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ID: 1347643
User: 81.134.154.227
Article: Personal computer
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Today's users have access to a wide range of [[commercial software]] and [[freeware]], which is provided in ready-to-run or ready-to-[[compiler|compile]] form. Since the early 1990s, [[Microsoft]] operating systems and [[Intel]] hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with [[MS-DOS]] and then with the "[[Wintel]]" (Windows + Intel) combination. Popular alternatives to Microsoft's [[Windows]] operating systems include [[Apple Inc.|Apple's]] [[Mac OS X]] and the [[Free and open source software|free open-source]] [[Linux]] and [[Berkeley Software Distribution|BSD]] operating systems. [[AMD]] provides the major alternative to Intel's [[central processing units]]. Applications and games for PCs are typically developed and distributed independently from the hardware or OS manufacturers, whereas software for many mobile phones and other portable systems is approved and distributed through a centralized online store.<ref>{{citation |author=Conlon, Tom |url=http://www.popsci.com/gadgets/article/2010-01/ipad%E2%80%99s-closed-system-sometimes-i-hate-being-right |title=The iPad’s Closed System: Sometimes I Hate Being Right |publisher=Popular Science |date=29 January 2010 |quote=The iPad is not a personal computer in the sense that we currently understand. |accessdate=2010-10-14}}</ref><ref>{{citation |url=http://gawker.com/5539717/steve-jobs-offers-world-freedom-from-porn?skyline=true&s=i |title=Steve Jobs Offers World 'Freedom From Porn' |publisher=Gawker.com |date=15 May 2010 |quote=some traditional PC folks feel like their world is slipping away. |accessdate=2010-10-14}}</ref>
 
Today's users have access to a wide range of [[commercial software]] and [[freeware]], which is provided in ready-to-run or ready-to-[[compiler|compile]] form. Since the early 1990s, [[Microsoft]] operating systems and [[Intel]] hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with [[MS-DOS]] and then with the "[[Wintel]]" (Windows + Intel) combination. Popular alternatives to Microsoft's [[Windows]] operating systems include [[Apple Inc.|Apple's]] [[Mac OS X]] and the [[Free and open source software|free open-source]] [[Linux]] and [[Berkeley Software Distribution|BSD]] operating systems. [[AMD]] provides the major alternative to Intel's [[central processing units]]. Applications and games for PCs are typically developed and distributed independently from the hardware or OS manufacturers, whereas software for many mobile phones and other portable systems is approved and distributed through a centralized online store.<ref>{{citation |author=Conlon, Tom |url=http://www.popsci.com/gadgets/article/2010-01/ipad%E2%80%99s-closed-system-sometimes-i-hate-being-right |title=The iPad’s Closed System: Sometimes I Hate Being Right |publisher=Popular Science |date=29 January 2010 |quote=The iPad is not a personal computer in the sense that we currently understand. |accessdate=2010-10-14}}</ref><ref>{{citation |url=http://gawker.com/5539717/steve-jobs-offers-world-freedom-from-porn?skyline=true&s=i |title=Steve Jobs Offers World 'Freedom From Porn' |publisher=Gawker.com |date=15 May 2010 |quote=some traditional PC folks feel like their world is slipping away. |accessdate=2010-10-14}}</ref>
   
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Matty is small, but in what way???
== History ==
 
{{Refimprove section|date=September 2008}}
 
{{Main|History of personal computers}}
 
{{See also|Microcomputer revolution}}
 
The [[Programma 101]], released in 1965, was the first commercial "[[desktop computer]]",<ref>"'Desk-top' computer is typewriter size". Business Week. October 23, 1965.</ref> but today would usually be considered a printing [[programmable calculator]].
 
 
The Soviet [[MIR (computer)|MIR]] series of computers was developed from 1965 to 1969 in a group headed by [[Victor Glushkov]]. It was designed as a relatively small-scale computer for use in engineering and scientific applications and contained a hardware implementation of a high-level programming language. Another innovative feature for that time was the user interface combining a keyboard with a monitor and light pen for correcting texts and drawing on screen.<ref>{{cite web |last=Pospelov |first=Dmitry |title=ЭВМ серии МИР - первые персональные ЭВМ |trans_title=MIR series of computers. The first personal computers |work=Glushkov Foundation |publisher=Institute of Applied Informatics |url=http://www.iprinet.kiev.ua/gf/mir.htm |language=Russian |accessdate=19-Nov-2012 }}</ref>
 
 
In what was later to be called [[The Mother of All Demos]], [[SRI International|SRI]] researcher [[Douglas Engelbart]] in 1968 gave a preview of what would become the staples of daily working life in the 21st century - e-mail, hypertext, word processing, video conferencing, and the mouse. The demonstration required technical support staff and a mainframe time-sharing computer that were far too costly for individual business use at the time.
 
 
By the early 1970s, people in academic or research institutions had the opportunity for single-person use of a [[LINC|computer system]] in interactive mode for extended durations, although these systems would still have been too expensive to be owned by a single person.
 
 
In the 1970s [[HP 9800 series desktop computers|Hewlett Packard]] introduced fully [[BASIC]] programmable computers that fit entirely on top of a desk, including a keyboard, a small one-line display and printer. The [[Xerox Alto]], developed in 1973 at [[Xerox|Xerox's]] [[PARC (company)|Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)]], had a graphical user interface ([[GUI]]) that later served as inspiration for [[Apple Inc.|Apple Computer]]'s [[Macintosh]], and [[Microsoft]]'s [[Windows]] operating system. The [[Wang 2200]] of 1973 had a full-size [[cathode ray tube]] (CRT) and cassette tape storage. The [[IBM 5100]] in 1975 had a small CRT display and could be programmed in BASIC and [[APL (programming language)|APL]]. These were generally expensive specialized computers sold for business or scientific uses. The introduction of the [[microprocessor]], a single [[integrated circuit|chip]] with all the circuitry that formerly occupied large cabinets, led to the proliferation of personal computers after 1975.
 
 
Early personal computers&nbsp;&mdash; generally called [[microcomputers]]&nbsp;&mdash; were sold often in [[Electronic kit|kit]] form and in limited volumes, and were of interest mostly to hobbyists and technicians. Minimal programming was done with toggle switches to enter instructions, and output was provided by front panel lamps. Practical use required adding peripherals such as keyboards, [[computer display]]s, disk drives, and printers. [[Micral]] N was the earliest commercial, non-kit microcomputer based on a microprocessor, the Intel 8008. It was built starting in 1972 and about 90,000 units were sold. In 1976 [[Steve Jobs]] and [[Steve Wozniak]] sold the [[Apple I|Apple I computer]] circuit board, which was fully prepared and contained about 30 chips. The first successfully mass marketed personal computer was the [[Commodore PET]] introduced in January 1977. It was soon followed by the [[Apple II series|Apple II]] (usually referred to as the "Apple") in June 1977, and the TRS-80 from Radio Shack in November 1977. Mass-market ready-assembled computers allowed a wider range of people to use computers, focusing more on software applications and less on development of the processor hardware.
 
 
During the early 1980s, [[home computer]]s were further developed for household use, with software for personal productivity, programming and games. They typically could be used with a [[television]] already in the home as the computer display, with low-detail blocky graphics and a limited color range, and text about 40 characters wide by 25 characters tall. One such machine, the [[Commodore 64]], totaled 17 million units sold, making it the best-selling single personal computer model of all time.<ref name="Reimer1">{{cite web |url=http://www.jeremyreimer.com/total_share.html |title=Personal Computer Market Share: 1975–2004 |date=2 November 2009 |last=Reimer |first=Jeremy |accessdate=2009-07-17}}</ref> Another such computer, the [[NEC PC-9801|NEC PC-98]], sold more than 18 million units.<ref>{{cite journal|title=Computing Japan|journal=Computing Japan|year=1999|volume=54-59|url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=oP61AAAAIAAJ|accessdate=6 February 2012|page=18|publisher=LINC Japan|quote=...its venerable PC 9800 series, which has sold more than 18 million units over the years, and is the reason why NEC has been the number one PC vendor in Japan for as long as anyone can remember.}}</ref>
 
 
Somewhat larger and more expensive systems (for example, running [[CP/M]]), or sometimes a home computer with additional interfaces and devices, although still low-cost compared with [[minicomputer]]s and [[Mainframe computer|mainframe]]s, were aimed at office and small business use, typically using "high resolution" monitors capable of at least 80 column text display, and often no graphical or color drawing capability.
 
