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Article: Nintendo
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{{about|the Nintendo corporation|the third-generation video game console|Nintendo Entertainment System}}
 
{{Pp-move-indef}}
 
{{Infobox company
 
|company_name=Nintendo Co., Ltd.<br />任天堂株式会社
 
|company_logo=[[File:Nintendo.svg|250px]]
 
|caption=Nintendo's logo, which dates back to the 1980s. The current color was adopted in 2006; the previous red version is still used on some properties, mostly in Japan.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.computerandvideogames.com/202585/news/nintendo-switched-logos-two-years-ago/|title=Nintendo News:Nintendo switched logos "two years" ago|publisher=ComputerAndVideoGames.com|accessdate=2010-06-01}}</ref>
 
|company_type=[[Kabushiki gaisha]]
 
|traded_as={{Tyo|7974}}<br />[[Osaka Securities Exchange|Osaka SE]]: 7974<br />{{OTCPink|NTDOY}}<br />{{FWB|NTO}}
 
|foundation=September 23, 1889<ref name="history NOJ"/>
 
|location_city = [[Kyoto]]
 
|location_country = [[Japan]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.com/corp/distributors_international.jsp|title=International Distributors - Company List|publisher=Nintendo|accessdate=2008-11-17}}</ref>
 
|area_served = Worldwide
 
|key_people = [[Satoru Iwata]] (President)<br />[[Tatsumi Kimishima]] (Chairman)<br />[[Reggie Fils-Aime]] (President NoA)<br />[[Conrad Abbott]] (President Canada)<br />[[Satoru Shibata]] (President Europe)
 
|num_employees=4,928 (as of March 2012)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.co.jp/corporate/outline/index.html |title=会社概要|trans_title=Company Profile|languaage=Japanese|publisher=Nintendo Co., Ltd. |accessdate=2012-07-14}}</ref>
 
|industry=[[Consumer electronics]]<br />[[Video game industry|Video game]]s
 
|products=[[Game Boy line]], [[Color TV Game]], [[Nintendo Entertainment System|NES]], [[Super Nintendo Entertainment System|SNES]], [[Virtual Boy]], [[Nintendo 64]], [[Nintendo GameCube]], [[Game Boy Advance]], [[Nintendo DS]], [[Wii]], [[Nintendo DSi]], Nintendo DSi XL, [[Nintendo 3DS]], Nintendo 3DS XL, [[Wii U]] and various [[video game]]s such as [[The Legend of
 
|homepage= {{URL|http://www.nintendo.com}}
 
}}
 
 
{{Nihongo|'''Nintendo Co., Ltd.'''|任天堂株式会社|Nintendō [[Kabushiki gaisha]]}} ({{Tyo|7974}}) is a Japanese [[multinational corporation|multinational]] consumer electronics company located in [[Kyoto]], Japan. '''Nintendo''' is the world's largest [[List of video game companies|video game company]] by revenue.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.softwaretop100.org/gaming-company-top-25|title=Gaming company Top 25|year=2011|publisher=Softwaretop100.org|accessdate=12 November 2011}}</ref> Founded on September 23, 1889<ref name="history NOJ">{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.co.jp/corporate/outline/index.html|title=Company History|publisher=Nintendo|language=Japanese|accessdate=2006-07-29}}</ref> by [[Fusajiro Yamauchi]], it originally produced handmade [[hanafuda]] cards.<ref name="history NOA">{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.com/corp/history.jsp|title=Company History|publisher=Nintendo|accessdate=2006-06-04}}</ref> By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as a cab company and a [[love hotel]].<ref name="history N-Sider">{{cite web|url=http://www.n-sider.com/articleview.php?articleid=45|title=Nintendo History Lesson: The Lucky Birth|publisher=N-Sider|accessdate= 2006-06-04}}</ref>
 
 
Abandoning previous ventures, Nintendo developed into a [[video game]] company, becoming one of the most influential in the [[Video game industry|industry]] and Japan's third most valuable listed company with a market value of over [[United States dollar|US$]]85 billion.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/companyNewsAndPR/idUST30751820071015 |title=Nintendo sets $85 bln high score, thanks to Wii, Nintendo DS |publisher=Reuters |date=2007-10-15 |accessdate=2011-05-25 |first=Kiyoshi |last=Takenaka}}</ref> Nintendo of America is also the majority owner of the [[Seattle Mariners]] [[Major League Baseball]] team.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://wii.nintendolife.com/companies/nintendo|title=Nintendo - Company Profile|publisher=nintendolife|accessdate=2010-07-12}}</ref>
 
 
The name ''Nintendo'' can be roughly translated from Japanese to English as "leave luck to heaven".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://staff.science.uva.nl/~egoris/teaching/spring2005/week%201%20intro/Example%20Nintendo.doc|title=Nintendo Corporation, Limited|accessdate=2011-02-22|format=doc}}</ref> As of September 30, 2012, Nintendo has sold over 637.7 million hardware units and 4.01 billion software units.<ref name="consolidatedsales"/>
 
 
==History==
 
{{Main|History of Nintendo}}<!--It was agreed that this section was the main problem with the article's length. Please do not add any more information to this section.-->
 
[[File:Nintendo former headquarter plate Kyoto.jpg|thumb|left|Former headquarters plate, from when Nintendo was solely a playing card company]]
 
 
===As a card company (1889–1956)===
 
 
Nintendo was founded as a card company in late 1889, originally named ''Nintendo Koppai''. Based in [[Kyoto]], [[Japan]], the business produced and marketed a [[playing card]] game called [[Hanafuda]]. The handmade cards soon became popular, and Yamauchi hired assistants to mass produce cards to satisfy demand. Nintendo continues to manufacture playing cards in Japan<ref name="nintendo's card game product">{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.co.jp/n09/index.html|title=Nintendo's card game product|publisher= nintendo |accessdate=2009}}</ref> and organizes its own [[contract bridge]] tournament called the "Nintendo Cup".<ref name="List of japan contract bridge league tournaments ">{{cite web|url=http://www.jcbl.or.jp/english/tournament.html|title=list of japan contract bridge league tounaments|publisher= jcbl|language=japanese|accessdate=2010}}</ref>
 
 
===New ventures (1956–1974)===
 
 
In 1956, [[Hiroshi Yamauchi]] (grandson of Fusajiro Yamauchi) visited the U.S. to talk with the [[United States Playing Card Company]], the dominant playing card manufacturer there. He found that the world's biggest company in his business was only using a small office. This was a turning point when Yamauchi realized the limitations of the playing card business. He then gained access to Disney's characters and put them on the playing cards to drive sales.
 
 
[[File:Nintendo love tester.jpg|thumb|left|The Nintendo [[Love Tester]]]]
 
In 1963, Yamauchi renamed Nintendo Playing Card Co. Ltd. to Nintendo Co., Ltd.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nintendo.co.uk/NOE/en_GB/service/nintendo_history_9911.html |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5vQB0bQ5E |archivedate=1 January 2011 |title=Nintendo History |publisher=Nintendo of Europe GmbH |accessdate=1 January 2011}}</ref> The company then began to experiment in other areas of business using newly injected capital. During this period of time between 1963 and 1968, Nintendo set up a [[Taxicab|taxi]] company, a [[love hotel]] chain, a TV network, a food company (selling [[instant rice]], similar to [[instant noodles]]) and several other things. All of these ventures eventually failed, and after the 1964 [[1964 Summer Olympics|Tokyo Olympics]], playing card sales dropped, and Nintendo's stock price plummeted to [[Japanese yen|¥]]60.
 
 
In 1966, Nintendo moved into the Japanese toy industry with the [[Ultra Hand]], an extendable arm developed by its maintenance engineer [[Gunpei Yokoi]] in his free time. Yokoi was moved from maintenance to the new "Nintendo Games" department as a product developer. Nintendo continued to produce popular toys, including the [[Ultra Machine]], [[Love Tester]] and the ''Kousenjuu'' series of [[light gun]] games. Despite some successful products, Nintendo struggled to meet the fast development and manufacturing turnaround required in the toy market, and fell behind the well-established companies such as [[Bandai]] and [[Takara Tomy|Tomy]].
 
