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Article: Cloning
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{{Two other uses||the cloning of human beings|Human cloning}}
[[File:Longitudinal fission of Anthopleura elegantissima in California tidepools.jpg|The [[sea anemone]] ''[[Anthopleura elegantissima]]'' in process of cloning|thumb]]
'''Cloning''' in biology is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as [[bacteria]], [[insect]]s or [[plant]]s reproduce [[Asexual Reproduction|asexually]]. Cloning in [[biotechnology]] refers to processes used to create copies of [[DNA]] fragments ([[molecular cloning]]), [[Cell (biology)|cells]] (cell cloning), or [[organisms]]. The term also refers to the production of multiple copies of a product such as [[digital media]] or [[software]].
The term ''clone'' is derived from the [[Ancient Greek]] word ''[[wikt:κλών#Ancient Greek|κλών]]'' (klōn, “twig”), referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. In [[horticulture]], the spelling ''clon'' was used until the twentieth century; the final ''e'' came into use to indicate the vowel is a "long o" instead of a "short o".<ref>{{Cite journal
| title = Torrey Botanical Club: Volumes 42-45|publisher = Torrey Botanical Club| year = 1942| journal = Torreya, Volumes 42-45| page = 133
| postscript = <!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref><ref name="Science1903">{{cite book|author=American Association for the Advancement of Science|title=Science|url=|accessdate=8 October 2010|year=1903|publisher=Moses King|pages=502–}}</ref> Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more general context, the spelling ''clone'' has been used exclusively.
In botany, the term '''lusus''' was traditionally used.<ref>{{cite book|author=de Candolle, A.|year=1868|title=Laws of Botanical Nomenclature adopted by the International Botanical Congress held at Paris in August 1867; together with an Historical Introduction and Commentary by Alphonse de Candolle, Translated from the French|publisher=L. Reeve and Co.|location=London|url=|others=translated by H.A. Weddell}}</ref>
In the United States, the human consumption of meat and other products from cloned animals was approved by the [[U.S. Food and Drug Administration|FDA]] on December 28, 2006, with no special labeling required. Such practice has met strong resistance in other regions, such as Europe, particularly over the labeling issue.
==Molecular cloning==
{{Main|Molecular cloning}}
Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. Cloning is commonly used to amplify [[DNA]] fragments containing whole [[genes]], but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as [[Promoter (biology)|promoters]], non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. It is used in a wide array of biological experiments and practical applications ranging from [[genetic fingerprinting]] to large scale protein production. Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the [[chromosome|chromosomal]] location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in [[positional cloning]]. In practice, localization of the gene to a chromosome or genomic region does not necessarily enable one to isolate or amplify the relevant genomic sequence. To amplify any DNA sequence in a living organism, that sequence must be linked to an [[origin of replication]], which is a sequence of DNA capable of directing the propagation of itself and any linked sequence. However, a number of other features are needed and a variety of specialised [[cloning vector]]s (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow [[protein expression]], tagging, single stranded [[RNA]] and DNA production and a host of other manipulations.
Cloning of any DNA fragment essentially involves four steps<ref>{{cite book |title=iGenetics: A Molecular Approach |author= Peter J. Russel |year= 2005 |isbn=0-8053-4665-1 |location=San Francisco, California, United States of America |publisher=Pearson Education}}</ref>
# fragmentation - breaking apart a strand of DNA
# [[DNA ligase|ligation]] - gluing together pieces of DNA in a desired sequence
# [[transfection]] - inserting the newly formed pieces of DNA into cells
# screening/selection - selecting out the cells that were successfully transfected with the new DNA
Although these steps are invariable among cloning procedures a number of alternative routes can be selected, these are summarized as a 'cloning strategy'.
Initially, the DNA of interest needs to be isolated to provide a DNA segment of suitable size. Subsequently, a ligation procedure is used where the amplified fragment is inserted into a [[vector (molecular biology)|vector]] (piece of DNA). The vector (which is frequently circular) is linearised using [[restriction enzyme]]s, and incubated with the fragment of interest under appropriate conditions with an enzyme called [[DNA ligase]]. Following ligation the vector with the insert of interest is transfected into cells. A number of alternative techniques are available, such as chemical sensitivation of cells, [[electroporation]], [[optical injection]] and [[biolistics]]. Finally, the transfected cells are cultured. As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. Modern cloning vectors include selectable [[antibiotic]] resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on [[X-gal]] medium. Nevertheless, these selection steps do not absolutely guarantee that the DNA insert is present in the cells obtained. Further investigation of the resulting colonies must be required to confirm that cloning was successful. This may be accomplished by means of [[PCR]], restriction fragment analysis and/or [[DNA sequencing]].
== Cell cloning ==
===Cloning unicellular organisms===
[[File:Human cell-line colony being cloned in vitro through use of cloning rings.jpg|right|thumb|Cloning cell-line colonies using cloning rings]]
Cloning a cell means to derive a population of cells from a single cell. In the case of unicellular organisms such as bacteria and yeast, this process is remarkably simple and essentially only requires the [[inoculation]] of the appropriate medium. However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not readily grow in standard media.
A useful tissue culture technique used to clone distinct lineages of cell lines involves the use of [[cloning ring]]s (cylinders).<ref name="CloningRings">{{cite journal|last=McFarland|first=Douglas|authorlink=Douglas McFarland|year=2000|title= Preparation of pure cell cultures by cloning|journal=Methods in Cell Science|volume=22|issue=1|pages=63–66|pmid=10650336|doi= 10.1023/A:1009838416621}}</ref> According to this technique, a single-cell suspension of cells that have been exposed to a [[mutagen|mutagenic agent]] or drug used to drive [[selection]] is plated at high dilution to create isolated colonies; each arising from a single and potentially clonal distinct cell. At an early growth stage when colonies consist of only a few of cells, sterile [[polystyrene]] rings (cloning rings), which have been dipped in grease are placed over an individual colony and a small amount of [[trypsin]] is added. Cloned cells are collected from inside the ring and transferred to a new vessel for further growth.
=== Cloning stem cells ===
{{Main|Somatic-cell nuclear transfer}}
[[Somatic-cell nuclear transfer]], known as SCNT, can also be used to create embryos for research or therapeutic purposes. The most likely purpose for this is to produce embryos for use in [[stem cell research]]. This process is also called "research cloning" or "therapeutic cloning." The goal is not to create cloned human beings (called "reproductive cloning"), but rather to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to potentially treat disease. While a clonal human blastocyst has been created, stem cell lines are yet to be isolated from a clonal source.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=California biotech says it cloned a human embryo, but no stem cells produced|first=Gideon|last=Gil|publisher=Boston Globe|date=2008-01-17}}</ref>
Therapeutic cloning is achieved by creating embryonic stem cells in the hopes of treating diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer’s. The process begins by taking out the nucleus (containing the DNA) from an egg cell and putting in it a nucleus from the adult cell to be cloned.<ref name="Halim">{{cite web |last=Halim |last=N. |date=2002, September |title=Extensive new study shows abnormalities in cloned animals accessdate=October 2011 |publisher=Massachusetts institute of technology |url=}}</ref> In the case of someone with Alzheimer’s disease, the nucleus from a skin cell of that patient is placed into an empty egg. The reprogrammed cell begins to develop into an embryo because the egg reacts with the transferred nucleus. The embryo will become genetically identical to the patient.<ref name=Halim /> The embryo will then form a blastocyst which has the potential to form/become any cell in the body.<ref name="Plus">{{cite web |last=Plus |first=M. |year=2011 |title= Fetal development |accessdate=October 2011 |url= | }}</ref>
The reason why SCNT is used for cloning is because somatic cells can be easily acquired and cultured in the lab. This process can either add or delete specific genomes of farm animals. A key point to remember is that cloning is achieved when the oocyte maintains its normal functions and instead of using sperm and egg genomes to replicate, the oocyte is inserted into the donor’s somatic cell nucleus.<ref name="Latham">{{cite web |last=Latham |first=K. E. |year=2005 |title= Early and delayed aspects of nuclear reprogramming during cloning |publisher=Biology of the Cell |pages=97, 119–132 |url= |format=PDF |accessdate=}}</ref> The oocyte will react on the somatic cell nucleus, the same way it would on sperm cells.<ref name=Latham />
'''SCNT Process'''
The process of cloning a particular farm animal using SCNT is relatively the same for all animals. The first step is to collect the somatic cells from the animal that will be cloned. The somatic cells could be used immediately or stored in the laboratory for later use.<ref name=Latham /> The hardest part of SCNT is removing maternal DNA from an oocyte at metaphase II. Once this has been done, the somatic nucleus can be inserted into an egg cytoplasm.<ref name=Latham /> This creates a one-cell embryo. The grouped somatic cell and egg cytoplasm are then introduced to an electrical current.<ref name=Latham /> This energy will hopefully allow the cloned embryo to begin development. The successfully developed embryos are then placed in surrogate recipients, such as a cow or sheep in the case of farm animals.<ref name=Latham />
'''Applications of SCNT'''
SCNT is seen to be a great method for producing agriculture animals for food consumption. It successfully cloned sheep, cattle, goats, and pigs. Another benefit is SCNT is seen as a solution to clone endangered species that are on the verge of going extinct.<ref name=Latham />
'''Limitations of SCNT'''
Stresses placed on both the egg cell and the introduced nucleus are enormous, leading to a high loss in resulting cells. For example, Dolly the sheep was born after 277 eggs were used for SCNT, which created 29 viable embryos. Only three of these embryos survived until birth, and only one survived to adulthood.<ref name=Campbell>{{cite journal |author=Campbell KH, McWhir J, Ritchie WA, Wilmut I |title=Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line |journal=Nature |volume=380 |issue=6569 |pages=64–6 |year=1996 |month=March |pmid=8598906 |doi=10.1038/380064a0 |url=}}</ref> As the procedure currently cannot be automated, but has to be performed manually under a [[microscope]], SCNT is very resource intensive. The [[biochemistry]] involved in reprogramming the [[cellular differentiation|differentiated]] somatic cell nucleus and activating the recipient egg is also far from understood.
