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Article: History of immigration to the United States
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(Immigration summary since 1830: -- Added new table which I moved from another article)
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[[File:Ellis Island video.ogg|Video by [[Edison Studios]] showing immigrants disembarking from the steam ferryboat ''William Myers'' onto [[Ellis Island]] on July 9, 1903.|thumb]]
 
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[[File:Ellis Island vuntry experienced successive waves of immigration which rose and fell over time, particularly from [[Europe]], with the cost of transoceanic transportation sometimes paid by travelers becoming [[indentured servant]]s after their arrival in the New World. At other times, immigration rules became more restrictive. With the ending of numerical restrictions in 1965 and the advent of cheap air travel immigration has increased from Asia and Latin America.
 
{{Main|Immigration to the United States}}
 
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The '''history of immigration to the United States''' is a continuing story of peoples from more populated continents, particularly Europe and also Africa and Asia, crossing oceans to the new land. Historians do not treat the first indigenous settlers as immigrants. Starting around 1600 British and other Europeans settled primarily on the [[East coast of the United States|east coast]]. Later Africans were brought as slaves. During the [[history of the United States|nation's history]], the growing country experienced successive waves of immigration which rose and fell over time, particularly from [[Europe]], with the cost of transoceanic transportation sometimes paid by travelers becoming [[indentured servant]]s after their arrival in the New World. At other times, immigration rules became more restrictive. With the ending of numerical restrictions in 1965 and the advent of cheap air travel immigration has increased from Asia and Latin America.
 
   
 
Attitudes toward new immigrants have cycled between favorable and hostile since the 1790s.
 
Attitudes toward new immigrants have cycled between favorable and hostile since the 1790s.
   
 
==Colonial era 1600-1775==
 
==Colonial era 1600-1775==
{{Main|Colonial history of the United States|British colonization of the Americas|Thirteen Colonies|European colonization of the Americas|Indentured servant}}
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{{Main|Colonial history of the United States|British colonization of the Americas|Thirteen Colonies|European colonization of the The first, and longest, era from 1607 to 1775 brought European immigrants (primarily those of British, German and Dutch descent) and African slaves.
The first, and longest, era from 1607 to 1775 brought European immigrants (primarily those of British, German and Dutch descent) and African slaves.
 
   
 
===British===
 
===British===
 
By far the largest group of new arrivals comprised the British. They were not exactly "immigrants" for they remained within the British Empire. Over 90% became farmers.<ref>Bernard Bailyn, ''Voyagers to the West: A Passage in the Peopling of America on the Eve of the Revolution'' (1988)</ref>
 
By far the largest group of new arrivals comprised the British. They were not exactly "immigrants" for they remained within the British Empire. Over 90% became farmers.<ref>Bernard Bailyn, ''Voyagers to the West: A Passage in the Peopling of America on the Eve of the Revolution'' (1988)</ref>
   
Large numbers of young men and women came alone, as indentured servants. Their passage was paid by employers in the colonies who needed help on the farms, or shops. They were provided food, housing, clothing and training but did not receive wages. At the end of the indenture (usually around age 21) they were free to marry and start their own farm.<ref>Sharon V. Salinger, ''To serve well and faithfully: Labor and Indentured Servants in Pennsylvania, 1682-1800''(2000)</ref>
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Large numbers of young men and women came alone, as indentured servants. Their passage was paid by employers in the colonies who needed help on the farmSalinger, ''To serve well and faithfully: Labor and Indentured Servants in Pennsylvania, 1682-1800''(2000)</ref>
   
====Chesapeake====
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====Chesecake====b
 
The first successful English colony started in 1607 in [[Jamestown, Virginia]]. Once tobacco was found to be a profitable crop, many plantations were established along the [[Chesapeake Bay]] in Virginia and Maryland.
 
The first successful English colony started in 1607 in [[Jamestown, Virginia]]. Once tobacco was found to be a profitable crop, many plantations were established along the [[Chesapeake Bay]] in Virginia and Maryland.
   