 
[[Workstation]]s were characterized by high-performance processors and graphics displays, with large local disk storage, networking capability, and running under a multitasking operating system.
 
[[File:IBM PC 5150.jpg|thumb|[[IBM 5150]] as of 1981]]
 
 
Eventually, due to the [[influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market]], personal computers and home computers lost any technical distinction. Business computers acquired color graphics capability and sound, and home computers and game systems users used the same processors and operating systems as office workers. Mass-market computers had graphics capabilities and memory comparable to dedicated workstations of a few years before. Even local area networking, originally a way to allow business computers to share expensive mass storage and peripherals, became a standard feature of personal computers used at home.
 
 
In 1982 "The Computer" was named [[Time Person of the Year|Machine of the Year]] by [[Time (magazine)|Time Magazine]].
 
 
===Market and sales===
 
{{See also|Market share of leading PC vendors}}
 
[[File:Personal computers (million) ITU.png|thumb|Personal computers worldwide in million distinguished by developed and developing world]]
 
In 2001, 125 million personal computers were shipped in comparison to 48 thousand in 1977. More than 500 million personal computers were in use in 2002 and one [[1,000,000,000 (number)|billion]] personal computers had been sold worldwide from the mid-1970s up to this time. Of the latter figure, 75 percent were professional or work related, while the rest were sold for personal or home use. About 81.5 percent of personal computers shipped had been [[desktop computer]]s, 16.4 percent [[laptop]]s and 2.1 percent [[Server (computing)|server]]s. The United States had received 38.8 percent (394 million) of the computers shipped, Europe 25 percent and 11.7 percent had gone to the Asia-Pacific region, the fastest-growing market as of 2002. The second billion was expected to be sold by 2008.<ref name="cnet">{{cite news|last=Kanellos |first=Michael |url=http://news.cnet.com/2100-1040-940713.html |title=personal computers: More than 1 billion served |publisher=cnet news |date=30 June 2002 |accessdate=2010-10-14}}</ref> Almost half of all the households in [[Western Europe]] had a personal computer and a computer could be found in 40 percent of homes in United Kingdom, compared with only 13 percent in 1985.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2077986.stm |title=Computers reach one billion mark |publisher=BBC News |date=1 July 2002 |accessdate=2010-10-14}}</ref>
 
 
The global personal computer shipments were 350.9 million units in 2010,<ref name="cp2011-09-12">[http://www.gmanews.tv/story/210464/global-pc-shipments-grew-138-percent-in-2010-gartner-study Global PC shipments grew 13.8 percent in 2010 —Gartner study], 01/13/2011, retrieved at September 12, 2011</ref>
 
308.3 million units in 2009<ref name="sn2011-09-12">[http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/mowi/article.php/3884641/Laptop-Sales-Soaring-Amid-Wider-PC-Growth-Gartner.htm Laptop Sales Soaring Amid Wider PC Growth: Gartner], May 27, 2010, Andy Patrizio, earthweb.com, retrieved at September 12, 2011</ref>
 
and 302.2 million units in 2008.<ref name="seo2011-09-12">[http://www.zdnet.com/blog/itfacts/worldwide-pc-shipments-in-2008/15672 Worldwide PC Shipments in 2008], March 16, 2009, ZDNet, retrieved at September 12, 2011</ref><ref name="set2011-09-12">[http://www.internetnews.com/hardware/article.php/3796381/PC+Sales+Up+for+2008+but+Barely.htm PC Sales Up for 2008, but Barely], January 14, 2009, Andy Patrizio, internetnews.com, retrieved at September 12, 2011</ref>
 
The shipments were 264 million units in the year 2007, according to [[iSuppli]],<ref name="cw2009-01-13">{{citation |url=http://www.pcworld.com/article/133102/isuppli_raises_2007_computer_sales_forecast.html |title=ISuppli Raises 2007 Computer Sales Forecast] |publisher=pcworld.com |accessdate=13 January 2009}}</ref> up 11.2 percent from 239 million in 2006.<ref name="mw2009-01-13">{{citation |url=http://www.macworld.co.uk/business/news/index.cfm?newsid=18326 |title=iSuppli raises 2007 computer sales forecast |publisher=macworld.co.uk |accessdate=13 January 2009}}</ref> In 2004, the global shipments were 183 million units, an 11.6 percent increase over 2003.<ref name="nf2009-01-13">{{citation |url=http://www.newsfactor.com/story.xhtml?story_id=30526&full_skip=1 |title=Global PC Sales Leveling Off |publisher=newsfactor.com |accessdate=13 January 2009}}</ref> In 2003, 152.6 million computers were shipped, at an estimated value of $175 billion.<ref name="cnet2009-01-13">{{citation |url=http://news.cnet.com/HP-back-on-top-of-PC-market/2100-1003_3-5141213.html |title=HP back on top of PC market |accessdate=13 January 2009}}</ref> In 2002, 136.7 million PCs were shipped, at an estimated value of $175 billion.<ref name="cnet2009-01-13"/> In 2000, 140.2 million personal computers were shipped, at an estimated value of $226 billion.<ref name="cnet2009-01-13"/> Worldwide shipments of personal computers surpassed the 100-million mark in 1999, growing to 113.5 million units from 93.3 million units in 1998.<ref name="lat2009-01-13">{{cite news |url=http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jan/24/business/fi-57038 |title=Dell Passes Compaq as Top PC Seller in U.S |publisher=Los Angeles Times |accessdate=13 January 2009 |first=Nona |last=Yates |date=24 January 2000}}</ref> In 1999, Asia had 14.1 million units shipped.<ref name="za2009-01-13">{{citation |url=http://www.zdnetasia.com/news/hardware/0,39042972,13025480,00.htm |title=Economic recovery bumps AP 1999 PC shipments to record high |publisher=zdnetasia.com |accessdate=13 January 2009}}</ref>
 
 
For 2011, global PC shipments are expected to reach 364 million units, a 3.8% growth comparing to 2010.<ref name="shel2011-09-12">[http://www.marketwatch.com/story/gartner-lowers-2011-forecast-for-pc-shipments-2011-09-08 Gartner lowers 2011 forecast for PC shipments], September 8, 2011, Tess Stynes, marketwatch.com, retrieved at September 12, 2011</ref>
 
 
As of June 2008, the number of personal computers in use worldwide hit one billion, while another billion is expected to be reached by 2014. Mature markets like the United States, [[Western Europe]] and Japan accounted for 58 percent of the worldwide installed PCs. The [[emerging market]]s were expected to double their installed PCs by 2012 and to take 70 percent of the second billion PCs. About 180 million computers (16 percent of the existing installed base) were expected to be replaced and 35 million to be dumped into landfill in 2008. The whole installed base grew 12 percent annually.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=703807 |title=Gartner Says More than 1 Billion PCs In Use Worldwide and Headed to 2 Billion Units by 2014 |publisher=Gartner |date=23 June 2008 |accessdate=2010-10-14}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/technologyNews/idUSL2324525420080623 |title=Computers in use pass 1 billion mark: Gartner |publisher=Reuters |author=Tarmo Virki |date=23 June 2008 |accessdate=2010-10-14}}</ref>
 
 
Based on IDC data for Q2 2011, for the first time China surpassed US in PC shipments by 18.5 million and 17.7 million respectively. It is reflects the rising of emerging markets as well as the relative stagnation of mature regions.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://old.news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110823/ap_on_hi_te/us_techbit_pc_shipments_china |title=China hits tech milestone: PC shipments pass US |date=August 23, 2011}}</ref>
 
 
In the [[developed world]], there has been a vendor tradition to keep adding functions to maintain high prices of personal computers. However, since the introduction of the [[One Laptop per Child]] foundation and its low-cost [[OLPC XO-1|XO-1]] laptop, the computing industry started to pursue the price too. Although introduced only one year earlier, there were 14 million [[netbook]]s sold in 2008.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.olpcnews.com/use_cases/technology/4p_computing_olpc_impact.html |title=4P Computing - Negroponte's 14 Million Laptop Impact |publisher=OLPC News |date=11 December 2008 |accessdate=2010-10-14}}</ref> Besides the regular computer manufacturers, companies making especially rugged versions of computers have sprung up, offering alternatives for people operating their machines in extreme weather or environments.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ruggedpcreview.com/2_leaders.html |title=Rugged PC leaders |author=Conrad H. Blickenstorfer |publisher=Ruggedpcreview.com |accessdate=2010-10-14}}</ref>
 
 
[[Deloitte]] consulting firm predicted that in 2011, [[smartphones]] and [[tablet computers]] as computing devices would surpass the PCs sales.<ref>Tablets, smartphones to outsell PCs http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20110210/tc_afp/itinternettelecomequipmentmobileconsumerproduct</ref>
 
 
=== Average selling price ===
 
Selling prices of personal computers, unlike other consumer commodities, steadily declined due to lower costs of production and manufacture. Capabilities of the computers also increased. In 1975, an Altair kit sold for only around US $400, but required customers to solder components into circuit boards; peripherals required to interact with the system in alphanumeric form instead of blinking lights would add another $2000, and the resultant system was only of use to hobbyists.<ref name=Sussman85>Marvin B. Sussman ''Personal Computers and the Family'' Routledge, 1985 ISBN 0-86656-361-X page 90</ref>
 
 
At their introduction in 1981, the US $1,795 price of the [[Osborne 1]] and its competitor [[Kaypro]] was considered an attractive price point; these systems had text-only displays and only floppy disks for storage. By 1982, [[Michael Dell]] observed that a personal computer system selling at retail for about $3,000 US was made of components that cost the dealer about $600; typical gross margin on a computer unit was around $1,000.<ref>Kateri M. Drexler ''Icons of business: an encyclopedia of mavericks, movers, and shakers, Volume 1'',Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007 ISBN 0-313-33863-9 page 102</ref> The total value of personal computer purchases in the US in 1983 was about $4 billion, comparable to total sales of pet food. By late 1998, the average selling price of personal computer systems in the United States had dropped below $1000.<ref>[http://www.pcworld.com/article/9150/average_pc_price_drops_below_1000.html Nancy Weil , ''Average PC Price drops below $1000'', ''PC World'' December 1998, retrieved 2010 Nov 17]</ref>
 
 
For [[Microsoft Windows]] systems, the [[average selling price]] (ASP) showed a decline in 2008/2009, possibly due to low-cost [[netbook]]s, drawing $569 for [[desktop computer]]s and $689 for [[laptop]]s at U.S. retail in August 2008. In 2009, ASP had further fallen to $533 for desktops and to $602 for notebooks by January and to $540 and $560 in February.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Windows/Netbooks-Are-Destroying-the-Laptop-Market-and-Microsoft-Needs-to-Act-Now-863307/ |title=Netbooks Are Destroying the Laptop Market and Microsoft Needs to Act Now |publisher=eWeek.com |author=Joe Wilcox |date=16 April 2009 |accessdate=2010-10-14}}</ref> According to research firm NPD, the average selling price of all Windows portable PCs has fallen from $659 in October 2008 to $519 in October 2009.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.cio.com/article/509556/Falling_PC_Prices_Pit_Microsoft_Against_PC_Makers |title=Falling PC Prices Pit Microsoft Against PC Makers |author=Shane O'Neill |date=2 December 2009 |accessdate=2010-10-14}}</ref>
 
   
 
== Types ==
 
== Types ==
Reason: ANN scored at 0.954134
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 09:37:11 AM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 09:37:11 AM #101521
Bradley (anonymous)

3BMzXV http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

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