In SCNT, not all of the donor cell's genetic information is transferred, as the donor cell's [[mitochondria]] that contain their own [[mitochondrial DNA]] are left behind. The resulting hybrid cells retain those mitochondrial structures which originally belonged to the egg. As a consequence, clones such as Dolly that are born from SCNT are not perfect copies of the donor of the nucleus.
== Organism cloning ==
{{Further|Asexual reproduction}}
'''Organism cloning''' (also called reproductive cloning) refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another. In essence this form of cloning is an asexual method of reproduction, where fertilization or inter-gamete contact does not take place. Asexual reproduction is a naturally occurring phenomenon in many species, including most plants (see [[vegetative reproduction]]) and some insects. Scientists have made some major achievements with cloning, including the asexual reproduction of sheep and cows. There is a lot of ethical debate over whether or not cloning should be used. However, cloning, or asexual propagation,<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Asexual Propagation | |date= |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref> has been common practice in the horticultural world for hundreds of years.
=== Horticultural ===
The term ''clone'' is used in horticulture to refer to descendants of a single plant which were produced by [[vegetative reproduction]] or [[apomixis]]. Many horticultural plant [[cultivar]]s are clones, having been derived from a single individual, multiplied by some process other than sexual reproduction. As an example, some European cultivars of [[grape]]s represent clones that have been propagated for over two millennia. Other examples are [[potato]] and [[banana]]. [[Grafting]] can be regarded as cloning, since all the shoots and branches coming from the graft are genetically a clone of a single individual, but this particular kind of cloning has not come under [[ethics|ethical]] scrutiny and is generally treated as an entirely different kind of operation.
Many [[tree]]s, [[shrub]]s, [[vine]]s, [[fern]]s and other [[perennials|herbaceous perennial]]s form [[clonal colony|clonal colonies]] naturally. Parts of an individual plant may become detached by [[Fragmentation (cell biology)|fragmentation]] and grow on to become separate clonal individuals. A common example is in the vegetative reproduction of moss and liverwort gametophyte clones by means of [[gemma (botany)|gemmae]]. Some vascular plants e.g. [[dandelion]] and certain [[vivipary|viviparous]] grasses also form [[seed]]s asexually, termed [[apomixis]], resulting in clonal populations of genetically identical individuals.
=== Parthenogenesis ===
Clonal derivation exists in nature in some animal species and is referred to as [[parthenogenesis]] (reproduction of an organism by itself without a mate). This is an asexual form of reproduction that is only found in females of some insects, crustaceans and [[Whiptail lizard|lizards]]. The growth and development occurs without fertilization by a male. In plants, parthenogenesis means the development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell, and is a component process of apomixis. In species that use the [[XY sex-determination system]], the offspring will always be female. An example is the "Little [[Fire ant|Fire Ant]]" (''[[Wasmannia auropunctata]]''), which is native to [[Central America|Central]] and [[South America]] but has spread throughout many tropical environments.
=== Artificial cloning of organisms ===
Artificial cloning of organisms may also be called ''reproductive cloning''.
==== First moves ====
[[Hans Spemann]], a [[Germans|German]] [[embryologist]] was awarded a [[Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine]] in 1935 for his discovery of the effect now known as embryonic induction, exercised by various parts of the embryo, that directs the development of groups of cells into particular tissues and organs. In 1928 he and his student, Otto Mangold, were the first to perform [[somatic-cell nuclear transfer]] using [[amphibian]] embryos – one of the first moves towards cloning.<ref>Explanation of the Spemann-Mangold experiment from a Nature Reviews article</ref>
==== Methods ====
Reproductive cloning generally uses "[[somatic cell nuclear transfer]]" (SCNT) to create animals that are genetically identical. This process entails the transfer of a nucleus from a donor adult cell (somatic cell) to an egg that has no nucleus. If the egg begins to divide normally it is transferred into the uterus of the surrogate mother. Such clones are not strictly identical since the somatic cells may contain mutations in their nuclear DNA. Additionally, the [[mitochondrion|mitochondria]] in the [[cytoplasm]] also contains DNA and during SCNT this mitochondrial DNA is wholly from the cytoplasmic donor's egg, thus the [[mitochondrion|mitochondrial]] genome is not the same as that of the nucleus donor cell from which it was produced. This may have important implications for cross-species nuclear transfer in which nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to death.
Artificial ''embryo splitting'' or ''embryo twinning'' may also be used as a method of cloning, where an [[embryo]] is split in the maturation before [[embryo transfer]]. It is optimally performed at the 6- to 8-cell stage, where it can be used as an expansion of [[IVF]] to increase the number of available embryos.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Illmensee K, Levanduski M, Vidali A, Husami N, Goudas VT |title=Human embryo twinning with applications in reproductive medicine |journal=Fertil. Steril. |volume= 93|issue= 2|pages= 423–7|year=2009 |month=February |pmid=19217091 |doi=10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.12.098 |url=}}</ref> If both embryos are successful, it gives rise to [[Monozygotic twins|monozygotic (identical) twins]].
=====Obtaining Blastocysts=====
A [[blastocyst]] is formed in the early stage of the development of an embryo. During cloning process, the blastocyst cells often are obtained by scientists 5 days after the egg has been divided.<ref>{{cite web|title=Cloning Fact Sheet|url=|publisher=Human Genome Project Information|accessdate=25 October 2011}}</ref>
==== Dolly the Sheep ====
{{Main|Dolly the Sheep}}
[[Image:Dolly clone.svg|thumb|Dolly clone]]
[[Dolly (sheep)|Dolly]], a [[Finn-Dorset]] [[domestic sheep|ewe]], was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. Dolly was formed by taking a cell from the udder of her biological mother. Her embryo was created by taking the cell and inserting it into a sheep ovum. The embryo was then placed inside a female sheep that went through a normal pregnancy.<ref name="Lassen">Lassen, J., Gjerris, M., & Sandøe, P. (2005). After Dolly—Ethical limits to the use of biotechnology on farm animals. Elsevier, 65, 992-1004.</ref> She was cloned at the [[Roslin Institute]] in [[Scotland]] and lived there from her birth in 1996 until her death in 2003 when she was six. Her [[Taxidermy|stuffed remains]] were placed at Edinburgh's [[Royal Museum]], part of the [[National Museums of Scotland]].<ref>TV documentary Visions Of The Future part 2 shows this process, explores the social implicatins of cloning and contains footage of monoculture in livestock</ref>
Dolly was publicly significant because the effort showed that genetic material from a specific adult cell, programmed to express only a distinct subset of its genes, can be reprogrammed to grow an entirely new organism. Before this demonstration, it had been shown by John Gurdon that nuclei from differentiated cells could give rise to an entire organism after transplantation into an enucleated egg.<ref>{{cite web|author=USA |url= |title=PubMed home | |date=2010-07-06 |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref> However, this concept was not yet demonstrated in a mammalian system.
Cloning Dolly the sheep had a low success rate per fertilized egg; she was born after 277 eggs were used to create 29 embryos, which only produced three lambs at birth, only one of which lived. Seventy calves have been created and one third of them died young; [[Prometea]] took 277 attempts. Notably, although the first clones were frogs, no adult cloned frog has yet been produced from a somatic adult nucleus donor cell.
There were early claims that [[Dolly the Sheep]] had pathologies resembling accelerated aging. Scientists speculated that Dolly's death in 2003 was related to the shortening of [[telomere]]s, DNA-protein complexes that protect the end of linear [[chromosome]]s. However, other researchers, including [[Ian Wilmut]] who led the team that successfully cloned Dolly, argue that Dolly's early death due to respiratory infection was unrelated to deficiencies with the cloning process.
==== Species cloned ====
{{Further|List of animals that have been cloned}}
The modern cloning techniques involving [[nuclear transfer]] have been successfully performed on several species. Notable experiments include:
* [[Tadpole]]: (1952) Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King had successfully cloned northern leopard frogs: thirty-five complete embryos and twenty-seven tadpoles from one-hundred and four successful nuclear transfers.,<ref></ref> <ref>{{cite web | url= | title=Robert W. Briggs | publisher=National Academies Press | accessdate=December 01, 2012}}</ref>
* [[Carp]]: (1963) In [[China]], [[embryologist]] [[Tong Dizhou]] produced the world's first cloned fish by inserting the DNA from a cell of a male carp into an egg from a female carp. He published the findings in a Chinese science journal.<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Bloodlines timeline |author= |date= |work= ||accessdate= }}</ref>
* [[Mice]]: (1986) A mouse was the first mammal successfully cloned from an early embryonic cell. [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] scientists Chaylakhyan, Veprencev, Sviridova, and Nikitin had the mouse "Masha" cloned. Research was published in the magazine "Biofizika" volume ХХХII, issue 5 of 1987.{{Clarify|date=August 2008}}<!-- ideally an English translation is needed; following cite is from an archived copy of the original, now dead, link. A translation appears to indicate that Russians worked with embryonic mouse cells to produce a non-SCNT clone in 1987 --><ref>{{cite web| title=Кто изобрел клонирование?| archiveurl=| archivedate=2004-12-23| url=}} (Russian)</ref>
* [[Domestic sheep|Sheep]]: (1996) From early embryonic cells by Steen Willadsen. [[Megan and Morag]]<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Gene Genie &#124; BBC World Service | |date=2000-05-01 |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref> cloned from differentiated embryonic cells in June 1995 and [[Dolly the sheep]] from a somatic cell in 1997.<ref>{{cite journal |author=McLaren A |title=Cloning: pathways to a pluripotent future |journal=Science |volume=288 |issue=5472 |pages=1775–80 |year=2000 |pmid=10877698 |doi=10.1126/science.288.5472.1775}}</ref>
* [[Rhesus Monkey]]: [[Tetra (monkey)|Tetra]] (January 2000) from embryo splitting<ref>[[CNN]]. [ Researchers clone monkey by splitting embryo] 2000-01-13. Retrieved 2008-08-05.</ref>{{Clarify|date=August 2008}}<!-- see [[Talk:Cloning#]cleanup notes]] - this is not SCNT --><ref>{{cite news|author=By Dean Irvine |url= |title=You, again: Are we getting closer to cloning humans? - | |date=2007-11-19 |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref>
* [[Gaur]]: (2001) was the first endangered species cloned.<ref>{{cite news| url= | work=CNN | title=First cloned endangered species dies 2 days after birth | date=January 12, 2001 | accessdate=April 30, 2010}}</ref>
* [[Cattle]]: [[Alpha and Beta]] (males, 2001) and (2005) Brazil<ref>Camacho, Keite. [ Embrapa clona raça de boi ameaçada de extinção]. [[Agência Brasil]]. 2005-05-20. (Portuguese) Retrieved 2008-08-05</ref><!-- one of the sources used by: [[Wikinews: Endangered cow cloned in Brazil]] -->
* [[Cat]]: [[CC (cat)|CopyCat]] "CC" (female, late 2001), [[Little Nicky (cat)|Little Nicky]], 2004, was the first cat cloned for commercial reasons<ref>{{cite news|url= |title=Americas &#124; Pet kitten cloned for Christmas |publisher=BBC News |date=2004-12-23 |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref>
* [[Dog]]: [[Snuppy]], a male [[Afghan hound]] was the first cloned dog (2005).<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=First Dog Clone | |date= |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref>
* [[Rat]]: [[Ralph (cloned rat)|Ralph]], the first cloned rat (2003)<ref>{{cite news| url= | work=BBC News | title=Rat called Ralph is latest clone | date=September 25, 2003 | accessdate=April 30, 2010}}</ref>
* [[Mule]]: [[Idaho Gem]], a john mule born 4 May 2003, was the first horse-family clone.<ref>{{cite news|author=Associated Press August 25, 2009 |url=,0,5372986.story |title=Gordon Woods dies at 57; Veterinary scientist helped create first cloned mule | |date=2009-08-25 |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref>
* [[Horse]]: [[Prometea]], a Haflinger female born 28 May 2003, was the first horse clone.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=World's first cloned horse is born - 06 August 2003 |publisher=New Scientist |date= |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref>
* [[Water Buffalo]]: [[Samrupa]] was the first cloned water buffalo. It was born on February 6, 2009, at [[India]]'s Karnal National Diary Research Institute but died five days later due to lung infection.<ref>{{cite web|author=Kounteya Sinha, TNN, Feb 13, 2009, 12.33am IST |url= |title=India clones world's first buffalo - India - The Times of India | |date=2009-02-13 |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref>
* [[Pyrenean Ibex]] (2009) was the first "extinct" animal (while the species is not extinct, nor even endangered, no living examples of the Pyrenean subspecies had been known since 2000) to be cloned back to life; the clone lived for seven minutes before dying of lung defects.<ref>[ Extinct ibex is resurrected by cloning], The Daily Telegraph, January 31, 2009</ref>
* [[Camel]]: (2009) [[Injaz]], is the first cloned camel.<ref>{{cite news| url = | title = World's first cloned camel unveiled in Dubai | first = Richard | last = Spencer | publisher = [[]] | date = April 14, 2009 | accessdate = April 15, 2009 | location=London}}</ref>
* [[Pashmina goat]]: (2012) Noori, is the first cloned pashmina goat. Scientists at the faculty of veterinary sciences and animal husbandry of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agriculture Sciences and Technology (SKUAST-Kashmir) successfully cloned the first Pashmina goat (Noori) using the advanced reproductive techniques under the leadership of Riaz Ahmad Shah.<ref>{{cite news| url = | title = India gets its second cloned animal Noorie, a pashmina goat | first = Ishfaq-ul-Hassan | publisher = DNA | date = Mar 15, 2012 | location=Kashmir, India}}</ref>
==== Human cloning ====
{{Main|Human cloning}}
Human cloning is the creation of a [[genetics|genetically]] identical copy of an existing or previously existing [[human]]. The term is generally used to refer to ''artificial'' human cloning; human clones in the form of [[identical twin]]s are commonplace, with their cloning occurring during the natural process of reproduction. There are two commonly discussed types of human cloning: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning involves cloning adult cells for use in medicine and is an active area of research. Reproductive cloning would involve making cloned humans. A third type of cloning called replacement cloning is a theoretical possibility, and would be a combination of therapeutic and reproductive cloning. Replacement cloning would entail the replacement of an extensively damaged, failed, or failing body through cloning followed by whole or partial [[brain transplant]].
The various forms of human cloning are controversial.<ref>{{cite book|last=Pence|first=Gregory E.|authorlink=Gregory E. Pence|title=Who’s Afraid of Human Cloning?|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|year=1998|id=paperback ISBN 0-8476-8782-1 and hardcover ISBN 0-8476-8781-3}}</ref> There have been numerous demands for all progress in the human cloning field to be halted. Most scientific, governmental and religious organizations oppose reproductive cloning. The [[American Association for the Advancement of Science]] (AAAS) and other scientific organizations have made public statements suggesting that human reproductive cloning be banned until safety issues are resolved.<ref>{{cite web | url =| title = AAAS Statement on Human Cloning}}</ref> Serious [[bioethics|ethical concerns]] have been raised by the future possibility of harvesting organs from clones.<ref name="McGee">{{cite web |last=McGee |first=G. |year=2011 |title= Primer on Ethics and Human Cloning |date=October 2011 |publisher=American Institute of Biological Sciences |url= }}</ref> Some people have considered the idea of growing organs separately from a human organism - in doing this, a new organ supply could be established without the moral implications of harvesting them from humans. Research is also being done on the idea of growing organs that are biologically acceptable to the human body inside of other organisms, such as pigs or cows, then transplanting them to humans, a form of [[xenotransplantation]].
The first [[Hybrid (biology)|hybrid]] human clone was created in November 1998, by Advanced Cell Technologies.<ref>{{cite news| url= | work=BBC News | title=Details of hybrid clone revealed | date=June 18, 1999 | accessdate=April 30, 2010}}</ref> It was created from a man's leg cell, and a cow's egg whose DNA was removed. It was destroyed after 12 days. Since a normal embryo implants at 14 days, Dr [[Robert Lanza]], ACT's director of tissue engineering, told the Daily Mail newspaper that the embryo could not be seen as a person before 14 days. While making an embryo, which may have resulted in a complete human had it been allowed to come to term, according to ACT: "[ACT's] aim was 'therapeutic cloning' not 'reproductive cloning'"<!-- therapeutic vs. reproductive needs some work on their definitions in the article above. This is obvious legal doublespeak on the company's part, to cover their ass.-->
On January, 2008, Wood and Andrew French, Stemagen's chief scientific officer in [[California]], announced that they successfully created the first 5 mature human embryos using [[DNA]] from adult skin cells, aiming to provide a source of viable embryonic [[stem cells]]. Dr. [[Samuel H. Wood|Samuel Wood]] and a colleague donated skin cells, and DNA from those cells was transferred to human eggs. It is not clear if the embryos produced would have been capable of further development, but Dr. Wood stated that if that were possible, using the technology for reproductive cloning would be both unethical and illegal. The 5 cloned embryos, created in Stemagen Corporation lab, in [[La Jolla]], were destroyed.<ref>[ Mature Human Embryos Created From Adult Skin Cells]</ref>
==== Ethical issues of cloning ====
{{Main|Ethics of cloning}}
Because of recent technological advancements, the cloning of animals (and potentially humans) has been an issue. Many religious organizations oppose all forms of cloning,<ref name=Farley>Farley, M. A. (2001). Chapter 10. In K. L. Suzanne Holland, The human embryonic stem cell debate: science, eithics, & public policy (pp. 90-91, & 115). Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology</ref> on the grounds that life begins at conception. Judaism does not equate life with conception<ref name=Farley/> and, though some question the wisdom of cloning, [[Orthodox Judaism]] rabbis generally find no firm reason in [[halakhah|Jewish law and ethics]] to object to cloning.<ref>[[Michael Brody]] [ "Cloning People and Jewish Law"] . [[Avraham Steinberg]]. "Human Cloning: Scientific, Ethical and Jewish Perspectives" in [ Assia] v.3, n.2 1998.</ref> From the standpoint of classical [[liberalism]], concerns also exist regarding the protection of the identity of the individual and the right to protect one's genetic identity.
[[Gregory Stock]] is a scientist and outspoken critic against restrictions on cloning research.<ref>[ New Page 0<!-- Bot generated title -->]"dead link"</ref>
The social implications of an artificial human production scheme were famously explored in [[Aldous Huxley]]'s novel ''[[Brave New World]].'' <!-- the movie "the island" is far from a notable philosophical treatment of human cloning. though entertaining, its treatment of this subject was profoundly absurd. Readers are suggested to refer Aldous Huxley's final work "The Island" instead. -->
On December 28, 2006, the [[Food and Drug Administration (United States)|U.S. Food and Drug Administration]] (FDA) approved the consumption of meat and other products from cloned animals.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=FDA says cloned animals are OK to eat - Health - More health news - |publisher=MSNBC |date=2006-12-28 |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref> Cloned-animal products were said to be virtually indistinguishable from the non-cloned animals. Furthermore, companies would not be required to provide [[Food labeling regulations|labels]] informing the consumer that the meat comes from a cloned animal.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Meat of Cloned Food is Safe to Eat, FDA Says | |date= |accessdate=2012-08-19}}</ref>
Critics have raised objections to the FDA's approval of cloned-animal products for human consumption, arguing that the FDA's research was inadequate, inappropriately limited, and of questionable scientific validity.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=An HSUS Report: Welfare Issues with Genetic Engineering and Cloning of Farm Animals &#124; The Humane Society of the United States | |date= |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Not ready for prime time |author= |date=21 march 2007 |work= |publisher=[[Center for Food Safety]] |accessdate=26 August 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Comments of Consumers Union to US Food and Drug Administration on Docket No. 2003N-0573, Draft Animal Cloning Risk Assessment|author=Michael Hansen, Ph.D. |date=27 April 2007 |work= | |accessdate=26 August 2010 }}</ref> Several consumer-advocate groups are working to encourage a tracking program that would allow consumers to become more aware of cloned-animal products within their food.<ref>{{cite web |url= |deadurl=yes |title=Advocacy |author= |date= |work= | |accessdate= }}{{dead link|date=August 2012}}</ref>
Joseph Mendelson, legal director of the [[Center for Food Safety]], said that cloned food still should be labeled since safety and ethical issues about it remain questionable.
Carol Tucker Foreman, director of [[food policy]] at the [[Consumer Federation of America]], stated that FDA does not consider the fact that the results of some studies revealed that cloned animals have increased rates of mortality and deformity at birth.
Another concern is that the biotechnologies used on animals may someday be used on humans.<ref name=Lassen /> Some people may be more open to the idea of cloning of animals because most western countries have passed legislation against cloning humans, yet only a few countries passed legislation against cloning animals.
'''Possible Abnormalities due to Cloning'''
Researchers have found several abnormalities in cloned organisms, particularly in mice. The cloned organism may be born normal and resemble its non-cloned counterpart, but majority of the time will express changes in its genome later on in life.<ref name="Jaenisch">{{cite news |last=Jaenisch |first=R. |year=2001 |title= Cloning with stem cells causes abnormalities in mice |accessdate= October 2011 |work=Health & Science |url= | }}</ref> The concern with cloning humans is that the changes in genomes may not only result in changes in appearance, but in psychological and personality changes as well. The theory behind this is that the biological blueprint of the genes is the same in cloned animals as it is in normal ones, but they are read and expressed incorrectly.<ref name=Jaenisch /> DNA arrays were used to prove this claim in the research lab of Professor Rudolf Jaenisch. Jaenisch studied placentas from cloned mice and found that one in every 25 genes was expressed abnormally.<ref name=Halim /> Results of these abnormally expressed genes in the cloned mice were premature death, pneumonia, liver failure and obesity.<ref name=Halim />
==== Cloning extinct and endangered species ====
Cloning, or more precisely, the reconstruction of functional DNA from [[extinct]] species has, for decades, been a dream of some scientists. The possible implications of this [[Biological issues in Jurassic Park|were dramatized]] in the best-selling novel by [[Michael Crichton]] and high budget Hollywood thriller ''[[Jurassic Park (film)|Jurassic Park]]''. In real life, one of the most anticipated targets for cloning was once the [[Woolly Mammoth]], but attempts to extract DNA from frozen mammoths have been unsuccessful, though a joint Russo-Japanese team is currently working toward this goal. And in January 2011, it was reported by Yomiuri Shimbun that a team of scientists headed by Akira Iritani of Kyoto University had built upon research by Dr. Wakayama, saying that they will extract DNA from a mammoth carcass that had been preserved in a Russian laboratory and insert it into the egg cells of an African elephant in hopes of producing a mammoth embryo. The researchers said they hoped to produce a baby mammoth within six years.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Scientists 'to clone mammoth'|publisher=BBC News|date=2003-08-18}}</ref>
In 2001, a cow named Bessie gave birth to a cloned Asian [[gaur]], an endangered species, but the calf died after two days. In 2003, a [[banteng]] was successfully cloned, followed by three African wildcats from a thawed frozen embryo. These successes provided hope that similar techniques (using surrogate mothers of another species) might be used to clone extinct species. Anticipating this possibility, tissue samples from the last ''bucardo'' ([[Pyrenean Ibex]]) were frozen in [[liquid nitrogen]] immediately after it died in 2000. Researchers are also considering cloning endangered species such as the giant panda and cheetah. The "[[Frozen zoo|Frozen Zoo]]" at the [[San Diego Zoo]] now stores frozen tissue from the world's rarest and most endangered species.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Scientists Close on Extinct Cloning|author=Heidi B. Perlman|agency=Associated Press|date=2000-10-08 | work=The Washington Post}}</ref><ref name="pence2">{{cite book|title=Cloning After Dolly: Who's Still Afraid?|first=Gregory E.|last=Pence|authorlink=Gregory E. Pence|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|year=2005|isbn=0-7425-3408-1}}</ref>
In 2002, geneticists at the [[Australian Museum]] announced that they had replicated DNA of the [[Thylacine]] (Tasmanian Tiger), at the time extinct for about 65 years, using [[polymerase chain reaction]].<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Cloning to revive extinct species|first=Grant|last=Holloway||date=2002-05-28}}</ref> However, on February 15, 2005 the museum announced that it was stopping the project after tests showed the specimens' DNA had been too badly degraded by the ([[ethanol]]) preservative. On 15 May 2005 it was announced that the Thylacine project would be revived, with new participation from researchers in [[New South Wales]] and [[Victoria (Australia)|Victoria]].
In January 2009, for the first time, an extinct animal, the Pyrenean ibex mentioned above was cloned, at the [[Centre of Food Technology and Research of Aragon]], using the preserved [[DNA]] of the skin samples from 2001 and domestic goat egg-cells. (The ibex died shortly after birth due to physical defects in its lungs.) <ref name="The Telegraph">{{cite news | title =Extinct ibex is resurrected by cloning | url = | accessdate = 2009-02-01 |work = The Telegraph | location=London | first1=Richard | last1=Gray | first2=Roger | last2=Dobson | date=31 January 2009}} {{Dead link|date=October 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref> One of the continuing obstacles in the attempt to clone extinct species is the need for nearly perfect DNA. Cloning from a single specimen could not create a viable breeding population in sexually reproducing animals. Furthermore, even if males and females were to be cloned, the question would remain open whether they would be viable at all in the absence of parents that could teach or show them their natural behavior.
