ClueBot NG Report Interface

// Viewing 1467312

Navigation

ID: 1467312
User: 197.64.17.242
Article: Amygdalin
Diff:
(Tweak wording a bit. Amygdalin too has been promoted)
Line 63: Line 63:
 
| accessdate = 2007-08-06| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070820063617/http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/e01/geschichte.htm| archivedate= 20 August 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> and subsequently investigated by [[Justus von Liebig|Liebig]] and [[Friedrich Woehler|Wöhler]] in 1830. Several other related species in the genus of ''[[Prunus]]'', including [[Prunus armeniaca|apricot]] (''Prunus armeniaca'') and [[Prunus serotina|black cherry]] (''Prunus serotina''),<ref>{{cite journal |author=Swain E, Poulton JE |title=Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina |journal=Plant physiology |volume=106 |issue=2 |pages=437–445 |year=1994 |month=October |pmid=12232341 |pmc=159548 |url=http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12232341 |doi=10.1104/pp.106.2.437}}</ref> also contain amygdalin.
 
| accessdate = 2007-08-06| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070820063617/http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/e01/geschichte.htm| archivedate= 20 August 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> and subsequently investigated by [[Justus von Liebig|Liebig]] and [[Friedrich Woehler|Wöhler]] in 1830. Several other related species in the genus of ''[[Prunus]]'', including [[Prunus armeniaca|apricot]] (''Prunus armeniaca'') and [[Prunus serotina|black cherry]] (''Prunus serotina''),<ref>{{cite journal |author=Swain E, Poulton JE |title=Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina |journal=Plant physiology |volume=106 |issue=2 |pages=437–445 |year=1994 |month=October |pmid=12232341 |pmc=159548 |url=http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12232341 |doi=10.1104/pp.106.2.437}}</ref> also contain amygdalin.
   
Since the early 1950s, both amygdalin and a modified form named '''laetrile''' or '''Vitamin B<sub>17</sub>''' have been promoted as [[alternative cancer treatments|cancer cures]]. However, neither these compounds nor any other derivatives are [[vitamin]]s in any sense,<ref name=CaCancer/> and studies have found them to be clinically ineffective in the treatment of cancer, as well as dangerously toxic. They are potentially lethal when taken by mouth, because certain enzymes (in particular, glucosidases that occur in the gut and in various kinds of seeds, edible or inedible) act on them to produce [[cyanide]].<ref>Moss, M. ; Khalil, N. ; Gray, J. "Deliberate self-poisoning with Laetrile"; CMA JOURNAL/NOVEMBER 15, 1981/VOL. 125 pp.1126-1127</ref><ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1056/NEJM197809072991013 |author=Ellison NM, Byar DP, Newell GR |title=Special report on Laetrile: the NCI Laetrile Review. Results of the National Cancer Institute's retrospective Laetrile analysis |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume=299 |issue=10 |pages=549–52 |year=1978 |month=September |pmid=683212 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Moertel CG, Ames MM, Kovach JS, Moyer TP, Rubin JR, Tinker JH |title=A pharmacologic and toxicological study of amygdalin |journal=[[Journal of the American Medical Association|JAMA]] |volume=245 |issue=6 |pages=591–4 |year=1981 |month=February |pmid=7005480 |doi=10.1001/jama.245.6.591}}</ref><ref name=Moertel82>{{cite journal |author=Moertel CG, Fleming TR, Rubin J |title=A clinical trial of amygdalin (Laetrile) in the treatment of human cancer |journal=[[New England Journal of Medicine|N. Engl. J. Med.]] |volume=306 |issue=4 |pages=201–6 |year=1982 |month=January |pmid=7033783 |doi=10.1007/s00520-006-0168-9 |url=http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/306/4/201}}</ref><ref name=O'Brien>{{cite journal |doi=10.1097/00063110-200510000-00014 |author=O'Brien B, Quigg C, Leong T |title=Severe cyanide toxicity from 'vitamin supplements' |journal=Eur J Emerg Med |volume=12 |issue=5 |pages=257–8 |year=2005 |month=October |pmid=16175068 }}</ref> The promotion of laetrile to treat cancer has been described in the medical literature as a canonical example of [[quackery]],<ref name="ajcn"/><ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1002/1097-0142(19840201)53:3+<815::AID-CNCR2820531334>3.0.CO;2-U |author=Lerner IJ |title=The whys of cancer quackery |journal=Cancer |volume=53 |issue=3 Suppl |pages=815–9 |year=1984 |month=February |pmid=6362828 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Nightingale SL |title=Laetrile: the regulatory challenge of an unproven remedy |journal=Public Health Rep |volume=99 |issue=4 |pages=333–8 |year=1984 |pmid=6431478 |pmc=1424606 }}</ref> and as "the slickest, most sophisticated, and certainly the most [[Profit (accounting)|remunerative]] cancer quack promotion in medical history."<ref name=CaCancer/>
 
  +
Since the early 1950s, both amygdalin and a modified form named '''laetrile''' or '''Vitamin B<sub>17</sub>''' have been promoted as [[alternative cancer treatments|cancer cures]]. Philip Binzel, Jr., M.D. writes about "Laetrile and the life saving substance called Cyanide." He says that a doctor from the U.S. FDA once said that Laetrile contains "free" hydrogen cyanide and, thus, is toxic. He wrote that he would like to correct that misconception and that there is no "free" hydrogen cyanide in Laetrile. "When Laetrile comes in contact with the enzyme beta-glucosidase, the Laetrile is broken down to form two molecules of glucose, one molecule of benzaldehyde and one molecule of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Within the body, the cancer cell-and only the cancer cell-contains that enzyme. The key word here is that the HCN must be FORMED. It is not floating around freely in the Laetrile and then released. It must be manufactured. The enzyme beta glucosidase, and only that enzyme, is capable of manufacturing the HCN from Laetrile. If there are no cancer cells in the body, there is no beta-glucosidase. If there is no beta-glucosidase, no HCN will be formed from the Laetrile (1). Laetrile does contain the cyanide radical (CN). This same cyanide radical is contained in Vitamin B12, and in berries such as blackberries, blueberries and strawberries. You never hear of anyone getting cyanide poisoning from 12 or any of the above-mentioned berries, because they do not. The cyanide radical (CW) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are two completely different compounds, just as pure sodium (Na+) - one of the most toxic substances known to mankind - and sodium chloride (NaCl), which is table salt, are two completely different compounds. If the above is true, how did the story ever get started that Laetrile contains "free" hydrogen cyanide? It was the Food and Drug Administration. 1. For a more detailed analysis of the theoretical action of Laetrile against cancer cells, see G. Edward Griffin, World Without Cancer (Thousand Oaks, CA: American Media, 1974)."
  +
  +
He goes on to write: "I remember reading in some newspaper back in the late 1960's or early 1970's a news release from the FDA. This release stated that there were some proponents of a substance known as "Laetrile" (I'd never heard of it before) who were saying that this substance was capable of forming hydrogen cyanide in the presence of the cancer cell. The release continued by saying that, if this were actually true, we had, indeed, found a substance, which was target-specific, and would be of great value to the cancer patient. But, the news release went on to say, the FDA had done extensive testing of this substance, "Laetrile," and found no evidence that it contained hydrogen cyanide or that any hydrogen cyanide was released in the presence of the cancer cell. Thus, they said, Laetrile was of no value. When it was clearly established some time later that Laetrile did, indeed, release hydrogen cyanide in the presence of the cancer cell, how do you suppose the FDA reacted? Did they admit that they were wrong? Did they admit that they had done a very inadequate job in running their tests? No! They now proclaimed that Laetrile contained hydrogen cyanide and thus was toxic! So, here is a bureau of the Federal Government which, a short time before, had said that the reason Laetrile did not work was because it did not release hydrogen cyanide in the presence of cancer cells. Now, when they find that it does, they say that it is toxic. When offered an opportunity to present evidence of Laetrile's toxicity in Federal Court, they admitted that they had none." - source: http://www.worldwithoutcancer.org.uk/laetrileandcyanide.html
   
 
==Chemistry==
 
==Chemistry==
Reason: ANN scored at 0.95655
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 05:27:43 PM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 05:27:43 PM #101630
Bradley (anonymous)

2QhBX1 http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

Username:
Comment:
Captcha: