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ID: 1347982
User: RobTheRavenSteele
Article: Xbox
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{{About|the game console released in 2001|its successor|Xbox 360|other uses|Xbox (disambiguation)}}
 
{{Infobox VG system
 
|name = Xbox
 
|logo = [[File:Xbox logo 2.png|200px|Xbox logo]]
 
|image = [[File:Xbox-Console-Set.png|300px|Xbox console with "Controller S"]]
 
|caption =Xbox console with "Controller S"
 
|manufacturer = [[Microsoft]]
 
|family = Xbox
 
|type=[[Video game console]]
 
|os= Custom (Based on [[Windows NT]] architecture and [[Windows XP]] (through Xbox LIVE))
 
|generation=[[History of video game consoles (sixth generation)|Sixth generation]]
 
|lifespan={{vgrelease|NA=November 15, 2001}}{{vgrelease|JP=February 22, 2002}}{{vgrelease|PAL=March 14, 2002}}
 
|discontinued = {{vgrelease|NA=2007}}{{vgrelease|JP=2005}}{{vgrelease|EU=2006}}
 
|GPU=233 MHz nVidia [[NV2A]]
 
|media=[[DVD]], [[CD]], [[Xbox Live Arcade|Download]]
 
|storage=8 or 10 GB internal [[Hard Drive]] (Formatted to 8 GB with alloted system reserve and MS Dash), 8 MB [[memory card]]
 
|controllers=4× Xbox controller ports (proprietary [[USB]] interface)<!-- Changed to four due to lack of citation for six. If you wish to change it back please provide citation. --><!-- Wireless controllers not supported directly - third-party wireless controllers require a wired base unit. -->
 
|connectivity=[[Fast Ethernet|100&nbsp;Mbit Ethernet]]
 
|online service=[[Xbox Live]]
 
|CPU=Custom 733&nbsp;MHz [[Intel Pentium III]] "[[Coppermine (microprocessor)|Coppermine-based]]" processor
 
|RAM=64&nbsp;MB of [[DDR SDRAM]] @ 200&nbsp;MHz
 
|units sold=24+ million <small>(as of May 10, 2006)</small><ref name="gamers_catch">{{cite web |url=http://www.xbox.com/zh-SG/community/news/2006/20060510.htm |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080621155352/http://www.xbox.com/zh-SG/community/news/2006/20060510.htm |archivedate=2008-06-21 |title=Gamers Catch Their Breath as Xbox 360 and Xbox Live Reinvent Next-Generation Gaming |accessdate=2009-03-30 |date=2006-05-10|publisher=[[Microsoft]]}}</ref>
 
|units shipped=
 
|top game=''[[Halo 2]]'', 8 million <small>(as of May 9, 2006)</small><ref>{{cite web | url=http://money.cnn.com/2006/05/09/technology/e3_microsoft/index.htm | publisher=CNN | accessdate=2008-07-16 | first=Chris|last= Morris | title=Grand Theft Auto, Halo 3 headed to Xbox 360 | date=2006-05-09}}</ref><ref name="halo2sales"/>
 
|successor=[[Xbox 360]]
 
}}
 
 
The '''Xbox''' is a [[video game console]] manufactured by [[Microsoft]]. It was released on November 15, 2001 in North America, February 22, 2002 in Japan, and March 14, 2002 in Australia and Europe. It was Microsoft's first foray into the gaming console market. As part of the [[History of video game consoles (sixth generation)|sixth-generation of gaming]], the Xbox competed with [[Sony]]'s [[PlayStation 2]], [[Sega]]'s [[Dreamcast]] (which stopped American sales before the Xbox went on sale), and [[Nintendo]]'s [[Nintendo GameCube|GameCube]]. The Xbox was the first console offered by an American company after the [[Atari Jaguar]] stopped sales in 1996.
 
 
The integrated [[Xbox Live]] service launched in November 2002 allowed players to [[online game|play games online]] with a [[broadband]] connection.<ref name="gamerscoreblog1">{{cite web|url=http://www.xbox.com/en-US/Press/archive/2010/0205-whittenletter |title=Xbox Press : A Letter from Marc Whitten: Discontinuation of Xbox LIVE for Original Xbox Games |publisher=Xbox.com |date=2010-02-05 |accessdate=2010-11-11}}</ref> It was one feature that made the Xbox so popular, with most critics stating that Xbox Live had a better online experience than [[PS2 Online|PlayStation 2's online service]], though Xbox Live required a subscription while PS2's online is free. The best-selling Xbox game is ''[[Halo 2]]'' released in November 2004, which was also extremely popular through its online play on Xbox Live.
 
 
Xbox's successor, the [[Xbox 360]], was launched in November 2005. The Xbox was discontinued in late 2005 in Japan where sales were poor. It was discontinued in late 2006 in Europe and early 2007 in North America. The last Xbox game in Europe was ''[[Tony Hawk's Project 8]]'' released in November 2006, and the last game in North America was ''[[Madden NFL 09]]'' released in August 2008. Support for out-of-warranty Xbox consoles was discontinued on March 2, 2009, stating that any in-warranty repair now needed will not be undertaken. Xbox Live support was discontinued on April 15, 2010.<ref name="gamerscoreblog1"/>
 
