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Article: Desmosome
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{{Infobox Anatomy |
Name = Desmosome |
Latin = desmosoma |
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Image = Desmosome cell junction en.svg |
Caption = desmosomes |
Image2 = Desmosome.gif |
Caption2 = Cell adhesion in desmosomes |
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Code = {{TerminologiaHistologica|1|00|01.1.02015}} |
A '''desmosome''' (Greek: ''desmos'', band, ''soma'', body), also known as '''macula adherens''' (plural: '''maculae adherentes''') ([[Latin language|Latin]] for ''adhering spot''), is a [[cell (biology)|cell]] structure specialized for cell-to-cell [[cell adhesion|adhesion]]. A type of [[Cell junction|junctional complex]], they are localized spot-like adhesions randomly arranged on the lateral sides of plasma membranes.
Desmosomes help to resist shearing forces and are found in [[simple squamous epithelium|simple]] and [[stratified squamous epithelium]]. The intercellular space is very wide (about 30 nm). Desmosomes are also found in muscle tissue where they bind muscle cells to one another.
Desmosomes are molecular complexes of cell adhesion proteins and linking proteins that attach the cell surface adhesion proteins to intracellular [[keratin]] [[cytoskeleton|cytoskeletal]] filaments.
The cell adhesion proteins of the desmosome, desmoglein and desmocollin, are members of the [[cadherin]] family of cell adhesion molecules. They are [[transmembrane protein]]s that bridge the space between adjacent [[epithelial cell]]s by way of [[homophilic binding]] of their extracellular domains to other desmosomal cadherins on the adjacent cell. Both have five extracellular domains, and have calcium-binding motifs.
The extracellular domain of the desmosome is called the Extracellular Core Domain (ECD) or the Desmoglea, and is bisected by an electron-dense midline where the desmoglein and desmocollin proteins bind to each other. These proteins can bind in a W, S, or λ manner.
On the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, there are two dense structures called the Outer Dense Plaque (ODP) and the Inner Dense Plaque (IDP). These are spanned by the [[Desmoplakin]] protein.<ref name="pmid8769422">{{cite pmid|8769422}}</ref> The Outer Dense Plaque is where the cytoplasmic domains of the cadherins attach to [[desmoplakin]] via [[plakoglobin]] and plakophillin. The Inner Dense Plaque is where [[desmoplakin]] attaches to the [[intermediate filaments]] of the cell.
==Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy==
Mutations within the desmosome are the main cause of Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy ([[ARVC]]). It is a life threatening disease with the molecular underpinnings being the desmosomal constituents (in rank of highest mutation rates) [[Plakophilin2]], [[Desmoplakin]], [[Desmoglein2]], [[Desmocollin2]] and [[Plakoglobin]]. It often afflicts (although not exclusive to) young male athletes. The current incidence within the population is accepted as 1/10,000 however it is thought that 1/200 may have a mutation that may predispose to ARVC.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Lahtinen|first=AM|coauthors=Lehtonen, E, Marjamaa, A, Kaartinen, M, Heliö, T, Porthan, K, Oikarinen, L, Toivonen, L, Swan, H, Jula, A, Peltonen, L, Palotie, A, Salomaa, V, Kontula, K|title=Population-prevalent desmosomal mutations predisposing to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.|journal=Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society|year=2011|volume=8|issue=8|pages=1214–21|pmid=21397041|doi=10.1016/j.hrthm.2011.03.015}}</ref>
==Blistering diseases==
If the connecting adjacent epithelial cells of the [[skin]] are not functioning correctly, layers of the skin can pull apart and allow abnormal movements of fluid within the skin, resulting in blisters and other tissue damage. Blistering diseases such as [[Pemphigus vulgaris]] and [[Pemphigus foliaceus]] are [[autoimmune diseases]] in which auto-antibodies target the proteins [[desmoglein 3]] and [[desmoglein 1]] respectively. The symptoms of the diseases are caused by the subsequent disruption to the [[Intermediate filament|desmosome-keratin]] filament complex leading to a breakdown in cell adhesion. Similar outbreaks occur with [[Hailey–Hailey disease]], though the cause is not autoimmune, but, rather genetic. A [[haploinsufficiency]] of the ATP2C1 gene located on chromosome 3, which encodes the protein hSPCA1, causes malformation of the desmosomes.
==See also==
* [[Hemidesmosome]]
*{{cite pmid|8666164}}
*[ Desmosomes Connect Intermediate Filaments from Cell to Cell] in ''Molecular Biology of the Cell'' by Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts and Peter Walter (2002) Published by Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-4072-9
==External links==
* {{LoyolaMedEd|Histo/practical/epithelium/hp1-13.html}}
* {{BUHistology|20502loa}} - "Ultrastructure of the Cell: microvillous border, Junctional Complex of absorptive epithelium"
* {{BUHistology|20604loa}} - "Ultrastructure of the Cell: microvillous border and Junctional Complex, desmosomes and zonula adherens"
* {{BUHistology|22502loa}} - "Ultrastructure of the Cell: cardiac muscle, intercalated disk"
[[Category:Cell anatomy]]
[[Category:Article Feedback 5]]
[[tr:Hücre zarı farklılaşmaları]]
Reason: ANN scored at 0.922631
Reporter Information
Reporter: MusicLover1968 (anonymous)
Date: Monday, the 11th of April 2016 at 01:38:38 PM
Status: Reported
Monday, the 11th of April 2016 at 01:38:38 PM #103898
MusicLover1968 (anonymous)

I know for a fact where the sample in this track originated. I'm listening to the original song right now.

Monday, the 11th of April 2016 at 01:40:38 PM #103899
MusicLover1968 (anonymous)

While trying to add a sample source for a mash-up style recording, I was directed to report the auto-bot. SO here I am.