Cloning endangered species is a highly ideological issue. Many [[conservation biology|conservation biologists]] and [[environmentalist]]s vehemently oppose cloning endangered species—mainly because they think it may deter donations to help preserve natural habitat and wild animal populations. The "[[rule-of-thumb]]" in animal conservation is that, if it is still feasible to conserve habitat and viable wild populations, breeding in captivity should not be undertaken in isolation.
In a 2006 review, [[David Ehrenfeld]] concluded that cloning in animal conservation is an experimental technology that, at its state in 2006, could not be expected to work except by pure chance and utterly failed a [[cost-benefit analysis]].<ref name="Ehrenfeld">{{cite journal|last=Ehrenfeld|first=David|authorlink=David Ehrenfeld|year=2006|title=Transgenics and Vertebrate Cloning as Tools for Species Conservation|journal=Conservation Biology|volume=20|issue=3|pages=723–732|pmid=16909565|doi=10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00399.x}}</ref> Furthermore, he said, it is likely to siphon funds from established and working projects and does not address any of the issues underlying animal extinction (such as [[habitat destruction]], [[hunting]] or other [[overexploitation]], and an impoverished gene pool). While cloning technologies are well-established and used on a regular basis in plant conservation, care must be taken to ensure genetic diversity. He concluded:
{{quote|Vertebrate cloning poses little risk to the environment, but it can consume scarce conservation resources, and its chances of success in preserving species seem poor. To date, the conservation benefits of transgenics and vertebrate cloning remain entirely theoretical, but many of the risks are known and documented. Conservation biologists should devote their research and energies to the established methods of conservation, none of which require transgenics or vertebrate cloning.<ref name="Ehrenfeld"/>}}
On the 7th of December 2011 it was announced that a team from the Siberian mammoth museum and Japan's Kinki University plan to clone a woolly mammoth from a well preserved sample of bone marrow found in August 2011. The team claim that the cloning could be complete within the next five years. However, others have expressed doubt about the feasibility of the experiment.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=BBC News | |date=2011-12-07 |accessdate=2012-08-19}}</ref>
==In science fiction==
Science fiction has used cloning, most commonly and specifically human cloning, due to fact that it brings up controversial questions of identity.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Yvonne A. De La Cruz '&#39;Science Fiction Storytelling and Identity: Seeing the Human Through Android Eyes'&#39; |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2012-08-19}}</ref> In [[Aldous Huxley]]’s ''[[Brave New World]]'' (1932), human cloning is a major plot device that not only drives the story along but also makes the reader think critically about what identity means; this was picked up fifty years later in [[C. J. Cherryh]]’s novels ''[[Forty Thousand in Gehenna]]'' (1983) and ''[[Cyteen]]'' (1988). [[Kazuo Ishiguro]]'s 2005 novel ''[[Never Let Me Go (novel)|Never Let Me Go]]'' centres on human clones and considers the ethics of the practice. Another book that embodies the ideas of cloning is "[[The House of the Scorpion]]" which explores the rights of human clones and organ harvesting, set from the eyes of a clone. Also a local short novel "Containing God" by S.M.Wasi Haider similarly engulfs the ideas of cloning and the ethics, lust and problems revolving around the topic, emphasizing the idea that creating life gives people the false sense of divinity:
"As we gazed upon our creation we knew we had created more than just a replica, we had created life. We were more than just mere men we were Gods."
(Page 20, Paragraph 3)
[[Star Wars]] portrays human cloning in ''[[Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones]]'' and ''[[Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith]]'', in the form of the Grand Army of the Republic, an army of clone troopers. The [[Star Wars Expanded Universe|Expanded Universe]] also has numerous examples of cloning, including the [[Thrawn trilogy]], [[The Hand of Thrawn]] duology, and [[Clone Wars (Star Wars)|Clone Wars]]-era media.
== See also ==
* [[Frozen Ark|The Frozen Ark]]
* [[The President's Council on Bioethics]]
== References ==
== External links ==
{{Commons category|Cloning}}
* [ Cloning Fact Sheet] from Human Genome Project Information website.
* [ 'Cloning'] Freeview video by the Vega Science Trust and the BBC/OU
* [ The Reproductive Cloning Network]. Cloning articles, resources and links
* [ Cloning in Focus], an accessible and comprehensive look at cloning research from the University of Utah's Genetic Science Learning Center
* [ Click and Clone]. Try it yourself in the virtual mouse cloning laboratory, from the [[University of Utah]]'s Genetic Science Learning Center
* [ Cloning timeline]: from [[CNN]]
* [ "Cloning Addendum: A statement on the cloning report issues by the President's Council on Bioethics,"] The National Review, July 15, 2002 8:45am
* [ Cloning] educational resources and news from
* [ Ian Wilmut to quit cloning game]
<!-- Categorization -->
[[Category:Cloning| ]]
[[Category:Molecular biology]]
[[Category:Applied genetics]]
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Reporter: Mark (anonymous)
Date: Thursday, the 12th of May 2016 at 05:54:09 AM
Status: Reported
Thursday, the 12th of May 2016 at 05:54:09 AM #104306
Mark (anonymous)