 
In 1973, its focus shifted to family entertainment venues with the [[Laser Clay Shooting System]], using the same light gun technology used in Nintendo's ''Kousenjuu'' series of toys, and set up in abandoned bowling alleys. Following some success, Nintendo developed several more light gun machines (such as the [[light gun shooter]] game ''[[Wild Gunman]]'') for the emerging arcade scene. While the Laser Clay Shooting System ranges had to be shut down following excessive costs, Nintendo had found a new market.
 
 
===Electronic era (since 1974)===
 
 
Nintendo's first venture into the video-gaming industry was securing rights to distribute the [[Magnavox Odyssey]] [[video game console]] in Japan in 1974. Nintendo began to produce its own hardware in 1977, with the [[Color TV Game]] home video game consoles. Four versions of these consoles were produced, each including variations of a single game (for example, Color TV Game 6 featured six versions of ''Light Tennis'').
 
 
A student product developer named [[Shigeru Miyamoto]] was hired by Nintendo at this time.<ref name="SM_CBS">{{cite news|title=Famous Names in Gaming|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/2316-100_162-1673418-2.html|publisher=[[CBS]]|date=|accessdate=2010-06-13}}</ref> He worked for Yokoi, and one of his first tasks was to design the casing for several of the Color TV Game consoles. Miyamoto went on to create, direct and produce some of Nintendo's most famous video games and become one of the most recognizable figures in the video game industry.<ref name="SM_CBS"/>
 
 
In 1975, Nintendo moved into the video [[arcade game]] industry with ''[[EVR Race]]'', designed by their first game designer, [[Genyo Takeda]],<ref name="Iwata Asks-Punch Out!!">{{cite web|url=http://us.wii.com/iwata_asks/punchout/vol1_page1.jsp|title=Iwata Asks-Punch-Out!!|publisher= Nintendo|accessdate=2009-07-07}}</ref> and several more titles followed. Nintendo had some small success with this venture, but the release of ''[[Donkey Kong (video game)|Donkey Kong]]'' in 1981, designed by Miyamoto, changed Nintendo's fortunes dramatically. The success of the game and many licensing opportunities (such as ports on the [[Atari 2600]], [[Intellivision]] and [[ColecoVision]]) gave Nintendo a huge boost in profit.
 
 
[[File:Nes-console-with-controller.jpg|thumb|The [[Nintendo Entertainment System]] (NES)]]
 
 
In 1980, Nintendo launched ''[[Game & Watch]]''—a [[handheld video game]] series developed by Yokoi where each game was played on a separate device—to worldwide success. In 1983, Nintendo launched the Family Computer (commonly shortened "Famicom"), known outside Japan as the [[Nintendo Entertainment System]] (NES), home video game console in Japan, alongside ports of its most popular arcade titles. In 1985, the NES launched in North America, and was accompanied by ''[[Super Mario Bros.]]'', one of the best-selling video games of all time.<ref>Nagata, Kazuaki, "[http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20090310i1.html Nintendo secret: It's all in the game]", ''[[The Japan Times]]'', 10 March 2009, p. 3.</ref>
 
 
After the success of the ''Game & Watch'', Yokoi developed the [[Game Boy]] [[handheld game console]] in 1989. The Game Boy, the best-selling handheld of all time, remained dominant for more than a decade. Incremental updates in the [[Game Boy Pocket]], [[Game Boy Light]] and [[Game Boy Color]] over the next decade did little to change the original formula.
 
 
The Nintendo Entertainment System was superseded by the Super Famicom, known outside Japan as the [[Super Nintendo Entertainment System]] (SNES). This was Nintendo's console of the 16-bit {{ordinal|4}} generation, following the Famicom of the 8-bit {{ordinal|3}} generation, whose main rival was the [[Sega Genesis|Sega Mega Drive/Genesis]]. A [[Console wars|console war]] between Sega and Nintendo ensued.<ref>[[#CITEREFKent2001|Kent (2001)]], p. 431. "''Sonic'' was an immediate hit, and many consumers who had been loyally waiting for Super NES to arrive now decided to purchase Genesis.... The fiercest competition in the [[history of video games]] was about to begin."</ref> Although relatively late to market, the SNES considerably outsold the Mega Drive/Genesis.
 
 
Aiming to produce an affordable [[virtual reality]] console, Gunpei Yokoi designed the [[Virtual Boy]], a table-mounted semi-portable console featuring [[stereoscopy|stereoscopic graphics]]. Users view games through a binocular eyepiece and control games using a gamepad. Critics were generally disappointed with the quality of the games and graphics, and complained of gameplay-induced headaches.<ref name="WaPo">Frischling, Bill. "Sideline Play." The Washington Post (1974-Current file): 11. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Washington Post (1877-1995). Oct 25 1995. Web. 24 May 2012.</ref> The system sold poorly and was quietly discontinued.<ref name="Boyer">Boyer, Steven. "A Virtual Failure: Evaluating the Success of Nintendos Virtual Boy." Velvet Light Trap.64 (2009): 23-33. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 24 May 2012.</ref> Amid the system's failure, Yokoi retired from Nintendo.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gamepro.com/article/features/111823/the-10-worst-selling-consoles-of-all-time-page-2-of-2/|title=The 10 Worst-Selling Consoles of All Time|accessdate= 2010-06-12|first=Blake|last=Snow|publisher=[[GamePro]]|date=2007-05-04|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20110607134204/http://www.gamepro.com/article/features/111823/the-10-worst-selling-consoles-of-all-time-page-2-of-2/|archivedate=2011-06-07}}</ref>
 
 
Its market share slipping to Sega and new rival [[Sony]], Nintendo utilized a $185 million marketing campaign, centered around the "Play It Loud" slogan, to revitalize its brand.<ref>Miller, Cyndee. "Sega Vs. Nintendo: This Fights almost as Rough as their Video Games." Marketing News 28.18 (1994): 1-. ABI/INFORM Global; ProQuest Research Library. Web. 24 May 2012.</ref> The company's next home console, the [[Nintendo 64]], was released in 1996 and features [[3D computer graphics|3D graphics]] capabilities and built-in [[Multiplayer video game|multiplayer]] for up to four players. The system's controller introduced the [[analog stick]]. Nintendo later introduced the [[Rumble Pak]], an accessory for the Nintendo 64 controller that produced [[Haptic technology|force feedback]] with compatible games. It was the first such device to come to market for home console gaming and eventually became an industry standard.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://retro.ign.com/articles/864/864231p1.html |title=IGN: Happy Birthday, Rumble Pak|first=Levi|last= Buchanan|date=2008-04-03|publisher=IGN|accessdate=2008-09-12}}</ref>
 
 
The [[Nintendo GameCube]] followed in 2001 and was the first Nintendo console to utilize [[optical disc]] storage instead of [[ROM cartridge|cartridges]].<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.nintendo.com/corp/history.jsp|title=Nintendo - Corporate Information - Company History|accessdate=2009-07-24|publisher=Nintendo}}</ref> The console was profitable, but sales paled in comparison with the rival [[PlayStation 2]].
 
 
[[File:Nintendo-3DS-AquaOpen.png|thumb|The [[Nintendo 3DS]], Nintendo's latest handheld video game system which features [[autostereoscopy|autostereoscopic 3D]].]]
 
 
A major update to its handheld line, [[Game Boy Advance]], featuring improved technical specifications similar to those of the SNES. A [[Game Boy Advance SP|first update]] improved lighting, while a [[Game Boy Micro|later iteration]] brought a smaller form factor. Although originally advertised as an alternative to the Game Boy Advance, the [[Nintendo DS]] replaced the [[Game Boy line]] sometime after its initial release in 2004.<ref name="newconsole">{{cite web|url=http://ds.ign.com/articles/541/541729p1.html|title=Nintendo Going Back to the Basics. Full story about the company offering a new system in 2004.|accessdate=2007-10-04|date=2003-11-13|publisher=IGN}}</ref> It was distinctive for its dual screens and a microphone, as well as a [[Touchscreen|touch-sensitive lower screen]]. The [[Nintendo DS Lite]] brought a smaller form factor.<ref>{{cite web|last=Rojas|first=Peter|date =2006-02-20| url= http://www.engadget.com/2006/02/20/the-engadget-interview-reggie-fils-aime-executive-vice-preside/|title= The Engadget Interview: Reggie Fils-Aime, Executive Vice President of Sales and Marketing for Nintendo|publisher= Engadget|accessdate=2009-07-24}}</ref> The [[Nintendo DSi]] featured larger screens and two cameras,<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.nintendodsi.com/meet-dsi.jsp | title = Explore Nintendo DSi | accessdate=2009-07-24}}</ref> and was followed by a [[Nintendo DSi XL|larger version]] the DSi XL with a 90% bigger screen than the Nintendo DS.<ref name=mcvuk>{{cite web|url=http://www.mcvuk.com/news/37129/DSi-XL-gets-March-5th-launch|title=Nintendo DSi XL to launch on March 5th|first=Dave|last=Roberts|date=2010-01-14|work=MCV|publisher=Intent Media|accessdate=2010-01-30}}</ref>
 
 
The successor to the Nintendo DS line, the [[Nintendo 3DS]], uses the process of [[autostereoscopy]] to produce a [[Stereoscopy|stereoscopic]] three-dimensional effect without glasses.<ref>{{cite press release |url=http://www.nintendo.co.jp/ir/pdf/2010/100323e.pdf |title=Launch of New Portable Game Machine |date=23 March 2010 |publisher=Nintendo |accessdate=2010-03-23 |location=[[Minami-ku, Kyoto]]}}</ref> The console got off to a slow start, initially missing many key features that were promised before the system launched.<ref>{{cite press release |url=http://www.techspot.com/news/44226-nintendo-3DS-passes-1-million-units-sold-in-japan-finally.html |title=Nintendo 3DS passes 1 million units sold in Japan, finally |date=13 June 2011 |publisher=TechSpot |accessdate=2011-06-20}}</ref> Partially as a result of slow sales, Nintendo stock declined in value. Subsequent price cuts and game releases renewed investor confidence in the company.<ref>{{cite press release |url=http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/n.php?n=nintendo-shares-leap-on-3ds-optimism-2011-08-23 |title=Nintendo shares leap on 3DS optimism |date=23 August 2011 |publisher=Hurriyet Daily News |accessdate=2011-10-26}}</ref> The [[Nintendo 3DS XL]] is the larger version of the 3DS with the screen size being 90% bigger than the regular version.
 
 
Nintendo's most recent home console, the [[Wii]], uses [[Wii Remote|motion sensing controllers]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.com/wii/what/controllers#remote|title=Controllers at Nintendo :: Wii :: What Is Wii?|accessdate=2009-08-04}}</ref> and has on-board online functionality used for services such as [[Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection]] and [[Internet Channel]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.com/wii/internet|title=Wii + Internet at Nintendo|accessdate=2010-06-13}}</ref> (in contrast to GameCube's limited functionality on select games with an additional modem accessory<ref>{{Cite manual|title=Nintendo GameCube Modem Adapter Instruction Booklet|url=http://www.nintendo.com/consumer/downloads/modem_english.pdf|publisher=[[Nintendo of America Inc.|Nintendo of America, Inc.]]|format=PDF|accessdate=2010-06-13}}</ref>). Nintendo's upcoming home console, the [[Wii U]], will feature a [[Wii U GamePad|touch screen controller]].<ref name="Project Café">{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.co.jp/ir/pdf/2011/110425_4e.pdf|title=Re: Wii’s successor system|date=25 April 2011|publisher=Nintendo|accessdate=25 April 2011}}</ref>
 
{{-}}
 
 
==Organization==
 
 
===Marketing===
 
{{main|Nintendo marketing}}
 
 
Nintendo of America has engaged in several high-profile marketing campaigns to define and position its brand. One of its earliest and most enduring slogans was "Now you're playing with power!", used first to promote its Nintendo Entertainment System. It modified the slogan to include "SUPER power" for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, and "PORTABLE power" for the Game Boy. Its 1994 "Play It Loud!" campaign played upon teenage rebellion and fostered an edgy reputation. During the GameCube era, the "Who Are You?" suggested a link between the games we play and the people we are. The company promoted its Nintendo DS handheld with the tagline "Touching is Good." For the Wii, they used the "Wii would like to play." slogan to promote the console with the people who tried the games including ''[[Super Mario Galaxy]]'' and ''[[Super Smash Bros. Brawl]]''.
 
 
===Key executives===
 
[[Image:Iwata-e3-2006 crop.jpg|thumb|160px|Nintendo's president since 2002, Satoru Iwata.]]
 
*[[Satoru Iwata]], President and Representative Director
 
*Yoshihiro Mori, Senior Managing Director, General Manager of Corporate Analysis & Administration Division, and Representative Director
 
*Shinji Hatano, Senior Managing Director, General Manager of Licensing Division, and Representative Director
 
*Masaharu Matsumoto, Managing Director
 
*[[Shigeru Miyamoto]], Senior Managing Director and Representative Director<ref>{{cite web |url=http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=NTDOY.PK |title=Profile |work=Nintendo Co. Ltd. (NTDOY.PK) |publisher=Yahoo! News Network |accessdate=10 June 2011}}</ref>
 
*[[Reggie Fils-Aime]], President and chief operating officer of Nintendo of America
 
*[[Satoru Shibata]], President of Nintendo of Europe
 
 
===Divisions===
 
 
Nintendo Co., Ltd. oversees the company's global operations and manages Japanese operations specifically. The company's two major subsidiaries, Nintendo of America and Nintendo of Europe, manage operations in North America and Europe respectively. Nintendo Co., Ltd. (NCL)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nintendo.co.jp/jobs/work_at_nintendo/interview05-02/contents02.html |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5vQBDu3BO |archivedate=1 January 2011 |title=製品技術編(2) |work=社長が訊く 任天堂で働くということ |publisher=Nintendo Co., Ltd. |accessdate=1 January 2011}}</ref> was originally based in Kyoto.<ref group="lower-alpha">{{Coord|34|59|30.03|N|135|45|58.66|E|display=inline|format=dms}}</ref> It then moved to a new office in [[Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto]], which is now its research and development building.<ref group="lower-alpha">{{Coord|34|58|29.00|N|135|46|10.48|E|display=inline|format=dms}}</ref> Since 2000, the company has been based in [[Minami-ku, Kyoto]].<ref group="lower-alpha">{{Coord|34|58|11.89|N|135|45|22.33|E|display=inline|format=dms}}</ref><ref>"[http://iwataasks.nintendo.com/interviews/#/3ds/starfox/0/2 Fushimi Inari Taisha and Fox]." Nintendo. Retrieved on January 1, 2011. "12. Former head office: Before Nintendo's head office moved to Minami Ward, Kyoto City (its current location) in 2000, it was in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City. The former head office's location is now occupied by Nintendo Kyoto Research Center."</ref>
 
 
Nintendo of America, Incorporated (NOA), its U.S. division, is based in [[Redmond, Washington]]. Originally the NOA headquarters handled sales, marketing, and advertising. However, the office in [[Redwood City, California]] now directs those functions. The company maintains distribution centers in [[Atlanta|Atlanta, Georgia]] (Nintendo Atlanta) and [[North Bend, Washington]] ([[Nintendo North Bend]]). The {{convert|380000|sqft|m2|adj=on}} Nintendo North Bend facility processes more than 20,000 orders a day to Nintendo customers, which include [[Retail|retail stores]] that sell Nintendo products and [[consumer]]s who order their video games and associated components [[Online shopping|online]].<ref name="casestudy">{{cite web | author=R.H. Brown Co. Inc. | year=2007 | title=Case Studies | url=http://www.hytrol.com/casestudy.cfm?id=35 | work=Hytrol.com | accessdate=2008-09-17}}</ref> Nintendo of America's Canadian branch,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.com/?country=CA&lang=en |title=Nintendo.com |publisher=Nintendo.com |date= |accessdate=2012-10-09}}</ref> Nintendo of Canada, Ltd. (NOCL), is based in [[Vancouver|Vancouver, BC]], with its distribution center in [[Toronto|Toronto, Ontario]].
 
