ClueBot NG Report Interface

// Viewing 1339943

Navigation

ID: 1339943
User: 142.161.203.212
Article: Sexual assault
Diff:
m (Reverted edits by 76.16.62.154 (talk) to last version by Lova Falk)
(Types)
Line 33: Line 33:
 
===Rape===
 
===Rape===
 
{{Main|Rape}}
 
{{Main|Rape}}
Outside of law, the term rape ("an [[assault]] by a person involving [[sexual intercourse]] with another person without that person's [[consent]]") is often used interchangeably with sexual assault,<ref name="Victimology: Theories and Applications">{{Cite book|author=Roberts, Albert R.; Ann Wolbert Bergess; CHERYL REGEHR |title=Victimology: Theories and Applications |publisher=Jones & Bartlett Publishers |location=Sudbury, Mass |year=2009 |page=228 |isbn=978-0-7637-7210-9 |oclc= |url=http://books.google.com/?id=erFiYbLL9McC&pg=PA225&dq=definition+of+rape&q=definition%20of%20rape |accessdate=}}</ref><ref name="Violence against women">{{Cite journal|author=Krantz G, Garcia-Moreno C |title=Violence against women |journal=J Epidemiol Community Health |volume=59 |issue=10 |pages=818–21 |year=2005 |month=October |pmid=16166351 |pmc=1732916 |doi=10.1136/jech.2004.022756 |url=}}</ref> a closely related (but in most jurisdictions technically distinct) form of assault typically including rape and other forms of non-consensual sexual activity.<ref name="RAINN">{{cite web |url=http://www.rainn.org/get-information/types-of-sexual-assault/was-it-rape |title=Was I Raped? |accessdate=18 January 2010 |publisher=[[Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network]]}}</ref><ref name="ProjSapphire">{{cite web|url=http://www.met.police.uk/sapphire/ |title=Sapphire |accessdate=18 January 2010 |publisher=[[Metropolitan Police Service]]}}</ref>
+
Outside of law, the term rape ("an [[assault]] by a person involving [[sexual intercourse]] with another person without that person's [[consent]]") is often used interchangeably with sexual assault,<ref name="Victimology: Theories and Applications">{{Cite book|author=Roberts, Albert R.; Ann Wolbert Bergess; CHERYL REGEHR |title=Victimology: Theories and Applications |publisher=Jones & Bartlett Publishers |location=Sudbury, Mass |year=2009 |page=228 |isbn=978-0-7637-7210-9 |oclc= |url=http://books.google.com/?id=erFiYbLL9McC&pg=PA225&dq=definition+of+rape&q=definition%20of%20rape |accessdate=}}</ref><ref name="Violence against women">{{Cite journal|author=Krantz G, Garcia-Moreno C |title=Violence against women |journal=J Epidemiol Community Health |volume=59 |issue=10 |pages=818–21 |year=2005 |month=October |pmid=16166351 |pmc=1732916 |doi=10.1136/jech.2004.022756 |url=}}</ref> a closely related (but in most jurisdictions technically distinct) form of assault typically including rape and other forms of non-consensual sexual activity.<ref name="RAINN">{{cite web |url=http://www.rainn.org/get-information/types-of-sexual-assault/was-it-rape |title=Was I Raped? |accessdate=18 January 2010 |publisher=[[Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network]]}}</ref><ref name="ProjSapphire">{{cite web|url=http://www.met.police.uk/sapphire/ |title=Sapphire |accessdate=18 January 2010 |publisher=[[Metropolitan Police Service]]}}</ref> sexual assaults also known as rape is against the law
   
 
Abbey ''et al.'' state that female victims are much more likely to be assaulted by an acquaintance (such as a friend or co-worker), a dating partner, an ex-boyfriend or an intimate partner than by a complete stranger.<ref name="Abbey">Abbey, A., BeShears, R., Clinton-Sherrod, A. M., & McAuslan, P. (2004). Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 323-332.[http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Similarities_And_Differences_In_Women_s_Sexual_Assault_Experiences_Based_On_Tactics.pdf "Similarities and differences in women's sexual assault experiences based on tactics used by the perpetrator"]. Accessed 9 July 2008.</ref> In a study of hospital emergency room treatments for rape, Kaufman ''et al.'' state that the male victims as a group sustained more physical trauma, were more likely to have been a victim of multiple assaults from multiple assailants, and were more likely to have been held captive longer.<ref>{{cite journal| last = Kaufman | first = A| coauthors = P Divasto, R Jackson, D Voorhees, J Christy | title = Male rape victims: noninstitutionalized assault | journal = American Journal of Psychiatry | volume = 137 | issue = 2 | pages = 221–223 | year = 1980 | url = http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/2/221 | accessdate = 2008-11-06| pmid = 7352580}}</ref>
 
Abbey ''et al.'' state that female victims are much more likely to be assaulted by an acquaintance (such as a friend or co-worker), a dating partner, an ex-boyfriend or an intimate partner than by a complete stranger.<ref name="Abbey">Abbey, A., BeShears, R., Clinton-Sherrod, A. M., & McAuslan, P. (2004). Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 323-332.[http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Similarities_And_Differences_In_Women_s_Sexual_Assault_Experiences_Based_On_Tactics.pdf "Similarities and differences in women's sexual assault experiences based on tactics used by the perpetrator"]. Accessed 9 July 2008.</ref> In a study of hospital emergency room treatments for rape, Kaufman ''et al.'' state that the male victims as a group sustained more physical trauma, were more likely to have been a victim of multiple assaults from multiple assailants, and were more likely to have been held captive longer.<ref>{{cite journal| last = Kaufman | first = A| coauthors = P Divasto, R Jackson, D Voorhees, J Christy | title = Male rape victims: noninstitutionalized assault | journal = American Journal of Psychiatry | volume = 137 | issue = 2 | pages = 221–223 | year = 1980 | url = http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/2/221 | accessdate = 2008-11-06| pmid = 7352580}}</ref>
Line 48: Line 48:
 
The effects of child sexual abuse include [[clinical depression|depression]],<ref name="Roosa">{{cite journal | last1 = Roosa | first1 = M.W. | last2 = Reinholtz | first2 = C. | last3 = Angelini | first3 = P.J. | author-separator =, | author-name-separator= | year = 1999 | title = The relation of child sexual abuse and depression in young women: comparisons across four ethnic groups | url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0902/is_1_27/ai_54422556/print | journal = Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology | volume = 27 | issue = 1| pages = 65–76 | pmid = 10197407 }}</ref> [[post-traumatic stress disorder]],<ref name="widom">Widom C.S. (1999). [http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/156/8/1223 "Post-traumatic stress disorder in abused and neglected children grown up,"] American Journal of Psychiatry; 156(8):1223-1229.</ref> [[anxiety]],<ref name="levitan">{{cite journal | doi = 10.1002/da.10077 | title = Childhood adversities associated with major depression and/or anxiety disorders in a community sample of Ontario: Issues of co-morbidity and specificity | year = 2003 | last1 = Levitan | first1 = Robert D. | last2 = Rector | first2 = Neil A. | last3 = Sheldon | first3 = Tess | last4 = Goering | first4 = Paula | journal = Depression and Anxiety | volume = 17 | pages = 34–42 | pmid = 12577276 | issue = 1 }}</ref> propensity to [[re-victimization]] in adulthood,<ref name="Messman-Moore">{{cite journal | doi = 10.1177/088626000015005003 | last1 = Messman-Moore | first1 = Terri L. | last2 = Long | first2 = Patricia J. | year = 2000| title = Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in the Form of Adult Sexual Abuse, Adult Physical Abuse, and Adult Psychological Maltreatment | url = http://jiv.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/15/5/489 | journal = Journal of Interpersonal Violence | volume = 15 | issue =5 | pages = 489–502 }}</ref> and physical injury to the child, among other problems.<ref name="dinw">{{cite journal | doi = 10.1017/S0033291799001373 | last1 = Dinwiddie | first1 = S | last2 = Heath | first2 = AC | last3 = Dunne | first3 = MP | author-separator =, | last4 = Bucholz | author-name-separator= | first4 = KK| year = 2000 | last5 = Madden | first5 = PA | last6 = Slutske | first6 = WS | last7 = Bierut | first7 = LJ | last8 = Statham | first8 = DB | last9 = Martin | first9 = NG | title = Early sexual abuse and lifetime psychopathology: a co-twin-control study | url = http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=26191 | journal = Psychological Medicine | volume = 30 | issue = 1| pages = 41–52 | pmid = 10722174 }}</ref> Sexual abuse by a family member is a form of [[incest]], is more common than other forms of sexual assault on a child, and can result in more serious and long-term [[psychological trauma]], especially in the case of parental incest.<ref name=Courtois>{{cite book|title=Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy|last= Courtois|first=Christine A.|publisher=W. W. Norton & Company|page=208|year=1988|isbn= 0-393-31356-5}}</ref>
 
The effects of child sexual abuse include [[clinical depression|depression]],<ref name="Roosa">{{cite journal | last1 = Roosa | first1 = M.W. | last2 = Reinholtz | first2 = C. | last3 = Angelini | first3 = P.J. | author-separator =, | author-name-separator= | year = 1999 | title = The relation of child sexual abuse and depression in young women: comparisons across four ethnic groups | url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0902/is_1_27/ai_54422556/print | journal = Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology | volume = 27 | issue = 1| pages = 65–76 | pmid = 10197407 }}</ref> [[post-traumatic stress disorder]],<ref name="widom">Widom C.S. (1999). [http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/156/8/1223 "Post-traumatic stress disorder in abused and neglected children grown up,"] American Journal of Psychiatry; 156(8):1223-1229.</ref> [[anxiety]],<ref name="levitan">{{cite journal | doi = 10.1002/da.10077 | title = Childhood adversities associated with major depression and/or anxiety disorders in a community sample of Ontario: Issues of co-morbidity and specificity | year = 2003 | last1 = Levitan | first1 = Robert D. | last2 = Rector | first2 = Neil A. | last3 = Sheldon | first3 = Tess | last4 = Goering | first4 = Paula | journal = Depression and Anxiety | volume = 17 | pages = 34–42 | pmid = 12577276 | issue = 1 }}</ref> propensity to [[re-victimization]] in adulthood,<ref name="Messman-Moore">{{cite journal | doi = 10.1177/088626000015005003 | last1 = Messman-Moore | first1 = Terri L. | last2 = Long | first2 = Patricia J. | year = 2000| title = Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in the Form of Adult Sexual Abuse, Adult Physical Abuse, and Adult Psychological Maltreatment | url = http://jiv.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/15/5/489 | journal = Journal of Interpersonal Violence | volume = 15 | issue =5 | pages = 489–502 }}</ref> and physical injury to the child, among other problems.<ref name="dinw">{{cite journal | doi = 10.1017/S0033291799001373 | last1 = Dinwiddie | first1 = S | last2 = Heath | first2 = AC | last3 = Dunne | first3 = MP | author-separator =, | last4 = Bucholz | author-name-separator= | first4 = KK| year = 2000 | last5 = Madden | first5 = PA | last6 = Slutske | first6 = WS | last7 = Bierut | first7 = LJ | last8 = Statham | first8 = DB | last9 = Martin | first9 = NG | title = Early sexual abuse and lifetime psychopathology: a co-twin-control study | url = http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=26191 | journal = Psychological Medicine | volume = 30 | issue = 1| pages = 41–52 | pmid = 10722174 }}</ref> Sexual abuse by a family member is a form of [[incest]], is more common than other forms of sexual assault on a child, and can result in more serious and long-term [[psychological trauma]], especially in the case of parental incest.<ref name=Courtois>{{cite book|title=Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy|last= Courtois|first=Christine A.|publisher=W. W. Norton & Company|page=208|year=1988|isbn= 0-393-31356-5}}</ref>
   
Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children.<ref name=Whealin>{{cite web |url=http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/child-sexual-abuse.asp |title=Child Sexual Abuse |author=Julia Whealin, Ph.D. |publisher=National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, US Department of Veterans Affairs |date=2007-05-22}}</ref><ref name="Finkelhor1994">{{cite journal|author=David Finkelhor |title=Current Information on the Scope and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse |journal=The Future of Children |date=summer/fall 1994 |volume=(1994) 4(2): 31-53|url=http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/VS75.pdf|format=PDF}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/ |title=Crimes against Children Research Center |publisher=Unh.edu |date= |accessdate=2011-12-09}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unh.edu/frl/ |title=Family Research Laboratory |publisher=Unh.edu |date= |accessdate=2011-12-09}}</ref><ref name="Kevin M. Gorey and Donald R. Leslie 1997 pp391–398">{{cite journal|title=The prevalence of child sexual abuse: Integrative review adjustment for potential response and measurement biases |journal=Child Abuse & Neglect |volume= 21 | issue = 4 |date = April 1997|pages=391–398 |doi=10.1016/S0145-2134(96)00180-9 |url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V7N-3SWVJJ8-6&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=3bf4125ab05f663f306a1ca792f43398 |publisher=Elsevier Science Ltd. |author=Kevin M. Gorey and Donald R. Leslie |pmid=9134267}}</ref> Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, mothers, sisters and uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbors; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases.<ref name=Whealin/>
+
Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children.<ref name=Whealin>{{cite web |url=http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/child-sexual-abuse.asp |title=Child Sexual Abuse |author=Julia Whealin, Ph.D. |publisher=National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, US Department of Veterans Affairs |date=2007-05-22}}</ref><ref name="Finkelhor1994">{{cite journal|author=David Finkelhor |title=Current Information on the Scope and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse |journal=The Future of Children |date=summer/fall 1994 |volume=(1994) 4(2): 31-53|url=http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/VS75.pdf|format=PDF}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/ |title=Crimes against Children Research Center |publisher=Unh.edu |date= |accessdate=2011-12-09}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unh.edu/frl/ |title=Family Research Laboratory |publisher=Unh.edu |date= |accessdate=2011-12-09}}</ref><ref name="Kevin M. Gorey and Donald R. Leslie 1997 pp391–398">{{cite journal|title=The prevalence of child sexual abuse: Integrative review adjustment for potential response and measurement biases |journal=Child Abuse & Neglect |volume= 21 | issue = 4 |date = April 1997|pages=391–398 |doi=10.1016/S0145-2134(96)00180-9 |url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V7N-3SWVJJ8-6&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=3bf4125ab05f663f306a1ca792f43398 |publisher=Elsevier Science Ltd. |author=Kevin M. Gorey and Donald R. Leslie |pmid=9134267}}</ref> Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, mothers, sisters and uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbors; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases.<ref name=Whealin/>monkeys can fly
   
 
Studies have shown that the psychological damage is often particularly severe when sexual assault is committed by parents against children due to the incestuous nature of the assault.<ref name="Courtois" /> Incest between a child or adolescent and a related adult has been identified as the most widespread form of child sexual abuse with a huge capacity for damage to a child.<ref name="Courtois"/> Often, sexual assault on a child is not reported by the child for several reasons:
 
Studies have shown that the psychological damage is often particularly severe when sexual assault is committed by parents against children due to the incestuous nature of the assault.<ref name="Courtois" /> Incest between a child or adolescent and a related adult has been identified as the most widespread form of child sexual abuse with a huge capacity for damage to a child.<ref name="Courtois"/> Often, sexual assault on a child is not reported by the child for several reasons:
Reason: ANN scored at 0.957712
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 05:48:36 PM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 05:48:36 PM #101654
Bradley (anonymous)

lq2bdF http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

Username:
Comment:
Captcha: