen Amidst the Wonders of the Ancient World - Walters 37656.jpg|right|thumb|In this painting by [[Maerten van Heemskerck]], the seven wonders of the ancient world are depicted as a background for the abduction of Helen by Paris.<ref>{{cite web |publisher= [[The Walters Art Museum]]
 
|url= http://art.thewalters.org/detail/21286
 
|title= Panorama with the Abduction of Helen Amidst the Wonders of the Ancient World}}</ref> The Walters Art Museum.]]
 
 
The Greek conquest of much of the known world in the 4th century BC gave Hellenistic travellers access to the [[civilization]]s of the [[Ancient Egypt|Egyptians]], [[Ancient persia|Persians]], and [[Babylonia]]ns.<ref name=seven_wonders /> Impressed and captivated by the landmarks and marvels of the various lands, these travellers began to list what they saw.<ref name=history>{{cite web | title = History of the Past: World History | url = http://www.worldhistory.byethost8.com/|accessdate=2009-09-12}}</ref> Such a list of these places made it easier to remember them.<ref name=seven>{{cite web | title = The Seven Wonders | author=Paul Lunde | date=May/June 1980 | publisher = Saudi Aramco World | url = http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/198003/the.seven.wonders.htm|accessdate=2009-09-12}}</ref>
 
 
Instead of "wonders", the ancient Greeks spoke of "theamata", which means "sights", in other words "things to be seen". (Τὰ ἑπτὰ θεάματα τῆς οἰκουμένης [γῆς] ''{{lang|grc-Latn|Tà heptà theámata tēs oikoumenēs [gēs]}}'') Later, the word for "wonder" ("thaumata") was used, and this is also the case in modern Greek (Επτά θαύματα του αρχαίου κόσμου).<ref>{{cite book | last = Clayton | first = Peter | authorlink = | coauthors = Martin J. Price | title = The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World | publisher = Routledge | year =1990 | location = | page =4 | url = http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=n9QOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA4&dq=theamata+seven+wonders&num=100 | doi = | isbn = 978-0-415-05036-4 | author = }}</ref> Hence, the list was meant to be the Ancient World's counterpart of a travel guidebook.<ref name=seven_wonders />
 
 
Each person had his own version of the list, but the best known and earliest surviving was from a poem by Greek-speaking epigrammist Antipater of Sidon from around 140 BC.<ref name=seven /> He named six of the seven sites on his list—leaving out the lighthouse—, but was primarily in praise of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus:
 
{{Quotation|I have gazed on the walls of impregnable Babylon along which chariots may race, and on the Zeus by the banks of the Alpheus, I have seen the hanging gardens, and the Colossus of the Helios, the great man-made mountains of the lofty pyramids, and the gigantic tomb of Mausolus; but when I saw the sacred house of Artemis that towers to the clouds, the others were placed in the shade, for the sun himself has never looked upon its equal outside Olympus.|Antipater, ''Greek Anthology'' IX.58}}
 
Another 2nd century BC observer, who claimed to be the mathematician Philon of Byzantium,<ref name=brittanica>{{cite book | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = The New Encyclopædia Britannica Micropædia Volume 10 | publisher = Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. | year =1995 | location =USA | page =666 | url = | doi = | isbn = 0-85229-605-3 | author = }}</ref> wrote a short account entitled ''The Seven Sights of the World''. However, the incomplete surviving manuscript only covered six of the supposedly seven places, which agreed with Antipater's list.<ref name=seven />
 
 
Earlier and later lists by the historian [[Herodotus]] (484 BC–ca. 425 BC) and the architect [[Callimachus]] of [[Cyrene, Libya|Cyrene]] (ca. 305–240 BC), housed at the Museum of [[Alexandria, Egypt|Alexandria]], survived only as references.
 
 
The Colossus of Rhodes was the last of the seven to be completed, after 280 BC, and the first to be destroyed, by an earthquake in 226/225 BC. Hence, all seven existed at the same time for a period of less than 60 years.
 
Antipater had an earlier version which replaced Lighthouse of Alexandria with the Walls of Babylon.<ref name=seven /> Lists which preceded the construction of Colossus of Rhodes completed their seven entries with the inclusion of the [[Ishtar Gate]] .
 
 
==Scope==
 
It is thought that the limitation of the lists to seven entries was attributed to the special magical meaning of the number.<ref name=history /><ref name=part2>{{cite web | title = The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World&nbsp;— Part II | url = http://www.newsfinder.org/site/more/the_seven_wonders_of_the_ancient_world_part_ii/|accessdate=2009-09-14}}</ref> Geographically, the list covered only the sculptural and architectural monuments of the Mediterranean and [[Middle East|Middle Eastern regions]],<ref name=brittanica /> then thought to encompass the "known" world for the Greeks. Hence, extant sites beyond this realm were not considered as part of contemporary accounts.<ref name=seven_wonders>{{cite web | title = The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World | url = http://www.amazeingart.com/seven-wonders/7-wonders.html|accessdate=2009-09-14}}</ref>
 
 
The primary accounts, coming from Hellenistic writers, also heavily influenced the places included in the wonders list. Five of the seven entries are a celebration of Greek accomplishments in the arts and architecture (the exceptions being the Pyramids of Giza and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon).
 
 
==The Seven Ancient Wonders==
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
! Wonder
 
! Date of construction
 
! Builder
 
! Date of destruction
 
! Cause of destruction
 
! Modern location
 
|- style="vertical-align: middle;"
 
|[[Great Pyramid of Giza]]
 
|2584–2561 BC
 
|[[Ancient Egypt|Egyptians]]
 
|colspan=2; align=center|''Still in existence''
 
|[[Giza Necropolis]], Egypt
 
|- style="vertical-align: middle;"
 
|[[Hanging Gardens of Babylon]]
 
|c. 600 BC (evident)
 
|[[Babylonians]]
 
|After 1st century BC
 
|Earthquakes
 
|[[Hillah]], [[Babylon Province]], Iraq or<br />[[Nineveh]], [[Nineveh Province]], Iraq
 
|- style="vertical-align: middle;"
 
|[[Temple of Artemis|Temple of Artemis at Ephesus]]
 
|c. 550 BC; and again at 323 BC
 
|[[Lydia]]ns, [[ancient Greece|Greeks]]
 
|{{nowrap|356 BC (by Herostratus)}}<br /> AD 262 (by the Goths)
 
|Arson by [[Herostratus]], Plundering
 
|near [[Selçuk]], [[Izmir Province]], Turkey
 
|- style="vertical-align: middle;"
 
|[[Statue of Zeus at Olympia]]
 
|466–456 BC (Temple)<br />435 BC (Statue)
 
|[[ancient Greece|Greeks]]
 
|5th–6th centuries AD
 
|Disassembled; later destroyed by fire
 
|[[Olympia, Greece|Olympia]], Greece
 
|- style="vertical-align: middle;"
 
|[[Mausoleum at Halicarnassus]]
 
|351 BC
 
|[[Carians]], [[Seleucid Empire|Greeks]]
 
|by AD 1494
 
|Earthquakes
 
|[[Bodrum]], Turkey
 
|- style="vertical-align: middle;"
 
|[[Colossus of Rhodes]]
 
|292–280 BC
 
|[[Greeks]]
 
|226 BC
 
|[[226 BC Rhodes earthquake|Earthquake]]
 
|[[Rhodes (city)|Rhodes]], Greece
 
|- style="vertical-align: middle;"
 
|[[Lighthouse of Alexandria]]
 
|c. 280 BC
 
|[[Ptolemaic Egypt]], [[ancient Greeks|Greeks]]
 
|AD 1303–1480
 
|[[1303 Crete earthquake|Earthquake]]
 
|[[Alexandria]], Egypt
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
[[File:A timeline of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world.png|850px]]
 
 
==Influence==
 
 
===Arts and architecture===
 
[[File:Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.png|thumb|450px|A map showing the location of the seven wonders of the ancient world.]]
 
The seven wonders on Antipater's list won praises for their notable features, ranging from superlatives of the highest or largest of their types, to the artistry with which they were executed. Their architectural and artistic features were imitated throughout the Hellenistic world and beyond.
 
 
The Greek influence in Roman culture, and the revival of Greco-Roman artistic styles during the Renaissance caught the imagination of European artists and travellers.<ref>{{cite web | title = Wonders of Europe | url = http://www.7wonders.org/wonders/europe/|accessdate=2009-09-14}}</ref> Paintings and sculptures alluding to Antipater's list were made, while adventurers flocked to the actual sites to personally witness the wonders. Legends circulated to further complement the superlatives of the wonders.
 