 
Nintendo of Europe (NOE) was established in June 1990.<ref name="history_9911">{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.co.uk/NOE/en_GB/service/nintendo_history_9911.html |title=History |publisher=Nintendo |date= |accessdate=2012-10-09}}</ref> The company handles operations in Europe and [[South Africa]].<ref name="history_9911" /> The subsidiary is based in [[Großostheim]],<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.nintendo.co.uk/NOE/en_GB/corporate_10102.html | title=Corporate - Nintendo | accessdate=2009-07-24}}</ref> close to [[Frankfurt]], Germany. Nintendo of Europe's [[United Kingdom]] branch<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.co.uk/NOE/en_GB/corporate_10102.html |title=Corporate |publisher=Nintendo |date=2012-08-29 |accessdate=2012-10-09}}</ref> handles operations in that country and in [[Ireland]] from its headquarters in [[Windsor, Berkshire|Windsor]], [[Berkshire]].
 
 
[[Nintendo Australia]] Pty Ltd (NAL) is based in [[Melbourne|Melbourne, Victoria]]. It handles the publishing, distribution, sales and marketing of Nintendo products in [[Australia]], [[New Zealand]], and Oceania ([[Cook Islands]], [[Fiji]], [[New Caledonia]], [[Papua New Guinea]], [[Samoa]], and [[Vanuatu]]). It also manufactures some Wii games locally. Nintendo Australia is also a third-party distributor of some titles from [[Rising Star Games]], [[Namco Bandai]] Games Europe, [[Atlus]], [[The Tetris Company]], [[Sega]], [[Tecmo Koei]] Games Europe and [[Capcom]] Europe.
 
 
[[iQue|iQue, Ltd.]], a Chinese [[joint venture]] between its founder, [[Wei Yen]], and Nintendo, manufactures and distributes official Nintendo consoles and games for the mainland Chinese market, under the iQue brand. The product lineup for the Chinese market is considerably different from that for other markets. For example, Nintendo's only console in China is the [[iQue Player]], a modified version of the Nintendo 64. The company has not released its more modern GameCube or Wii to the market.
 
 
Nintendo established Nintendo of Korea (NoK) on July 7, 2006.<ref>{{registration required|date=February 2011}} {{cite web|author=Paul, Loughrey|title=Nintendo establishes Korean subsidiary|url=http://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/nintendo-establishes-korean-subsidiary}}</ref>
 
<gallery>
 
File:Nintendo office.jpg|The exterior of Nintendo's main headquarters in [[Kyoto]], Japan
 
File:Nintendo of America Headquarters.jpg|The Nintendo of America headquarters in [[Redmond, Washington|Redmond]], United States
 
File:Großostheim Nintendo 20110127.jpg|Nintendo of Europe headquarters in [[Großostheim]], Germany
 
</gallery>
 
{{-}}
 
 
==Software development studios==
 
 
===First-party studios===
 
 
*[[Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development|Nintendo EAD Comprehensive Group]] – ''[[Super Mario 64 DS]]''
 
*[[Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development|Nintendo EAD Group 1]] – ''[[Mario Kart]]'' series, ''[[Nintendogs]]'' series, ''[[Luigi's Mansion]]''<ref>{{cite web|url=http://gonintendo.com/viewstory.php?id=2968|title=NCL Team Structure work in progress|accessdate=2010-08-30}}</ref>
 
*[[Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development|Nintendo EAD Group 2]] – ''[[Animal Crossing]]'' series, [[Wii (video game series)|Wii]]-branded games
 
*[[Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development|Nintendo EAD Group 3]] – ''[[The Legend of Zelda]]'' series
 
*[[Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development|Nintendo EAD Group 4]] – ''[[Pikmin (series)|Pikmin]]'' series, ''[[New Super Mario Bros.]]'', ''[[Big Brain Academy]]''
 
*[[Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development|Nintendo EAD Group 5]] – ''[[Wii Fit]]'', ''[[Steel Diver]]'' (with Vitei)
 
*[[Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development|Nintendo EAD Tokyo 1]] – ''[[Donkey Kong Jungle Beat]]'', ''[[Super Mario Galaxy]]''
 
*[[Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development|Nintendo EAD Tokyo 2]] – ''[[Flipnote Studio]]'', ''[[Super Mario Galaxy 2]]'', ''[[Super Mario 3D Land]]''
 
*[[Nintendo Software Planning & Development|Nintendo SPD]] – ''[[Wario (franchise)|WarioWare]]'' series, ''[[Tomodachi Collection]]'', ''[[Rhythm Heaven]]'' series, ''[[Fossil Fighters]]'' series (with [[Red Entertainment]], [[M2 (game developer)|M2]], and [[Artdink]])
 
*[[Nintendo Network Service Development|Nintendo NSD]] – ''[[Personal Trainer: Walking]]''
 
*[[Nintendo Software Design & Development|Nintendo SDD]] – ''[[Brain Age: Train Your Brain in Minutes a Day!|Brain Age]]'' series
 
*[[Nintendo Software Technology|Nintendo STC]] – ''[[Mario vs. Donkey Kong]]'', ''[[Crosswords DS]]'', ''[[Metroid Prime Hunters]]''<ref>{{cite web|url=http://games.ign.com/objects/026/026980.html |title=IGN: NST |publisher=Games.ign.com |accessdate=2011-05-26}}</ref>
 
*[[Monolith Soft]] – ''[[Disaster: Day of Crisis]]'', ''[[Xenoblade Chronicles]]''<ref>{{cite web|url=http://games.ign.com/objects/027/027688.html |title=IGN: Monolith Software (JP) |publisher=Games.ign.com |date=2011-04-29 |accessdate=2011-05-25}}</ref>
 
*[[Retro Studios]] – ''[[Metroid Prime: Trilogy|Metroid Prime]]'' series, ''[[Donkey Kong Country Returns]]'',<ref>{{cite web|url=http://retrostudios.com/games.asp |title=games |publisher=Retrostudios |date= |accessdate=2011-05-25}}</ref> ''[[Mario Kart 7]]''
 
*[[Brownie Brown]] – ''[[Mother 3]]'', ''[[A Kappa's Trail]]'', ''[[Magical Vacation]]'' series
 
*[[Intelligent Systems]] – ''[[Paper Mario]]'' series with Nintendo, ''[[Fire Emblem]]'' series, ''[[Wars (series)|Advance Wars]]'' series,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://intsys.co.jp/english/software/index.html |title=Intelligent Systems Co., Ltd |publisher=Intsys.co.jp |date= |accessdate=2011-05-25}}</ref> ''[[Wario (franchise)|WarioWare]]'' series, ''[[Pushmo]]'' series
 
*[[Nd Cube]] – ''[[Wii Party]]'', ''[[Mario Party 9]]''
 
*[[HAL Laboratory]] – ''[[Kirby (series)|Kirby]]'' series, ''[[EarthBound (series)|Earthbound]]'' series, ''[[Super Smash Bros. (series)|Super Smash Bros.]]'' series
 
 
===Overseas Research and Development===
 
Although most of the research and development is being done in Japan, there are some R&D facilities in the US and Europe that are focused on developing software and hardware technologies used in Nintendo products. Although they all are subsidiaries of Nintendo (and therefore 'first party'), they are often referred to as external resources when being involved in joint development processes with Nintendo's 'internal' developers by the Japanese people involved. This can be seen in a variety of "Iwata asks..." interviews.<ref>"I didn't really go into this today, but Nintendo European Research and Development SAS France (NERD) helped us with our video player and Nintendo Software Technology (NST) helped with WebKit's JavaScript JIT, '''so''' this new Internet Browser really came about with help from so many different '''people outside the company'''.", Tetsuya Sasaki, Software Development & Design Department, see http://iwataasks.nintendo.com/interviews/#/wiiu/internet-browser/0/2 Retrieved November 9th 2012</ref>
 
 
*[[Nintendo Technology Development]], Redmond, Washington, USA
 
*[[Nintendo Software Technology|Nintendo STC]], has developed games and software technology<ref>has helped with [[WebKit]]'s [[JavaScript]] [[JIT]], see http://iwataasks.nintendo.com/interviews/#/wiiu/internet-browser/0/2 Retrieved November 9th 2012<</ref>
 
*[[Nintendo European Research and Development SAS France (NERD)]], at the moment focused on video technology<ref>formerly known as [[Mobiclip]], has developed the videoplayer of the [[Wii U]] Internet Browser, see http://iwataasks.nintendo.com/interviews/#/wiiu/internet-browser/0/2 Retrieved November 9th 2012</ref>
 
 
===Affiliated studios===
 
 
Since the 1980s, Nintendo has built up a large group of development partners, through publishing agreements or collaboration.
 
 
*[[AlphaDream Corporation|AlphaDream]] – ''[[Mario & Luigi: Superstar Saga|Mario & Luigi]]'' series
 
*[[Ambrella]] – ''[[Pokémon Dash]]'', ''[[Pokémon Rumble]]'' series, ''[[Pokémon Channel]]'', ''[[My Pokémon Ranch]]'',<ref>{{cite web|url=http://games.ign.com/objects/027/027435.html |title=IGN: Ambrella (Marigul) |publisher=Games.ign.com |date=2011-09-14 |accessdate=2011-10-26}}</ref> ''[[Hey You, Pikachu!]]''
 
*[[Arika]] – ''[[Endless Ocean]]'' series, ''[[Arika|3D Classics]]'' series
 
*[[Artoon]] - ''[[Yoshi's Island DS]]'', ''[[Yoshi's Universal Gravitation]]''
 
*Asobism Co., Ltd. - ''[[Freakyforms: Your Creations, Alive!]]'', ''[[Freakyforms: Your Creations, Alive!|Freakyforms Deluxe: Your Creations, Alive!]]''
 
*[[Creatures (company)|Creatures Inc.]] – ''[[Pokémon Ranger]]'' series, ''[[PokéPark Wii: Pikachu's Adventure|PokéPark]]'' series, ''[[EarthBound (series)|EarthBound (Mother)]]'' series (with [[HAL Laboratory]] and [[Brownie Brown]])
 
*[[Camelot Software Planning]] – ''[[Golden Sun (series)|Golden Sun]]'' series, ''[[Mario Tennis (series)|Mario Tennis]]'' series, ''[[Mario Golf (series)|Mario Golf]]'' series
 
*Curve Studios - ''[[Fluidity (video game)|Fluidity]]''
 
*[[Eighting]] - ''[[Kuru Kuru Kururin]]'' series, ''[[Master of Illusion (video game)|Master of Illusion]]''
 
*[[Ganbarion]] - ''[[Pandora's Tower]]''
 
*[[Game Freak]] - ''[[Pokémon (video game series)|Pokémon]]'' series, ''[[Drill Dozer]]'', ''[[Mario & Wario]]''
 
*[[Genius Sonority]] – ''[[Pokémon Colosseum]]'', ''[[Pokémon XD: Gale of Darkness]]'', ''[[Pokémon Battle Revolution]]'', ''[[Pokémon Trozei!]]''
 
*[[Good-Feel]] – ''[[Wario Land: The Shake Dimension|Wario Land: Shake It!]]'', ''[[Kirby's Epic Yarn]]'' (with [[HAL Laboratory]])
 
*[[Grezzo]] - ''[[The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time 3D]]'', ''[[The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past & Four Swords|The Legend of Zelda: Four Swords Anniversary Edition]]''
 
*[[iNiS]] - ''[[Osu! Tatakae! Ouendan]]'' series, ''[[Elite Beat Agents]]''
 
*[[Jupiter (company)|Jupiter]] - ''[[Mario's Picross]]'' series, ''[[Pokémon Pinball]]'' series, ''[[Picross DS]]'', ''Picross E''
 
*[[Kuju Entertainment]] - ''[[Art Academy (video game)|Art Academy]]'' series, ''[[Battalion Wars]]'' series
 
*[[Mistwalker]] - ''[[The Last Story]]''
 
*[[Monster Games]] – ''[[Excitebike]]'' series,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://mgiracing.com |title=Monster Games |publisher=Mgiracing.com |date=2005-02-07 |accessdate=2011-05-25}}</ref> ''[[Pilotwings Resort]]''
 
*[[n-Space]] - ''[[Geist (video game)|Geist]]''
 
*[[Namco Bandai Games]] – ''[[List of Mario sports games#Baseball games|Mario Baseball]]'' series
 
*[[Next Level Games]] – ''[[List of Mario sports games#Football games|Mario Strikers]]'' series, ''[[Punch-Out!! (Wii)|Punch-Out!!]]'', ''[[Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon]]''
 
*[[Noise (company)|Noise]] – ''[[Custom Robo]]'' series<ref>{{cite web|url=http://games.ign.com/objects/027/027010.html |title=IGN: Noise (Marigul) |publisher=Games.ign.com |date=2011-04-29 |accessdate=2011-05-25}}</ref>
 
*[[Red Entertainment|Red Entertainment Corporation]] – ''[[Project Hacker]]'', ''[[Fossil Fighters]]'' Series
 
*[[Paon]] – ''[[Donkey Kong Barrel Blast]]'', ''[[DK Jungle Climber]]'', ''[[DK King of Swing]]'', ''[[Glory of Heracles]]''
 
*[[Sandlot (video game developer)|Sandlot]] - ''[[Chōsōjū Mecha MG]]'', ''[[Zangeki no Reginleiv]]''
 
*[[Skip Ltd.]] – ''[[Chibi-Robo!]]'' series, ''[[Art Style]]'' series, ''[[GiFTPiA]]'', ''[[Captain Rainbow]]'', ''[[Snowpack Park]]''
 
*[[Square Enix]] - ''[[Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars]]'' (as [[Square (company)|Square]]), ''[[Fortune Street]]'' series, ''[[Mario Hoops 3-on-3]]'', ''[[Mario Sports Mix]]'' (with [[Nintendo Software Planning & Development|SPD Group 4]])
 
*[[Suzak Inc.|Suzak]] - ''[[Wario: Master of Disguise]]'', ''[[F-Zero|F-Zero: Climax]]'', ''[[F-Zero: GP Legend (video game)|F-Zero: GP Legend]]''
 
*[[syn Sophia]] – ''[[Style Savvy]]'' series
 
*[[Tecmo Koei]] - ''[[Fatal Frame]]'' series, ''[[Pokémon Conquest]]'', ''[[Metroid: Other M]]'' (with [[Nintendo Software Planning & Development|SPD Group 1]])
 
*[[Tose (company)|Tose]] - ''[[The Legendary Starfy (series)|The Legendary Starfy]]'' series, ''[[Game & Watch Gallery series|Game & Watch Gallery]]'' series, ''[[Super Princess Peach]]''
 
*[[Treasure (company)|Treasure Co., Ltd.]] – ''[[Wario World]]'', ''[[Sin and Punishment]]'' Series
 
*[[Vanpool (company)|Vanpool]] – ''[[Dillon's Rolling Western]]'', ''[[Freshly-Picked Tingle's Rosy Rupeeland|Tingle]]'' series
 
*Vitei - ''[[Steel Diver]]'' (with [[Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development|EAD Group 5]]), ''[[Rock N’ Roll Climber]]'' (with [[Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development|EAD Group 3]])
 
 
===Former affiliates===
 
 
*[[Cing]] – ''[[Hotel Dusk: Room 215]]'', ''[[Another Code: Two Memories]]''
 
*:Filed for bankruptcy in 2010.
 
*[[Factor 5]]
 
*:Closed in 2009.
 
*[[Hudson Soft]] - ''[[Mario Party]]'' series
 
*:Absorbed into Konami in 2012.
 
*[[Left Field Productions]] – ''[[Kobe Bryant in NBA Courtside]]'' series
 
*:Bought out Nintendo's stake in the company in 2002.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gamespot.com/n64/driving/excitebike64/news.html?sid=2879947|title=Left Field buys out Nintendo investment|publisher=Gamespot|date=September 11, 2002|accessdate=2010-08-30}}</ref>
 
*[[Marigul Management]]
 
*:Closed in 2003.
 
*[[Project Sora]] – ''[[Super Smash Bros. Brawl]]'', ''[[Kid Icarus: Uprising]]''
 
*:Closed in 2012<ref>{{cite web |url=http://andriasang.com/con1vs/project_sora_closed/ |title=Project Sora is No More |deadurl=no |accessdate=10 July 2012}}</ref>
 
*[[Radical Entertainment]] - ''[[Mario's Time Machine]]'', ''[[Mario is Missing!]]''
 
*:Stopped making games for Nintendo after the Mario Discovery series ended. Now a fully owned subsidiary of [[Activision Blizzard]].
 
*[[Rare Ltd.|Rare]] - ''[[Donkey Kong Country]]'' series, ''[[GoldenEye 007 (1997 video game)|GoldenEye 007]]'', ''[[Star Fox Adventures]]'', ''[[Diddy Kong Racing]]'', ''[[Donkey Kong 64]]''
 
*:Sold to [[Microsoft Studios (game studio)|Microsoft Studios]] in 2002.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/sci_tech/newsid_2283000/2283354.stm | work=BBC News | title=Microsoft buy top games producers Rare | date=2002-09-26}}</ref>
 
*[[Silicon Knights]] – ''[[Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem]]''
 
*:Publishing contract with Nintendo ended in 2004.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.1up.com/news/silicon-knights-splits-nintendo|title=Silicon Knights Splits With Nintendo|publisher=1UP.com|date=1 January 2000|accessdate=2010-08-30}}</ref>
 
*[[St.GIGA]] - Games for the [[Satellaview]]
 
*:Stopped making games for Nintendo when the Satellaview was discontinued. Eventually, they went out of business.
 
 
==Policy==<!--This section is linked from [[Nintendo policy]] and [[Nintendo Policies]]-->
 
 
===Emulation===
 
{{Multiple issues|section=y|original research=June 2010|synthesis=June 2010|refimprove=June 2010}}
 
 
Nintendo, particularly ''Nintendo of America'', is known for a "no tolerance" stance for [[Video game console emulator|emulation]] of its video games and consoles, stating that it is the single largest threat to the intellectual rights of video game developers.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.nintendo.com/corp/legal.jsp#roms | title=Nintendo - Corporate Information - Legal Information (Copyrights, Emulators, ROMs, etc.) | accessdate=2009-07-24}}</ref> Nintendo claims that copyright-like rights in [[Integrated circuit layout design protection|mask work]]s protect its games from the exceptions that [[Copyright law of the United States|United States copyright law]] otherwise provides for personal backup copies. Nintendo uses the claim that emulators running on [[personal computer]]s have no use other than to play [[Copyright infringement of software|pirated video games]], though a use that doesn't involve [[intellectual property]] in this way is seen in the development and testing of independently produced [[Homebrew (video games)|"homebrew" software]] on Nintendo's platforms. It is also claimed that Nintendo's claims contradict copyright laws, mainly that [[ROM image]] copiers are illegal (they are legal if used to dump unprotected ROM images on to a user's computer for personal use, per {{usc|17|117}}(a)(1) and foreign counterparts)<ref>{{usc|17|117}}</ref> and that emulators are illegal (if they do not use copyrighted BIOS, or use [[High-level emulation|other methods]] to run the game, they are legal; see [[Video game console emulator|Console emulator]] for further information about the legality of emulators). However, Nintendo remains the only modern console manufacturer that has not sued an emulator manufacturer.<ref>[http://www.emulationnation.com/nintendo/ Nintendo]</ref>
 
Emulators have been used by Nintendo and licensed third party companies as a means to re-release older games (e.g. [[Virtual Console]]).
 
 
===Content guidelines===<!-- This section is linked from [[Super Nintendo Entertainment System]] -->
 
 
For many years, Nintendo had a policy of strict content guidelines for video games published on its consoles. Although Nintendo of Japan allowed [[graphic violence]] in its video games, [[nudity and sexuality]] were strictly prohibited. Former Nintendo president [[Hiroshi Yamauchi]] believed that if the company allowed the licensing of [[Pornography|pornographic]] games, the company's image would be forever tarnished.<ref name="Game Over 1993">''[[Game Over (book)|''Game Over'']], David Sheff, 1993.</ref> Nintendo of America and Nintendo of Europe went further in that games released for Nintendo consoles could not feature nudity, sexuality, [[profanity]] (including [[racism]], [[sexism]] or [[Hate speech|slurs]]), blood, graphic or [[domestic violence]], [[drug]]s, political messages or [[Religious symbolism|religious symbol]]s (with the exception of widely unpracticed religions, such as the [[Greek mythology|Greek Pantheon]]).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.filibustercartoons.com/Nintendo.php |title=Nintendo of America Content Guidelines |publisher=Filibustercartoons.com |date= |accessdate=2011-05-25}}</ref> The Japanese parent company was concerned that it may be viewed as a "Japanese Invasion" by forcing Japanese [[Community standards|community standard]]s on North American and European children. Despite the strict guidelines, some exceptions have occurred: ''[[Bionic Commando (Nintendo Entertainment System)|Bionic Commando]]'' (though [[Nazi swastika|swastikas]] were eliminated in the US version), ''[[Smash TV]]'' and ''[[Golgo 13: Top Secret Episode]]'' contained human violence, the latter also containing implied [[Human sexuality|sexuality]] and [[Smoking|tobacco use]]; ''[[River City Ransom]]'' and ''[[Taboo: The Sixth Sense]]'' contained nudity, and the latter also contained religious images, as did ''[[Castlevania II: Simon's Quest|Castlevania II]]'' and ''[[Castlevania III: Dracula's Curse|III]]''.
 
 
A known side effect of this policy was the [[Sega Genesis]] version of ''[[Mortal Kombat (1992 video game)|Mortal Kombat]]'' selling over double the number of the Super NES version, mainly because Nintendo had forced publisher [[Acclaim Entertainment|Acclaim]] to recolor the red blood to look like white sweat and replace some of the more gory graphics in its release of the game, making it [[Nonviolent video game|non-violent]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://uk.retro.ign.com/articles/919/919357p10.html|title=IGN Presents the History of Mortal Kombat - Retro Feature at IGN|publisher=IGN|first=Travis|last=Fahs|accessdate=2010-08-16}}</ref> By contrast, [[Sega]] allowed blood and gore to remain in the Genesis version (though a code was required to unlock the gore). Nintendo allowed the Super NES version of ''[[Mortal Kombat II]]'' to ship uncensored the following year with a content warning on the packaging.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mobygames.com/game/mortal-kombat-ii/cover-art/gameCoverId,22874|title=''Mortal Kombat II'' cover artwork at [[MobyGames]]}}</ref>
 
 
In 1994 and 2003, when the [[Entertainment Software Rating Board|ESRB]] and [[Pan European Game Information|PEGI]] (respectively) video game ratings systems were introduced, Nintendo chose to abolish most of these policies in favor of consumers making their own choices about the content of the games they played. Today, changes to the content of games are done primarily by the game's developer or, occasionally, at the request of Nintendo. The only clear-set rule is that ESRB AO-rated games will not be licensed on Nintendo consoles in North America,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.com/consumer/buyers_guide.jsp |title=Nintendo of America Customer Service – Nintendo Buyer's Guide |publisher=Nintendo.com |date= |accessdate=2011-05-25}}</ref> a practice which is also enforced by [[Sony Computer Entertainment|Sony]] and [[Microsoft]], its two greatest competitors in the present market. Nintendo has since allowed several mature-content games to be published on its consoles, including: ''[[Perfect Dark]]'', ''[[Conker's Bad Fur Day]]'', ''[[Doom (video game)|Doom]]'' and ''[[Doom 64]]'', ''[[BMX XXX]]'', the ''[[Resident Evil]]'' series, ''[[killer7]]'', ''[[Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem]]'', ''[[BloodRayne]]'', ''[[Geist (video game)|Geist]]'' and ''[[Dementium: The Ward]]''. Certain games have continued to be modified, however. For example, [[Konami]] was forced to remove all references to cigarettes in the 2000 [[Game Boy Color]] game ''[[Metal Gear Solid (Game Boy)|Metal Gear Solid]]'' (although the previous NES version of ''[[Metal Gear]]'' and the subsequent GameCube game ''[[Metal Gear Solid: The Twin Snakes]]'' both included such references, as did Wii title ''[[MadWorld]]''), and maiming and blood were removed from the Nintendo 64 [[Porting|port]] of ''[[Cruis'n USA]]''.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://ign64.ign.com/articles/060/060333p1.html | title=IGN: Nintendo to censor Cruis'n | date=1996-10-08 | accessdate=2009-07-24}}</ref> Another example is in the Game Boy Advance game ''[[Mega Man Zero 3]]'', in which one of the bosses, called Hellbat Schilt in the Japanese and European releases, was renamed Devilbat Schilt in the North American [[Internationalization and localization|localization]]. In North America releases of the ''[[Mega Man Zero]]'' games, enemies and bosses killed with a saber attack would not gush blood as they did in the Japanese versions. However, the release of the Wii has been accompanied by a number of even more controversial mature titles, such as ''[[Manhunt 2]]'', ''[[No More Heroes (video game)|No More Heroes]]'', ''[[The House of the Dead: Overkill]]'' and ''[[MadWorld]]'', the latter three of which are published exclusively for the console. The Nintendo DS also has violent games, such as ''[[Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars]]'', ''[[Dementium: The Ward]]'', ''[[Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3]]'' and ''[[Resident Evil: Deadly Silence]]''.
 
 
===License guidelines===
 
 
Nintendo of America also had guidelines before 1993 that had to be followed by its licensees to make games for the [[Nintendo Entertainment System]], in addition to the above content guidelines:.<ref name="Game Over 1993"/> Guidelines were enforced through the [[10NES]] lockout chip.
 
*Licensees were not permitted to release the same game for a competing console until two years had passed.
 
*Nintendo would decide how many cartridges would be supplied to the licensee.
 
*Nintendo would decide how much space would be dedicated for articles, advertising, etc. in the ''[[Nintendo Power]]'' magazine.
 
*There was a minimum number of cartridges that had to be ordered by the licensee from Nintendo.
 
*There was a yearly limit of five games that a licensee may produce for a Nintendo console.<ref>D. Sheff: "Game Over", p. 215. CyberActive Media Group, 1999.</ref> This rule was created to prevent market over-saturation, which had contributed to the [[North American video game crash of 1983]].
 
 
The last rule was circumvented in a number of ways; for example, Konami, wanting to produce more games for Nintendo's consoles, formed [[Ultra Games]] and later [[Ultra Games|Palcom]] to produce more games as a technically different publisher.<ref name="Game Over 1993"/> This disadvantaged smaller or emerging companies, as they could not afford to start additional companies. In another side effect, [[Square (company)|Square Co.]] (now [[Square Enix]]) executives have suggested that the price of publishing games on the [[Nintendo 64]] along with the degree of censorship and control that Nintendo enforced over its games, most notably ''[[Final Fantasy VI]]'', were factors in switching its focus towards [[Sony Computer Entertainment|Sony]]'s [[PlayStation]] console.{{Citation needed|date=January 2009}}
 
 
===Seal of Quality===
 
[[File:Nintendo Official Seal.svg|thumb|upright|Official Nintendo Seal in [[NTSC]] regions]]
 
[[File:Nintendo seal of quality.jpg|thumb|upright|Nintendo's Official Seal of Quality in [[PAL]] regions]]
 
The gold starburst seal was first used by [[#Offices and locations|Nintendo of America]], and later Nintendo of Europe. It is displayed on any game, system, or accessory licensed for use on one of its [[video game console]]s, denoting the game has been properly licensed by Nintendo. The seal is also displayed on any Nintendo-licensed merchandise, such as trading cards and apparel.<ref name="Seal">{{cite web|url=http://www.nintendo.com/consumer/licensed.jsp |title=Customer Service &#124; Licensed and Unlicensed Products |publisher=Nintendo |date= |accessdate=2012-03-09}}</ref>
 
 
====NTSC regions====
 
 
In [[NTSC]] regions, this seal is an elliptical starburst titled "Official Nintendo Seal". Originally, for NTSC countries, the seal was a large, black and gold circular starburst. The seal read as follows: "This seal is your assurance that NINTENDO has approved and guaranteed the quality of this product." This seal was later altered in 1988: "approved and guaranteed" was changed to "evaluated and approved". In 1989, the seal became gold and white, as it currently appears, with a shortened phrase, "Official Nintendo Seal of Quality". It was changed in 2003 to read "Official Nintendo Seal".<ref name="Seal" />
 
 
The seal currently reads:<ref name=3DS-XL-manual>{{cite web|title=Nintendo 3DS XL Operations Manual|url=http://www.nintendo.com/consumer/downloads/SPR_EN_NA.pdf|publisher=Nintendo|accessdate=2 September 2012}}</ref>
 
<blockquote>The official seal is your assurance that this product is licensed or manufactured by Nintendo. Always look for this seal when buying video game systems, accessories, games and related products.</blockquote>
 
 
====PAL regions====
 
 
In [[PAL]] regions, the seal is a circular starburst titled, "Original Nintendo Seal of Quality". Text near the seal in the [[Australians|Australian]] [[Wii]] manual states:
 
<blockquote>This seal is your assurance that Nintendo has reviewed this product and that it has met our standards for excellence in workmanship, reliability and entertainment value. Always look for this seal when buying games and accessories to ensure complete compatibility with your Nintendo product.<ref>[http://www.nintendo.com.au/support/files/Wii_Manuals/WiiMotionPlusOperationsManual.pdf "Wii MotionPlus Operations Manual"] Nintendo. 2009. Last accessed 10 Mar 2011.</ref></blockquote>
 
 
===Environmental record===
 
 
[[Greenpeace]]'s October 2010 "Guide to Greener Electronics" report ranks Nintendo last on a list of electronics manufacturers, with the same score (1.8 out of 10) as in the previous version of the guide (May 2010). The report cites increasing [[carbon dioxide]] emissions (failed to be reduced per target) and a lack of waste management. Limited praise focuses on satisfactory energy efficiency of the DSi and 3DS AC adapter, the reduction of [[Polyvinyl chloride|PVC]] usage in wiring (and new chemical regulations) and the disclosure of carbon dioxide emissions.<ref>{{cite web|title=Greenpeace Guide to Greener Electronics: Nokia Is Tops, Nintendo Flops|url=http://www.fastcompany.com/blog/ariel-schwartz/sustainability/greenpeace-guide-greener-electronics-nokia-tops-nintendo-flops}}</ref>
 
 
In the January 2010 version of the ranking, Nintendo scored 1.9 points, at which, three days later, Nintendo issued a response that addressed primary concerns, highlighting a policy to indicate the materials used in each product, which makes end-of-life recycling of products easier.<ref>{{cite web|title=Nintendo Defends Environmental Record Against Greenpeace|url=http://www.industrygamers.com/news/nintendo-defends-environmental-record-against-greenpeace/|publisher=IndustryGamers|last=Radd|first=David|date=January 11, 2010|accessdate=2010-04-07}}</ref>
 
 
==Gaming systems==
 
 
Nintendo has produced a number of gaming systems, many with different iterations.
 
 
===Home consoles===
 
{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:95%;" ;
 
|- style="text-align:center;"
 
! Console
 
! style="width:12%;"|[[Japan]]
 
! style="width:12%;"|[[North America]]
 
! style="width:12%;"|[[Europe]]
 
! style="width:12%;"|[[Australia]]
 
! style="width:12%;"|[[South Korea]]
 
! style="width:12%;"|[[China]]
 
! Sales
 
|-
 
| [[Color TV Game]]
 
| 1977–80<ref group="lower-alpha" name="note-colortv">There were a total of five different consoles in the ''Color TV Game'' series which spanned from 1977 to 1980.</ref>
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| 1977–80<ref group="lower-alpha" name="note-colortv"/>
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| 3 million <small>(as of 1980)</small><ref name="CTGsales">{{Citation |title=[[Game Over (book)|Game Over: How Nintendo Conquered the World]] |last=Sheff |first=David |last2=Eddy |first2=Andy |author=David Sheff |author-link=David Sheff |publisher=GamePress |year=1999 |page=[http://books.google.com/books?id=0dK2AAAAIAAJ&q=%22Color+TV+Game%22 27] |isbn=978-0-9669617-0-6|quote=Nintendo entered the home market in Japan with the dramatic unveiling of Color TV Game 6, which played six versions of light tennis. It was followed by a more powerful sequel, Color TV Game 15. A million units of each were sold. The engineering team also came up with systems that played a more complex game, called "Blockbuster," as well as a racing game. Half a million units of these were sold.}}</ref>
 
|-
 
| [[Nintendo Entertainment System]]
 
| July 15, 1983
 
| October 18, 1985
 
| September 1, 1986<ref group="lower-alpha">For distribution purposes, Europe and Australia were divided into two regions by Nintendo. The first of these regions consisted of France, the Netherlands, West Germany, Norway, Denmark and Sweden and saw the NES released during 1986. The console was released in the second region, consisting of the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Italy, as well as Australia and New Zealand, the following year.</ref>
 
| July 1, 1983
 
| October 18, 1985
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| 61.91 million <small>(as of 2012)</small><ref name="consolidatedsales"/>
 
|-
 
| [[Super Nintendo Entertainment System]]
 
| November 21, 1990
 
| August 23, 1991<ref group="lower-alpha">According to Stephen Kent's ''The Ultimate History of Video Games'', the official launch date was September 9. Newspaper and magazine articles from late 1991 report that the first shipments were in stores in some regions on August 23, while it arrived in other regions at a later date. Many modern online sources (circa 2005 and later) report August 13.</ref>
 
| April 11, 1992
 
| October 12, 1991
 
| December 1, 1990
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| 49.10 million <small>(as of 2012)</small><ref name="consolidatedsales"/>
 
|-
 
| [[Virtual Boy]]
 
| July 21, 1995
 
| August 14, 1995
 
| {{Unknown}}
 
| August 19, 1996
 
| May 20, 1995
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| 770,000 <small>(as of 2012)</small>
 
 
|-
 
| [[Nintendo 64]]
 
| June 23, 1996
 
| September 29, 1996
 
| March 1, 1997
 
| March 1, 1996
 
| March 1, 1997
 
| [[iQue Player]]
 
| 32.93 million <small>(as of 2012)</small><ref name="consolidatedsales"/>
 
|-
 
| [[Nintendo GameCube]]
 
| September 14, 2001
 
| November 18, 2001
 
| May 3, 2002
 
| June 19, 2002
 
| June 1, 2001
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| 21.74 million <small>(as of 2012)</small><ref name="consolidatedsales"/>
 
|-
 
| [[iQue Player]]
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| {{n/a|Unreleased}}
 
| {{dts|2003|11|7}}
 
| {{Unknown}} <small>(as of 2012)</small>
 
|-
 
| [[Wii]]
 
| December 2, 2006
 
| November 19, 2006
 
| December 8, 2006
 
| December 7, 2006
 
| October 1, 2006
 
| {{Unknown}}
 
| 97.18 million <small>(as of 2012)</small><ref name="consolidatedsales">{{cite web |url=http://www.nintendo.co.jp/ir/library/historical_data/pdf/consolidated_sales_e1209.pdf|title=Consolidated Sales Transition by Region |accessdate=2012-10-24 |date=2012-10-23 |publisher=Nintendo |format=PDF}}</ref>
 
|-
 
| [[Wii U]]
 
| December 8, 2012<ref>{{cite web|title=Nintendo Announces Europe and Japan Wii U Release Dates, Pricing|url=http://www.forbes.com/sites/danielnyegriffiths/2012/09/13/nintendo-announces-europe-and-japan-wii-u-release-dates-pricing/|publisher=Forbes|date=13 September 2012|accessdate=13 September 2012}}</ref>
 
| November 18, 2012
 
| November 30, 2012
 
| November 30, 2012<ref>{{cite web|title=Aussie Wii U Price and Release Date Revealed|url=http://www.kotaku.com.au/2012/09/aussie-wii-u-price-and-release-date-revealed|publisher=Kotaku|date=13 September 2012|accessdate=13 September 2012}}</ref>
 
| {{Unknown}}
 
| {{Unknown}}
 
| {{n/a}}
 
|}
 
 
===Portable consoles===
 
 
*Game & Watch
 
** Game & Watch Silver (1980)
 
** Game & Watch Gold (1981)
 
** Game & Watch Wide Screen (1981)
 
** Game & Watch New Wide Screen (1982)
 
** Game & Watch Multi Screen (1982)
 
** Game & Watch Tabletop (1983)
 
** Game & Watch Panorama (1983)
 
** Game & Watch SuperColor (1984)
 
** Game & Watch Micro Vs. System (1984)
 
** Game & Watch Crystal Screen (1986)
 
**Game & Watch Disk Kun (1987)
 
**Game & Watch Mini Classics (1998)
 
*Game Boy Line
 
**[[Game Boy]] (1989)
 
**[[Game Boy Pocket]] (1996)
 
**[[Game Boy Light]] (1997)
 
*[[Game Boy Color]] (1998)
 
*Game Boy Advance line
 
**[[Game Boy Advance]] (2001)
 
**[[Game Boy Advance SP]] (2003)
 
**[[Game Boy Micro]] (2005)
 
*Nintendo DS Line
 
**[[Nintendo DS]] (2004)
 
**[[Nintendo DS Lite]] (2006)
 
**[[Nintendo DSi]] (2009)
 
**[[Nintendo DSi XL]] (2010)
 
*Nintendo 3DS Line
 
**[[Nintendo 3DS]] (2011)
 
**[[Nintendo 3DS XL]] (2012)
 
 
==See also==
 
{{Portal|Nintendo|Companies}}
 
*''[[Lewis Galoob Toys, Inc. v. Nintendo of America, Inc.]]''
 
*[[List of divisions of Nintendo]]
 
*[[List of products published by Nintendo]]
 
*[[Lists of Nintendo characters]]
 
*[[Lists of Nintendo games]]
 
*[[Nintendo development teams]]
 
*[[Nintendo Selects]] formerly Player's Choice
 
*[[Nintendo World Store]]
 
*''[[Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Nintendo Co., Ltd.]]''
 
 
==Notes==
 
{{reflist|60em|group=lower-alpha}}
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
 
==Further reading==
 
*{{cite book |ref=CITEREFKent2001 |last=Kent |first=Steven L. |authorlink=Steven L. Kent |title=The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World |year=2001 |publisher=Prima Publishing |location=Roseville, California |isbn=0-7615-3643-4}}
 
*{{cite book |last=Sloan |first=Daniel |title=Playing to Wiin: Nintendo and the Video Game Industrys Greatest Comeback |year=2011 |publisher=Wiley |isbn=978-0-470-82512-9}}
 
 
==External links==
 
{{Commons category|Nintendo}}
 
{{Wikiquote}}
 
*{{official website|http://www.nintendo.com}} (country selector)
 
*[http://www.nintendo.com.au/ Nintendo Australia]
 
*[http://www.nintendopower.com/ ''Nintendo Power'']
 
*[http://www.officialnintendomagazine.co.uk/ ''Official Nintendo Magazine'' (UK)]
 
*[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/nintendo/ Nintendo in Depth Archive] by ''[[The Daily Telegraph]]''
 
{{Navboxes|list1=
 
{{Nintendo developers}}
 
{{Nintendo hardware}}
 
{{Main franchises by Nintendo}}
 
{{Japanese Electronics Industry}}
 
{{TOPIX 100}}
 
{{Seattle Mariners}}
 
{{MLBOwners}}
 
}}
 
 
[[Category:Nintendo| ]]
 
[[Category:Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences members]]
 
[[Category:Companies based in Kyoto Prefecture]]
 
[[Category:Companies based in Redmond, Washington]]
 
[[Category:Companies based in Washington (state)]]
 
[[Category:Companies established in 1889]]
 
[[Category:Companies of Japan]]
 
[[Category:Entertainment Software Association]]
 
[[Category:Playing card manufacturers]]
 
[[Category:Seattle Mariners owners]]
 
[[Category:Toy companies of Japan]]
 
[[Category:Video game companies of Japan]]
 
[[Category:Video game development companies]]
 
[[Category:Video game publishers]]
 
[[Category:1889 establishments in Japan]]
 
 
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Reason: ANN scored at 0.959998
Reporter Information
Reporter: 2004 (anonymous)
Date: Tuesday, the 1st of September 2015 at 03:18:36 AM
Status: Reported
Tuesday, the 1st of September 2015 at 03:18:36 AM #100934
2004 (anonymous)

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