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A few hundred [[Pilgrim (Plymouth Colony)|English Pilgrims]], seeking their religious freedom in the New World, established a small settlement near [[Plymouth, Massachusetts]] in 1620. Tens of thousands of [[English Puritans]] came to [[Boston, Massachusetts]] and adjacent areas from about 1629 to 1640 to create a land dedicated to their religion . The earliest [[New England]] colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire were established along the northeast coast. Large scale immigration to this region ended before 1700, but a small steady trickle of later arrivals continued.<ref>Virginia DeJohn Anderson, ''New England's Generation: The Great Migration and the Formation of Society and Culture in the Seventeenth Century'' (1992)</ref>
 
A few hundred [[Pilgrim (Plymouth Colony)|English Pilgrims]], seeking their religious freedom in the New World, established a small settlement near [[Plymouth, Massachusetts]] in 1620. Tens of thousands of [[English Puritans]] came to [[Boston, Massachusetts]] and adjacent areas from about 1629 to 1640 to create a land dedicated to their religion . The earliest [[New England]] colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire were established along the northeast coast. Large scale immigration to this region ended before 1700, but a small steady trickle of later arrivals continued.<ref>Virginia DeJohn Anderson, ''New England's Generation: The Great Migration and the Formation of Society and Culture in the Seventeenth Century'' (1992)</ref>
   
The peak New England settlement occurred from about 1629 to about 1641 when about 20,000 Puritan settlers arrived mostly from the East Anglian parts of England ([[Norfolk]], [[Suffolk]], [[Essex]], [[Kent]], and [[East Sussex]]).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.virtualjamestown.org/indentures/england_counties.html |title=England County Boundaries |publisher=Virtualjamestown.org |date= |accessdate=2012-08-18}}</ref> In the next 150 years, their "[[Yankee]]" descendants largely filled in the New England states and parts of upstate New York.
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The peak New England settlement occurred from about 1629 to about 1641 when about 20,000 Puritan settlers arrived mostly from the East Anglian pffolk]], [[Essex]], [[Kent]], and [[East Sussex]]).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.virtualjamestown.org/indentures/england_counties.html |title=England County Boundaries |publisher=Virtualjamestown.org |date= |accessdate=2012-08-18}}</ref> In the next 150 years, their "[[Yankee]]" descendants largely filled in the New England states and parts of upstate New York.
   
 
The New England colonists were the most urban and educated of all the colonists and had many skilled farmers as well as tradesmen and skilled craftsmen among them. They started the first college, [[Harvard College|Harvard]], in 1635 to train their ministers. They mostly settled in small villages for mutual support (nearly all had their own militias) and common religious activity. Shipbuilding, commerce, agriculture and fisheries were their main income sources. New England's healthy climate (the cold winters killed the mosquitoes and other disease-bearing insects), small widespread villages (minimizing spread of disease) and abundant food supply resulted in the lowest death rate and highest birth rate (marriage was expected and birth control was not, and a much higher than average number of children and mothers survived) of any of the colonies. The eastern and northern frontier around the initial New England settlements was mainly settled by the descendants of the original New Englanders. Immigration to the New England colonies after 1640 and the start of the [[English Civil War]] decreased to less than 1% (about equal to the death rate) in nearly all years prior to 1845. The rapid growth of the New England colonies (~900,000 by 1790) was almost entirely due to the high birth rate (>3%) and low death rate (<1%) per year.<ref>Daniel Scott Smith, "The Demographic History of Colonial New England," ''Journal of Economic History,'' 32 (March 1972), 165-183</ref>
 
The New England colonists were the most urban and educated of all the colonists and had many skilled farmers as well as tradesmen and skilled craftsmen among them. They started the first college, [[Harvard College|Harvard]], in 1635 to train their ministers. They mostly settled in small villages for mutual support (nearly all had their own militias) and common religious activity. Shipbuilding, commerce, agriculture and fisheries were their main income sources. New England's healthy climate (the cold winters killed the mosquitoes and other disease-bearing insects), small widespread villages (minimizing spread of disease) and abundant food supply resulted in the lowest death rate and highest birth rate (marriage was expected and birth control was not, and a much higher than average number of children and mothers survived) of any of the colonies. The eastern and northern frontier around the initial New England settlements was mainly settled by the descendants of the original New Englanders. Immigration to the New England colonies after 1640 and the start of the [[English Civil War]] decreased to less than 1% (about equal to the death rate) in nearly all years prior to 1845. The rapid growth of the New England colonies (~900,000 by 1790) was almost entirely due to the high birth rate (>3%) and low death rate (<1%) per year.<ref>Daniel Scott Smith, "The Demographic History of Colonial New England," ''Journal of Economic History,'' 32 (March 1972), 165-183</ref>
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{{DEFAULTSORT:History Of Immigration To The United States}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:History Of Immigration To The United States}}
 
[[Category:History of immigration to the United States| ]]
 
[[Category:History of immigration to the United States| ]]
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