 
==History==
 
In 1998 four engineers from [[Microsoft]]'s [[DirectX]] team, Kevin Bachus, [[Seamus Blackley]], Ted Hase and DirectX team leader Otto Berkes, disassembled some [[Dell]] [[laptop]] computers to construct a [[prototype]] [[Microsoft Windows]]-based [[video game console]]. The team hoped to create a console to compete with the [[Sony]]'s upcoming [[PlayStation 2]], which was luring game developers away from the Windows [[computing platform|platform]]. The team approached [[Ed Fries]], the leader of Microsoft's game publishing business at the time, and pitched their "DirectX Box" console based on the DirectX graphics technology developed by Berkes' team. Fries decided to support the team's idea of creating a Windows DirectX based console.<ref name=seattletimes_20110525>{{cite news |title=Last of Xbox Dream Team, Otto Berkes Is Moving On |first=Brier |last=Dudley |date=2011-05-25 |newspaper=The Seattle Time |publisher=Seattle Times Co |page=A12 |quote= Berkes and Hase were among a group of four who first pushed Microsoft to develop a Windows-based gaming system to compete with Sony's PlayStation 2, which was luring game companies from the Windows platform in the late 1990s. The other two were Seamus Blackley, who left in 2002, and Kevin Bachus, who left in 2001.}}</ref><ref name=seattletimes_20110524>{{cite news |title= Exclusive: Microsoft loses last Xbox founder, mobile PC visionary |first=Brier |last=Dudley |url=http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/technologybrierdudleysblog/2015137144_its_the_end_of_an.html |newspaper=The Seattle Times |publisher=Seattle Times Co |date=2011-05-24 |accessdate=2011-05-25 |quote= In 1998, Berkes and his team ordered a few Dell laptops, took them apart and built the first prototypes of a Windows gaming console. Ed Fries was leading Microsoft's games publishing business when the four Xbox founders pitched a "Direct X Box" based on the Windows DirectX graphics technology that was developed by Berkes' team. |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5yxFmYCBa |archivedate=2011-05-25}}</ref>
 
 
During development, the original DirectX box name was shortened to Xbox. Microsoft's marketing department did not like the Xbox name, and suggested many alternatives. During focus testing, the Xbox name was left on the list of possible names to demonstrate how unpopular the Xbox name would be with consumers. However, consumer testing revealed that Xbox was preferred by far over the other suggested names and "Xbox" became the official name of the product.<ref name=gamasutra_2009-08-14>{{cite web |url=http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=24831 |title=Interview: Former Microsoft Exec Fries Talks Xbox's Genesis |first=Leigh |last=Alexander |date=2009-08-14 |work=Gamasutra |publisher=UBM TechWeb |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5yxGkLXlW |archivedate=2011-05-25 |accessdate=2011-05-25 |quote=Direct X-Box, of course, was truncated to 'Xbox,' -- and "marketing hated the name," says Fries. "They went off and created this whole, long list of better names for the machine." In focus testing, the marketing team left the name 'Xbox' on that long list simply as a control, to demonstrate to everyone why it was a horrible name for a console. "Of course, 'Xbox' outscored, in focus testing, everything they came up with. They had to admit it was going to be the Xbox."}}</ref>
 
 
The Xbox was [[Microsoft]]'s first video game console after collaborating with [[Sega]] to port [[Microsoft Windows CE|Windows CE]] to the [[Dreamcast]] console. Microsoft repeatedly delayed the console, which was first mentioned publicly in late 1999 during interviews with Microsoft's then-[[CEO]] [[Bill Gates]]. Gates stated that a gaming/multimedia device was essential for multimedia convergence in the new times.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/features/2000/03-10Xbox.mspx |title=Xbox Brings "Future-Generation" Games to Life |publisher=Microsoft |date=March 10, 2000 |accessdate=2009-05-03}}</ref> When Bill Gates unveiled the Xbox at the Game Developers Conference in 2000, audiences were impressed by the console's technology. At the time of Gates' announcement, Sega's Dreamcast sales were diminishing and Sony's PlayStation 2 was just going on sale in Japan.<ref name="xboxtimeline1">{{cite web|first=Steven L. |last=Kent |url=http://archive.gamespy.com/articles/january04/Xboxtimeline/ |title=Xbox Timeline |publisher=GameSpy.com |date=2004-02-16 |accessdate=2009-05-03}}</ref>
 
 
Due to the immense popularity of gaming consoles in Japan, Microsoft delayed the release of the Xbox in Europe to focus on the Japanese video game market . Although delayed, the European release proved to be more successful than the launch of the Xbox in Japan.
 
 
Some of Microsoft's plans proved effective. In preparation for its launch, Microsoft acquired [[Bungie]] and used ''[[Halo: Combat Evolved]]'' as its launch title. At the time, ''[[GoldenEye 007 (1997 video game)|GoldenEye 007]]'' for the [[Nintendo 64]] had been one of the few hit [[First-person shooter|FPS]] games to appear on a console, some of other ones being ''[[Perfect Dark]]'' and ''[[Medal of Honor]]''. ''Halo: Combat Evolved'' proved a good application to drive the Xbox's sales.<ref name="xboxtimeline1"/> In 2002, Microsoft made the second place slot in consoles sold in North America.
 
 
Popular [[launch game]]s for the console included ''[[Dead or Alive 3]]'', ''[[Amped: Freestyle Snowboarding]]'', ''[[Halo: Combat Evolved]]'', ''[[Fuzion Frenzy]]'', ''[[Project Gotham Racing]]'' and ''[[Jet Set Radio Future]]''.
 
 
===Discontinuation and successor===
 
{{Main|Xbox 360|List of Xbox games compatible with Xbox 360}}
 
 
The Xbox's successor, the Xbox 360, was officially unveiled announced on May 12, 2005 on [[MTV]] and released in North America on November 22, 2005. [[Nvidia]] ceased production of the Xbox's GPU in August 2005, which marked the end of brand-new Xbox production. The Xbox was discontinued in Japan in 2005 immediately after 360's launch, due to poor sales in the country. Sales were much better throughout Europe and North America where the console was discontinued in late 2006 and early 2007, respectively.
 
 
The Xbox 360 supports [[List of Xbox games compatible with Xbox 360|a limited number of the Xbox's game library]] if the player has an official Xbox 360 Hard Drive. Xbox games were added up until November 2007. Xbox game saves cannot be transferred to Xbox 360 and the ability to play Xbox games through Xbox LIVE has been discontinued. It is still possible to play Xbox games on the Xbox 360 with a [[System Link]] between the two consoles.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://support.xbox.com/en-GB/games/xbox-games/play-original-games|title=Play original Xbox games on an Xbox 360 console|publisher=[[Microsoft]]|accessdate=January 15, 2012}}</ref>
 
 
==Hardware and accessories==
 
{{See also|Xbox special limited editions}}
 
 
===Hardware===
 
The Xbox was the first video game console to feature a built-in [[hard disk drive]], used primarily for storing game saves and content downloaded from Xbox Live. This eliminated the need for separate [[memory card]]s (although some older consoles, such as the [[Amiga CD32]] used build in flash memory and others like the [[TurboGrafx-CD]], [[Mega-CD|Sega CD]] and [[Sega Saturn]] had featured built-in battery backup memory prior to 2001). An Xbox user could [[Ripping|rip]] music from [[Red Book (audio CD standard)|standard audio CDs]] to the hard drive, and these songs were used for the custom soundtracks in some games.<ref>{{cite web |url = http://support.microsoft.com/kb/909942 |title = Xbox: Description of custom soundtracks |accessdate = 2008-01-13 |date = 2007-04-25 |publisher = Microsoft Knowledge Base}}</ref>
 
 
The Xbox was the first gaming product to feature Dolby Interactive Content-Encoding Technology, which allows real-time Dolby Digital encoding in game consoles. Previous game consoles could only use Dolby Digital 5.1 during non-interactive "cut scene" playback.<ref>{{cite press release |url=http://www.dolby.com/assets/pdf/press_releases/841_co.pr.0104.xbox.pdf |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20060219162524/http://www.dolby.com/assets/pdf/press_releases/841_co.pr.0104.xbox.pdf |archivedate=2006-02-19 |title=The Xbox Video Game System from Microsoft to Feature Groundbreaking Dolby Interactive Content-Encoding Technology |date=2001-04-18 |publisher=[[Dolby Laboratories]] |accessdate=2008-07-03 |format=PDF}}</ref>
 
 
The Xbox is based on commodity PC hardware and is much larger and heavier than its contemporaries. This is largely due to a bulky tray-loading [[DVD|DVD-ROM]] drive and the standard-size 3.5&nbsp;inch hard drive. The Xbox has also pioneered safety features, such as breakaway cables for the controllers to prevent the console from being pulled from the surface it rests on.
 
 
Several internal hardware revisions have been made in an ongoing battle to discourage [[modding]] (hackers continually updated [[modchip]] designs in an attempt to defeat them), to cut manufacturing costs, and to make the DVD-ROM drive more reliable (some of the early units' drives gave Disc Reading Errors due to the unreliable Thomson DVD-ROM drives used). Later generation units that used the Thomson TGM-600 DVD-ROM drives and the Philips VAD6011 DVD-ROM drives were still vulnerable to failure that rendered the consoles either unable to read newer discs or caused them to halt the console with an error code usually indicating a [[Programmed input/output|PIO]]/[[Direct memory access|DMA]] identification failure, respectively. These units were not covered under the extended warranty.
 
 
In 2002 Microsoft and [[Nvidia]] entered arbitration over a dispute on the pricing of Nvidia's chips for the Xbox.<ref name="eetimes-chip-dispute">{{cite web|url=http://www.eetimes.com/electronics-news/4094562/Microsoft-takes-Nvidia-to-arbitration-over-pricing-of-Xbox-processors|title= Microsoft takes Nvidia to arbitration over pricing of Xbox processors|accessdate=2006-06-29|date=2002-04-29|publisher=[[EE Times]]}}</ref> Nvidia's filing with the [[U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission|SEC]] indicated that Microsoft was seeking a US$13 million discount on shipments for NVIDIA's fiscal year 2002. Microsoft alleged violations of the agreement the two companies entered, sought reduced chipset pricing, and sought to ensure that Nvidia fulfill Microsoft's chipset orders without limits on quantity. The matter was privately settled on February 6, 2003.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eetimes.com/electronics-news/4090108/Microsoft-and-Nvidia-settle-Xbox-chip-pricing-dispute|title=Microsoft and Nvidia settle Xbox chip pricing dispute|accessdate=2006-06-29|date=2003-02-06|publisher=[[EE Times]]}}</ref>
 
 
Launch-era Xbox gaming units were made in [[Hungary]] and the controllers made mostly in [[Indonesia]].
 
 
===Controllers & Accessories===
 
{{Main|Xbox Controller}}
 
[[File:Xbox-Duke-Controller.jpg|thumb|left|Original "Fatty" Xbox controller]]
 
[[File:Xbox-s-controller.jpg|thumb|right|Xbox controller S]]
 
 
The Xbox controller features two [[analog stick]]s, a pressure sensitive directional pad, two analog triggers, a Back button, a Start button, two accessory slots and six 8-bit analog action buttons (A/Green, B/Red, X/Blue, Y/Yellow, and Black and White buttons).<ref>{{cite web| url = http://euc.jp/periphs/xbox-controller.en.html |title = Inside Xbox 360 Controller}}</ref> The standard Xbox controller (also nicknamed the "Fatty"<ref name=nickname>{{cite web|title=Xbox 360 Wireless Controller Tour |url=http://gear.ign.com/articles/613/613588p1.html |publisher=IGN |accessdate=2011-07-02 |date=2005-05-13 |quote=the original "Fatty" Xbox controller didn't have a specific public name}}</ref> or the "Duke"<ref name=nickname2>{{cite web |title=Xbox's original beast of a controller making a comeback? |url=http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-20071383-1/xboxs-original-beast-of-a-controller-making-a-comeback/ |publisher=CNET |accessdate=2011-10-16 |date=2005-06-15 |quote=Anyone who purchased the original Xbox during its launch window quickly came to know its behemoth of a controller, now nicknamed "Duke."}}</ref>) was originally the controller bundled with Xbox systems for all territories except Japan. The controller has been criticized for being bulky compared to other video game controllers; it was awarded "Blunder of the Year" by ''[[Game Informer]]'' in 2001,<ref>Games of 2001. ''[[Game Informer]]'' (January 2002, pg. 48).</ref> a Guinness World Record for the biggest controller in [[Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition]] 2008, and was ranked the second worst video game controller ever by [[IGN]] editor Craig Harris.<ref>{{cite web |title=Top 10 Tuesday: Worst Game Controllers |url=http://xbox360.ign.com/articles/690/690449p1.html |publisher=IGN |accessdate=2009-08-07 |date=2006-02-21}}</ref>
 
 
The "Controller S" (codenamed "Akebono"), a smaller, lighter Xbox controller, was originally the standard Xbox controller only in Japan,<ref>Ninja Beach Party. ''[[Official Xbox Magazine]]'' (October 2002, issue 11, pg. 44).</ref> designed for users with smaller hands.<ref>{{cite web|author=Christopher Buecheler chrisb@gamespy.com |url=http://archive.gamespy.com/hardware/march02/xboxcontrollers/ |title=GameSpy.com - Hardware: Xbox Controller S |publisher=Web.archive.org |date=2008-06-24 |accessdate=2010-11-11 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080624085615/http://archive.gamespy.com/hardware/march02/xboxcontrollers/ |archivedate = 2008-06-24}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gamer20.com/features/150/4 |title=Xbox Retrospective: All-Time Top Xbox News |publisher=Gamer 2.0 |date= |accessdate=2010-11-11}}</ref> The "Controller S" was later released in other territories by popular demand and by 2002 replaced the standard controller in the Xbox's retail package, with the larger original controller remaining available as an accessory.
 
 
An 8&nbsp;MB removable [[Solid-state drive|solid state]] [[memory card]] can be plugged into the controllers, onto which game saves can either be copied from the hard drive when in the Xbox dashboard's memory manager or saved during a game. Most Xbox game saves can be copied to the memory unit and moved to another console but some Xbox saves are digitally signed; each console has a unique signing key, and some games (e.g. ''[[Ninja Gaiden (2004 video game)|Ninja Gaiden]]'' and ''[[Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball]]'') will not load saved games signed by a different Xbox, limiting the utility of the memory card. Some game saves can be tagged as uncopyable or simply padded to over 8&nbsp;MB (''[[Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic]]''). The signing mechanism has been reverse-engineered by the Xbox hacking community, who have developed tools to modify savegames to work in a different console, though the signing key of the recipient Xbox (the "HDkey") and the ramped-up title key of the game (the "authkey") must be known. It is also possible to save an Xbox Live account on a memory unit, to simplify its use on more than one Xbox.
 
 
The Xbox includes a standard AV cable which provides [[composite video]] and [[monaural]] or [[stereophonic sound|stereo audio]] to TVs equipped with [[RCA connector|RCA]] inputs. European Xboxes also included an RCA jack to [[SCART]] converter block as well as the standard AV cable.{{clear}}
 
 
==Operating system==
 
The Xbox runs a custom [[operating system]] which was once believed to be a modified version of the [[Windows 2000]] [[kernel (computing)|kernel]]. It exposes [[Application programming interface|API]]s similar to APIs found in [[Microsoft Windows]], such as [[DirectX]] 8.1. The system software may have been based on the [[Windows NT]] architecture that powered [[Windows 2000]]; it is not a modified version of either.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://blogs.msdn.com/xboxteam/archive/2006/02/17/534421.aspx|title=The Xbox Operating System|work=XBox Team Blog|accessdate=2008-07-03}}</ref>
 
 
The [[user interface]] for the Xbox is called the Xbox Dashboard. It features a [[media player (application software)|media player]] that can be used to play music CDs, rip CDs to the Xbox's built-in [[hard drive]] and play music that has been ripped to the hard drive; it also let users manage game saves, music, and downloaded content from Xbox LIVE, and lets Xbox LIVE users sign in and manage their account. The dashboard is only available when the user is not watching a movie or playing a game. It uses many shades of green and black for the user interface, to be consistent with the physical Xbox color scheme. When the Xbox was released in 2001 the LIVE service was not online yet, so the dashboard's LIVE feature was unusable.
 
 
Xbox LIVE was released in 2002, but in order to access it users had to buy the Xbox LIVE starter kit containing a [[headset (audio)|headset]], a subscription, and supplemental. While the Xbox was still being supported by Microsoft, the Xbox Dashboard was updated via Xbox LIVE several times to reduce cheating and add features.
 
 
==Xbox Live==
 
[[File:Xbox-live-logo.png|thumb|right|Xbox Live logo used since 2005|150px]]
 
{{Main|Xbox Live}}
 
 
On November 15, 2002, Microsoft launched its Xbox Live online gaming service, allowing subscribers to play online Xbox games with other subscribers around the world and download new content directly to the system's [[hard drive]]. The online service works only with a [[broadband]] Internet connection. Approximately 250,000 subscribers signed up within two months of Xbox Live's launch.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://games.ign.com/articles/381/381618p1.html|title= Xbox Live Subscriptions Double Expectations|accessdate=2007-09-30|author=Coleman, Stephen|date=2003-01-07|publisher= IGN}}</ref> In July 2004, Microsoft announced that Xbox Live had reached one million subscribers; in July 2005, membership reached two million, and by July 2007 there were more than 3 million subscribers. By May 2009, the number had ballooned to 20 million current subscribers.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.engadget.com/2009/05/28/microsoft-touts-30-million-xbox-360s-sold-20-million-xbox-live/ |title=Microsoft touts 30 million Xbox 360s sold, 20 million Xbox LIVE members |publisher=Engadget |date= |accessdate=2010-11-11}}</ref> On February 5, 2010, Marc Whitten posted on gamerscoreblog that Xbox Live support for the original Xbox games would be discontinued as of April 14, 2010.<ref name="gamerscoreblog1"/> Services were discontinued on schedule, but a group of 20 gamers continued to play for almost a month afterwards by simply leaving their consoles on connected to ''Halo 2''.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eurogamer.net/articles/people-still-playing-halo-2-somehow|title=People still playing Halo 2 somehow|date=2010-04-26|accessdate=2010-06-04|publisher=[[Eurogamer]]}}</ref> APACHE N4SIR was the final user to play on the original Xbox's Live Service and was finally disconnected on {{date|2010-05-11|mdy}} at 01:58 [[Eastern Time Zone|EDT]] (UTC-4).<ref>{{cite web|first=Brian |last=Warmoth |url=http://multiplayerblog.mtv.com/2010/05/11/apache-n4sir-outlasts-every-other-halo-2-player-on-xbox-live/ |title=Apache N4SIR Outlasts Every Other ‘Halo 2′ Player On Xbox Live |work=MTV Multiplayer |publisher=MTV Networks |date=May 11, 2010 |accessdate=2010-09-13}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|first=Owen |last=Good |url=http://kotaku.com/5535672/the-last-man-to-play-halo-2-on-xbox-live |title=The Last Man to Play Halo 2 on Xbox Live |publisher=Kotaku.com |date=2010-05-10 |accessdate=2010-09-13}}</ref>
 
 
==Games==
 
<!-- [[File:Halo2-cover.png|150px|right|thumb|Box cover of ''[[Halo 2]]'', Xbox's best selling game]] image has no rationale for this article -->
 
{{Main|List of video game console launch games#Microsoft Xbox|List of Xbox games|l1=List of Xbox launch games}}
 
{{See also|List of Xbox games compatible with Xbox 360}}
 
 
The Xbox launched in North America on November 15, 2001. Its most successful [[launch game]] was ''[[Halo: Combat Evolved]]''.<ref>[http://www.gamerankings.com/xbox/472132-halo-combat-evolved/index.html Halo: Combat Evolved] at [[GameRankings]]</ref> Its sequel, ''[[Halo 2]]'', is the [[List of best-selling video games#Xbox|best-selling Xbox game]] worldwide.<ref name="halo2sales">{{cite web | author=Asher Moses | date=2007-08-30 | url=http://www.smh.com.au/news/biztech/prepare-for-allout-war/2007/08/30/1188067256196.html | title=Prepare for all-out war | publisher=[[The Sydney Morning Herald]] | accessdate=2008-07-16 | quote=Combined, the first two Halo games have notched up sales of more than 14.5 million copies so far, about 8 million of which can be attributed to Halo 2, which is the best-selling first-generation Xbox game worldwide.}}</ref> Although there were several more popular second-party launch titles, including ''[[NFL Fever 2002]]'',<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.gamerankings.com/xbox/472134-nfl-fever-2002/index.html|title=NFL Fever 2002: Summary|accessdate=2007-09-30|publisher=[[GameRankings]]}}</ref> ''[[Project Gotham Racing]]'',<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gamerankings.com/xbox/472137-project-gotham-racing/index.html|title=Project Gotham Racing: Summary |accessdate=2007-09-30|publisher=[[GameRankings]]}}</ref> and ''[[Dead or Alive 3]]'',<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.gamerankings.com/xbox/475251-dead-or-alive-3/index.html|title=Dead or Alive 3: Summary |accessdate = 2007-09-30|publisher=[[GameRankings]]}}</ref> the early public reputation of the Xbox was damaged by the failure of ''[[Azurik: Rise of Perathia]]'' and other games designed and marketed by Microsoft.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gamerankings.com/xbox/472133-azurik-rise-of-perathia/index.html| title=Azurik: Rise of Perathia: Summary|accessdate=2007-09-30|publisher=[[GameRankings]]}}</ref>
 
 
Although the console gained strong third party support from its inception, many early Xbox games did not fully use its powerful hardware, with few additional features or graphical improvements to distinguish them from the PS2 version, thus negating one of the Xbox's main selling points. Sony countered the Xbox for a short time by temporarily securing PlayStation 2 exclusives for highly anticipated games such as the [[Grand Theft Auto (series)|''Grand Theft Auto'' series]] and ''[[Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty]]''.
 
 
In 2002 and 2003, several releases helped the Xbox gain momentum and distinguish itself from the PS2. The [[Xbox Live]] online service was launched in late 2002 alongside pilot titles ''MotoGP'', ''[[MechAssault]]'' and ''[[Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon]]''. Several best-selling and critically praised titles for the Xbox were published, such as ''[[Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell]]'', ''[[Ninja Gaiden (2004 video game)|Ninja Gaiden]]'' and [[LucasArts]]' ''[[Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic]]''. [[Take-Two Interactive]]'s exclusivity deal with [[Sony Computer Entertainment|Sony]] was amended to allow ''[[Grand Theft Auto III]]'' and its [[Grand Theft Auto (series)|sequels]] to be published for the Xbox. Many other publishers got into the trend of releasing the Xbox version alongside the PS2 version, instead of delaying it for months.
 
 
In 2004 ''[[Halo 2]]'' became the highest-grossing release in entertainment history, making over $125 million in its first day<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.cnet.com/Halo-2-clears-record-125-million-in-first-day/2100-1043_3-5447379.html| title='Halo 2' clears record $125 million in first day|accessdate=2007-09-30|last=Becker|first= David|date=2004-11-10| publisher=News.com}}</ref> and becoming Xbox Live's first [[killer application|killer app]]. That year Microsoft made a deal to put [[Electronic Arts]]'s popular titles on [[Xbox Live]].
 
 
The last game released on the Xbox was ''[[Madden NFL 09]]'', on August 12, 2008.
 
 
==Technical specifications==
 
[[File:Xboxinside02.jpg|thumb|right|Xbox drives]]
 
 
*[[Central processing unit|CPU]]: 32-bit 733 [[Hertz|MHz]], custom Intel [[Pentium III]] [[Coppermine (microprocessor)|Coppermine-based]] processor in a [[Micro-PGA2]] package (though soldered to the mainboard using [[Ball Grid Array|BGA]]). 180 [[nanometre|nm]] process.<ref name="anandtech">{{cite web|url=http://www.anandtech.com/show/853/2 |title=Anandtech Microsoft's Xbox |publisher=Anandtech.com |date= |accessdate=2010-11-11}}</ref>
 
<!-- DO NOT change this to Pentium 9876. It is not a Pentium 3 unless it has 256 KB or more L2 cache.-->
 
<!-- Anandtech claims the processor still has 8-way set associative L2 cache, which the Pentium III has. The Celeron has 4-way set associative L2 cache-->
 
**[[Streaming SIMD Extensions|SSE]] [[floating point]] [[SIMD]]. Four [[single precision|single-precision]] floating point numbers per clock cycle.
 
**[[MMX (instruction set)|MMX]] [[integer]] SIMD
 
**133&nbsp;MHz 64-bit [[GTL+]] [[front-side bus]] to GPU
 
**32&nbsp;[[Kilobyte|KB]] L1 [[CPU cache|cache]]. 128&nbsp;KB on-die L2 cache
 
*[[Shared memory]] subsystem
 
**64&nbsp;[[Megabyte|MB]] [[DDR SDRAM]] at 200&nbsp;MHz; in dual-channel 128-bit configuration giving 6400&nbsp;[[Megabyte|MB]]/s
 
**Supplied by [[Hynix]] or [[Samsung Group|Samsung]] depending on manufacture date and location
 
*[[Graphics processing unit|GPU]] and system [[chipset]]: 233&nbsp;MHz "[[Comparison of Nvidia graphics processing units#Comparison table: miscellaneous|NV2A]]" [[Application-specific integrated circuit|ASIC]]. Co-developed by Microsoft and [[Nvidia]].
 
**Geometry engine: 115 million [[vertex (geometry)|vertices]]/second, 125 million [[particle system|particle]]s/second (peak)
 
**4 [[pixel pipelines]] with 2 [[texture mapping unit|texture units]] each
 
**932 [[Pixel|megapixel]]s/second (233&nbsp;MHz &times; 4 pipelines), 1,864 [[Texel (graphics)|megatexels]]/second (932&nbsp;MP &times; 2 texture units) (peak)
 
***Peak triangle performance (32pixel divided from filrate): 29,125,000 32-pixel triangles/s raw or w. 2 textures and lit.
 
****485,416 triangles per frame at 60 frame/s
 
****970,833 triangles per frame at 30 frame/s
 
**8 textures per pass, [[S3 Texture Compression|texture compression]], [[Spatial anti-aliasing|full scene anti-aliasing]] (NV [[Quincunx]], [[supersampling]], [[multisample anti-aliasing|multisampling]])
 
**[[Bilinear filtering|Bilinear]], [[trilinear filtering|trilinear]], and [[anisotropic filtering|anisotropic]] [[texture filtering]]
 
**Similar to the GeForce 3 Ti500 PC GPU in performance
 
*Storage media
 
**2×–5× (2.6&nbsp;MB/s–6.6&nbsp;MB/s) [[Constant angular velocity|CAV]] [[DVD|DVD-ROM]]
 
**8 or 10&nbsp;[[gigabyte|GB]], 3.5&nbsp;in, 5,400 [[Revolutions per minute|RPM]] [[hard disk drive|hard disk]]. [[Disk formatting|Formatted]] to 8&nbsp;GB. [[FATX]] [[file system]].
 
**Optional 8&nbsp;MB memory card for saved game file transfer.
 
*Audio processor: NVIDIA "MCPX" (a.k.a. [[SoundStorm]] "NVAPU")
 
**64 3D sound channels (up to 256 [[Stereophonic sound|stereo]] voices)
 
**[[Head-related transfer function|HRTF]] [[Sensaura]] 3D enhancement
 
**[[Musical Instrument Digital Interface|MIDI]] DLS2 Support
 
**[[Monaural]], [[Stereophonic sound|Stereo]], [[Dolby Surround]], [[Dolby Digital|Dolby Digital Live 5.1]], and [[DTS (sound system)|DTS Surround]] (DVD movies only) audio output options
 
*Integrated 10/[[100BASE-TX]] wired [[ethernet]]
 
*DVD movie playback (add-on required)
 
*A/V outputs: [[composite video]], [[S-Video]], [[component video]], [[SCART]], Digital Optical [[TOSLINK]], and [[RCA connector|stereo RCA analog audio]]
 
*Resolutions: [[480i]], [[480p]], [[576i]], [[576p]], [[720p]], [[1080i]]
 
*Controller ports: 4 proprietary [[Universal Serial Bus|USB]] 1.1 ports
 
*Weight: 3.86&nbsp;kg (8.5&nbsp;[[Pound (mass)|lb]])
 
*Dimensions: 320&nbsp;&times;&nbsp;100&nbsp;&times;&nbsp;260&nbsp;mm (12.5&nbsp;&times;&nbsp;4&nbsp;&times;&nbsp;10.5&nbsp;in)<ref>[http://support.xbox.com/support/en/us/xbox/hardware/consolespecifications/consolespecifications.aspx Original Xbox Technical Specifications]{{dead link|date=November 2010}}</ref>
 
 
==Marketing==
 
===Sales===
 
{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin:0 0 0.5em 1em;"
 
|-
 
! Region
 
! [[List of best-selling game consoles|Units sold]] <br /><small>(as of May 10, 2006)</small>
 
! First available
 
|-
 
| North America
 
| 16 million
 
| November 15, 2001
 
|-
 
| Europe
 
| 6 million
 
| March 14, 2002
 
|-
 
| Japan
 
| 2 million
 
| February 22, 2002
 
|-
 
| '''Worldwide'''
 
| '''24 million'''
 
|}
 
 
On November 15, 2001, Xbox launched in North America and quickly sold out.
 
 
The Xbox has sold 24 million units worldwide as of May 10, 2006, according to Microsoft.<ref name="gamers_catch" /> This is divided out to 16 million units sold in North America, six million units in Europe, and two million units sold in Japan.
 
 
Overall, the Xbox was a success especially in North America. Sales were also positive in Europe, but Japan saw poor sales, with only 2 million units sold there. However, there were some games from genres which are popular in Japan which were released exclusively for the Xbox, such as ''[[Dead or Alive 3]]'' or ''[[Ninja Gaiden]]''. These hugely contributed to the sales of Xbox in Japan.
 
 
===UK advertising controversy===
 
In 2002 the [[Independent Television Commission]] (ITC) banned a television advertisement for the Xbox in the [[United Kingdom]] after complaints that it was highly distasteful, violent, scary and upsetting. It depicted a mother giving birth to a small boy who was fired like a projectile through a hospital window and who aged rapidly as he flew through the air yelling. As he soared across a large area, he passed quickly through stages of his life as though time was passing him by. After aging into an old man, he crash-landed into his own grave. Dust and smoke poured from the grave. The advertisement ended with the slogan ''Life is short. Play more.''<ref>{{cite news|url= http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/2028725.stm|title='Shocking' Xbox advert banned|accessdate=2007-07-18|date=2002-06-06|publisher=[[BBC News Online]]}}</ref>
 
 
==Modding==
 
[[File:Xboxinside01.jpg|thumb|left|Xbox motherboard, with installed [[modchip]]]]
 
 
The popularity of the Xbox, as well as (in the United States) its comparatively short 90-day warranty, inspired efforts to circumvent the built-in hardware and software security mechanisms, a practice informally known as [[modding]]. Within a few months of its release the initial layer of security on the Xbox BIOS (which relied heavily on [[source code obfuscation|obfuscation]]) was broken by MIT student [[Andrew Huang]] and the contents of the "hidden" boot ROM embedded on the MCPx chip was extracted using some custom built hardware. Once this information was available, the code was soon modified so that it would skip digital signature checks and media flags, allowing unsigned code, Xbox game backups, etc., to be run. This was possible due to flaws in the Xbox's security.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://events.ccc.de/congress/2005/fahrplan/attachments/591-paper_xbox.pdf |title=17 Mistakes Microsoft Made in the Xbox Security System |publisher=[[Chaos Computer Club]] |year=2005 |accessdate=2010-08-16 |author=Steil, Michael}}</ref> Modding an Xbox in any manner will void its warranty, as it may require disassembly of the console. Having a modified Xbox may also disallow it from accessing Xbox Live, if detected by Microsoft, as it contravenes the Xbox Live [[Terms of Use]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.xbox.com/en-US/Legal/LiveTOU|title=Xbox Live Terms of Use|accessdate=2007-07-18|date=October 2006|publisher=Xbox.com}}</ref> but most modchips can be disabled, allowing the Xbox to boot in a "stock" configuration. Softmods can be disabled by "coldbooting" a game (having the game in the DVD drive before turning the console on, so the softmod is not loaded) or by using a multiboot configuration.
 
 
There are four main methods of modding the Xbox:
 
 
*[[Modchip]]: installing a modchip inside the Xbox that bypasses the original BIOS, with a hacked BIOS to circumvent the security mechanisms.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://vgstrategies.about.com/od/faqglossary/a/modchips.htm |title=Modchips - What Are They and Should You Use One?|accessdate=2007-07-18|author=Rybka, Jason|publisher=[[About.com]]}}</ref>
 
*[[Thin small-outline package|TSOP]] flashing: reflashing the onboard BIOS chip with a hacked BIOS to circumvent the security mechanisms. The Xbox BIOS is contained on a commodity [[EEPROM]] (the 'TSOP'), which can be made writable by the Xbox by bridging points on the motherboard.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.i-hacked.com/content/view/37/62/|title=Flashing TSOP With ANY Version XBOX V1.0-V1.5 For Noobs|accessdate=2007-07-18|author=SLuSHIE |date=2004-03-30|publisher=I-Hacked.com}}</ref> Flashing is usually carried out by using a specially crafted gamesave (see 'Game save exploit', below) to flash the onboard TSOP, but the TSOP can also be de-soldered and re-written in a standard EEPROM programmer. This method only works on 1.0 to 1.5 Xboxes, as later versions replace the commodity TSOP with an LPC ROM contained within a proprietary chip.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.xbox-linux.org/wiki/Xbox_Hardware_Overview#Xcalibur|title=Xbox Hardware Overview – Xcalibur|accessdate=2007-07-18| author=Steil, Michael|date=2007-02-07|publisher=[[Xbox Linux]]}}</ref>
 
*[[Softmod]]s: installing additional software files to the Xbox hard drive, which exploit programming errors in the Dashboard to gain control of the system, and overwrite the in-memory copy of the BIOS.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.xbox-hq.com/html/modules.php?name=Xbox_Homebrew&op=view&gid=132|title=Phoenix Bios Loader|accessdate=2007-07-18|author=Phoenix| publisher=Xbox-HQ.com}}</ref> Soft modification is known to be safe for Xbox Live if the user enables multibooting with the Microsoft dashboard and an original game disc is used.{{Citation needed|date=March 2009}}
 
**Game save exploit: using select official game releases to load game saves that exploit buffer overflows in the save game handling.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.cnet.com/2100-1043-994794.html|title=Hacker cracks Xbox challenge|accessdate=2007-07-18|author=Becker, David|date=2003-03-31|publisher=News.com}}</ref> When these special game saves are loaded, they access an interface with scripts for installing the necessary softmod files. Disassembly of the Xbox is not required when installing most game save exploits.
 
*[[Hot swapping]]: using a computer to change the data on the hard drive. This requires having the Xbox unlock the hard drive when it is turned on, then swapping the powered hard drive into a running computer. By using a Linux-based Live CD, data on the hard drive can be read, altered, and deleted. In most cases, an automated script will automatically install the softmod files directly to the Xbox hard drive. This technique has been used extensively to harbor cheating on many online games. Disassembly of the console is required to perform a hot swap.
 
 
===Alternative operating systems===
 
Beyond gaming, a modded Xbox can be used as a media center with [[XBMC]].<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/modding-xbox-ultimate-multimedia-center,807.html|title=Modding The Xbox Into The Ultimate Multimedia Center|accessdate=2004-05-11|author=Patrick Schmid and Achim Roos|date=2007-07-18|publisher= Tom's Hardware}}</ref>
 
 
There are also distributions of Linux developed specifically for the Xbox, including those based on [[Gentoo Linux|Gentoo]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://distrowatch.com/table.php?distribution=gentoox|title=Gentoox|publisher=distrowatch.com|date=2008-09-28 |accessdate=2010-12-25}}</ref> [[Debian]], [[Damn Small Linux]] and [[Dyne:bolic]].{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}}
 
 
List of alternative operating systems:
 
 
*[[Xbox Linux]] is a project that ported [[Linux]] to the Xbox.
 
*[[FreeBSD]] and [[NetBSD]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.netbsd.org/releases/formal-5/NetBSD-5.0.html |title=Announcing NetBSD 5.0 |publisher=Netbsd.org |date= |accessdate=2010-11-11}}</ref> have also been ported to Xbox.
 
*[[Microsoft Windows CE|Windows CE]]<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.geekzone.co.nz/content.asp?contentid=2077|title=Windows CE .Net 4.20 ported to Xbox|accessdate=2004-01-03}}</ref>
 
*[[ReactOS]]
 
*A partial port of [[Windows XP]] is available on some modding websites but this usually involves removing the CPU and resoldering a different Pentium III as well as a heavily modified BIOS.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}} One advantage over a regular, unmodded Xbox, is the ability to use a [[Cheating in video games|trainer]].{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}}
 
 
== See also ==
 
{{Portal|Microsoft|Xbox}}
 
*[[Operation Project X]]
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
 
==External links==
 
{{Commons category|Xbox}}
 
<!--====================================-->
 
<!-- Please follow Wikipedia policy on external links. -->
 
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<!-- Doing so will let other editors understand what you are doing -->
 
<!-- and will prevent misunderstandings from turning into reverts. NO HACKING -->
 
<!--=============================================-->
 
* [http://www.xbox.com/ Official Xbox website]
 
* {{dmoz|Games/Video_Games/Console_Platforms/Microsoft/Xbox}}
 
* {{Wikia | xbox | Xbox Wiki | Xbox}}
 
 
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[[Category:Sixth-generation video game consoles]]
 
 
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Reason: ANN scored at 0.939305
Reporter Information
Reporter: Nicole (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 04:34:40 AM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:29:24 PM #100455
Bradley (anonymous)

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Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 04:34:40 AM #100756
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