 
===Modern lists===
 
Of Antipater's wonders, the only one that has survived to the present day is the Great Pyramid of Giza. The existence of the Hanging Gardens has not been proven, although theories abound. Records and archaeology confirm the existence of the other five wonders. The Temple of Artemis and the Statue of Zeus were destroyed by flooding, while the Lighthouse of Alexandria, Colossus, and tomb of Mausolus were destroyed by earthquakes. Among the [[Artifact (archaeology)|artifacts]] to have survived are sculptures from the tomb of Mausolus and the Temple of Artemis in the [[British Museum]] in London.
 
 
Still, the listing of seven of the most marvellous architectural and artistic human achievements continued beyond the Ancient Greek times to the Roman Empire, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and to the modern age. The Roman poet [[Martial]] and the Christian bishop [[Gregory of Tours]] had their versions.<ref name=seven_wonders /> Reflecting the rise of Christianity and the factor of time, nature and the hand of man overcoming Antipater's seven wonders, Roman and Christian sites began to figure on the list, including the [[Colosseum]], [[Noah's Ark]] and [[Solomon's Temple]].<ref name=seven_wonders /><ref name=seven /> In the 6th century, a list of seven wonders was compiled by Gregory of Tours. The list included the Temple of Solomon, the [[Pharos of Alexandria]] and Noah's Ark.<ref>Clayton, Peter and Price, Martin: The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (Routledge, 1988), pp. 162–163.</ref>
 
 
Modern historians, working on the premise that the original Seven Ancient Wonders List was limited in its geographic scope, also had their versions to encompass sites beyond the Hellenistic realm—from the Seven Wonders of the ''Ancient World'' to the Seven Wonders of the ''World''. Indeed, the "seven wonders" label has spawned innumerable versions among international organizations, publications and individuals based on different themes—works of nature, engineering masterpieces, constructions of the Middle Ages, etc. Its purpose has also changed from just a simple travel guidebook or a compendium of curious places to lists of sites to defend.
 
 
==See also==
 
*[[Wonders of the World]], about similar lists made throughout the ages.
 
*[[Eighth Wonder of the World]], about attempted additions to the famous ancient list.
 
*[[New Seven Wonders of the World]], a list created after a global voting procedure.
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|3}}
 
 
==Further reading==
 
* D'Epiro, Peter, and Mary Desmond Pinkowish, "''What Are the Seven Wonders of the World? and 100 Other Great Cultural Lists''". Anchor. 1 December 1998. ISBN 0-385-49062-3
 
* "The Seven Wonders of the World, a History of Modern Imagination" written by John & Elizabeth Romer in 1995
 
* "The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Peter Clayton and Martin Price in 1988
 
* [[Johann Conrad Orelli]] (ed.) ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=o_gaAAAAYAAJ Philonis Byzantini Libellus de septem orbis spectaculis]''. 1816. The original travel guide by Pseudo-Philo
 
* {{cite web |url=http://www.livius.org/se-sg/7wonders/seven_wonders.html |title=Seven Wonders of the Ancient World |last=Lendering |first=Jona |authorlink=Jona Lendering |date=2007–2010 |work=Livius.Org |accessdate=28 July 2012}}
 
 
==External links==
 
{{commons category|Seven Wonders of the World}}
 
* [http://www.history.com/content/sevenwonders/wonders-of-the-ages "Seven Ancient Wonders of the World"] on [[History (U.S. TV channel)|The History Channel]] website. Also includes links to Medieval, Modern & Natural Wonders.
 
* Parkin, Tim, [http://web.archive.org/web/20041011114644/http://www.clas.canterbury.ac.nz/wonders.html ''Researching Ancient Wonders: A Research Guide''], from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. – a collection of books and Internet resources with information on seven ancient wonders.
 
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,2030611,00.html "Eternal wonder of humanity's first great achievements"], by Jonathan Glancey in ''[[The Guardian]]'', 10 March 2007
 
 
{{Seven Wonders of the Ancient World}}
 
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Seven Wonders Of The Ancient World}}
 
[[Category:Ancient history]]
 
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[[Category:Cultural lists|7 Seven Wonders of the Ancient World]]
 
 
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Reason: ANN scored at 0.975561
Reporter Information
Reporter: Anonymous (anonymous)
Date: Monday, the 9th of November 2015 at 02:44:37 PM
Status: Reported
Monday, the 9th of November 2015 at 02:44:37 PM #102155
Anonymous (anonymous)

I just received and this edit was not made by me. It seems my ISP recycles its IP addresses and now it has been allotted to me and I received this message when I opened some wikipedia page.

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