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Article: Politics of Burma
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{{Politics of Burma}}
'''[[Burma]]''' ([[Names of Burma|also known]] as '''Myanmar''') is a [[unitary state|unitary]] [[Presidential system|presidential]] [[constitutional republic]] under its [[Constitution of Burma|2008 constitution]].
== Political conditions ==
Historically, '''Burma''' was a [[monarchy]] ruled by various dynasties prior to the 19th century. The British colonized Burma in the late 19th century, and it was under the jurisdiction of the [[British Raj]] until 1937.
Burma was ruled as a British colony from 1885 until 1948. While the Bamar heartland was directly administered (first as a part of India and then, from 1937, as British Burma), ethnic regions outside the heartland were allowed some measure of self-rule along the lines of the [[Princely States]] of India. This led to split loyalties among the various ethnic groups to outside powers (either to the British or Japanese) as well between the indigenous people in Burma{{Citation needed|date=May 2008}}. The dominant ethnic group in Burma are the [[Bamar]], who make up approximately sixty-eight percent of the population. During [[World War II]], many members of the Bamar ethnic group volunteered to fight alongside the Japanese in hopes of overthrowing the occupying British forces{{Citation needed|date=May 2008}}. Meanwhile, many other ethnic groups supported the Allied forces in combating the Japanese and Burman forces. This conflict would come to be very significant in the aftermath of World War Two when Burma was granted its independence from Great Britain in 1948. By granting independence to Burma, the British government gave the new ruler, [[Aung San]], control over areas that were not traditionally controlled by the Bamar. This conglomeration of formerly British-owned land created a state that is home to over twenty distinct minority ethnic groups.{{Citation needed|date=May 2008}}
From the time of the signing of the Burmese Constitution in 1948, ethnic minorities have been denied Constitutional rights, access to lands that were traditionally controlled by their peoples and participation in the government. The various minority ethnic groups have been consistently oppressed by the dominant Burman majority, but have also suffered at the hands of warlords and regional ethnic alliances. Religion also plays a role in the ethnic conflicts that have taken place. Muslims, Hindus, Christians and Buddhists all live in Burma. These religious differences have led to several incidents that have affected hundreds of thousands of citizens in Burma. In 1991, approximately 250,000 Muslim Rohingyas (an ethnic group{{Citation needed|date=June 2012}} from southwestern Burma) were forced from their homes by Burman forces .<ref>p. 385 in: Selth, Andrew. Even Paranoids Have Enemies: “Cyclone Nargis and Myanmar’s Fears of Invasion”. Contemporary Southeast Asia 30.3 (2008): p. 379–402.</ref> They crossed the border into Bangladesh, where they were given refugee status and aid from the international community that was not available to them inside Burma.
The current government of Burma is led by Prime Minister (and General) Thein Sein. This current regime has been responsible for the displacement of several hundred thousand citizens, both inside and outside of Burma. The Karen, Karenni, and Mon ethnic groups have been forced to seek asylum in neighboring Thailand, where they are also abused by an unfriendly and unsympathetic government.{{Citation needed|date=May 2008}} These groups are perhaps more fortunate than the Wa and Shan ethnic groups who have become Internally Displaced Peoples in their own state since being removed from lands by the military junta in 2000. There are reportedly 600,000 of these Internally Displaced Peoples living in Burma today. Many are trying to escape forced labour in the military or for one of the many state-sponsored drug cartels.{{Citation needed|date=May 2008}} This displacement of peoples has led to both human rights violations as well as the exploitation of minority ethnic groups at the hands of the dominant Burman group. The primary actors in these ethnic struggles include but are not limited to the Government of Burma (junta), the [[Karen National Union]] and the [[Mong Tai Army]].
== History ==
=== Independence era ===
On 4 January 1948, [[Burma]] achieved independence from Britain, and became a democracy based on the [[parliamentary system]].
On the 19th of July 1947, Aung San became Deputy Chairman of the Executive Council of Burma, a transitional government. But in July 1947, political rivals assassinated Aung San and several cabinet members.<!--Not defined?: <ref name="aungsan"/>--> On 4 January 1948, the nation became an independent [[republic]], named the ''Union of Burma'', with [[Sao Shwe Thaik]] as its first President and [[U Nu]] as its first Prime Minister. Unlike most other former British colonies, it did not become a member of the [[Commonwealth of Nations|Commonwealth]]. A [[bicameral]] [[parliament]] was formed, consisting of a [[Chamber of Deputies]] and a [[Chamber of Nationalities]].<ref name="1947con">{{cite web |url= |title=The Constitution of the Union of Burma |accessdate=7 July 2006 |year=1947 |publisher=DVB |archiveurl = <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 15 June 2006}}</ref> The geographical area Burma encompasses today can be traced to the Panglong Agreement, which combined Burma proper, which consisted of [[Lower Burma]] and [[Upper Burma]], and the [[Frontier Areas]], which had been administered separately by the British.<ref>{{cite book |first=Martin |last=Smith |year=1991 |title=Burma -Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity |publisher=Zed Books |location=London and New Jersey |pages=42–43}}</ref>
=== AFPFL/Union Government ===
In 1961, [[U Thant]], then Burma's Permanent Representative to the United Nations and former Secretary to the Prime Minister, was elected [[Secretary-General of the United Nations]]; he was the first non-Westerner to head any international organization and would serve as UN Secretary-General for ten years.<ref>{{cite web |url= |author=Aung Zaw |title=Can Another Asian Fill U Thant's Shoes? |publisher=''The Irrawaddy'' Sep 2006 |accessdate=12 September 2006}} {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref> Among the Burmese to work at the UN when he was Secretary-General was a young [[Aung San Suu Kyi]].
=== Military socialist era ===
In 1962, General [[Ne Win]] led a [[coup d'état]] and established a nominally socialist military government that sought to follow the "Burmese Way to Socialism." The military expropriated private businesses and followed an economic policy of [[autarky]], or economic isolation.
=== SPDC era ===
The former [[Head of state]] was [[Than Shwe|Senior General Than Shwe]] who held the title of "Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council." His appointed [[prime minister]] was [[Khin Nyunt]] until 19 October 2004, when he was forcibly deposed in favor of [[Soe Win|Gen. Soe Win]]. Almost all [[Cabinet (government)|cabinet]] offices are held by military officers.
US and European government sanctions against the military government, combined with consumer boycotts and shareholder pressure organized by Free Burma activists, have succeeded in forcing most western corporations to withdraw from [[Burma]]. However, some western oil companies remain due to loopholes in the sanctions. For example, the French oil company [[Total S.A.]] and the American oil company [[Chevron Corporation|Chevron]] continue to operate the [[Yadana Project|Yadana natural gas pipeline]] from Burma to Thailand. Total (formerly TotalFinaElf) is the subject of a lawsuit in French and Belgian courts for alleged complicity in human rights abuses along the gas pipeline. Before it was acquired by Chevron, [[Unocal]] settled a similar lawsuit for a reported multi-million dollar amount.<ref>{{cite news |last=Horsley |first=William |url= |title=Dilemma of dealing with Burma |publisher=BBC News|date=20 October 2004 |accessdate=2 November 2004}}</ref> Asian businesses, such as [[Daewoo]], continue to invest in Burma, particularly in natural resource extraction.
The United States and European clothing and shoe industry became the target of Free Burma activists for buying from factories in Burma that were wholly or partly owned by the government or the military. Many stopped sourcing from Burma after protests, starting with [[Levi Strauss]] in 1992. From 1992 to 2003, Free Burma activists successfully forced dozens of clothing and shoe companies to stop sourcing from Burma. These companies included [[Eddie Bauer]], [[Liz Claiborne]], [[Macy's]], [[J. Crew]], [[JoS. A. Bank Clothiers|JoS. A. Banks]], [[Children's Place]], [[Burlington Coat Factory]], [[Wal-Mart]], and [[Target Corporation|Target]]. The U.S. government banned all imports from Burma as part of the "Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act" of 2003. Sanctions have been criticized for their adverse effects on the civilian population. However, Burmese democracy movement leader Aung San Suu Kyi has repeatedly credited sanctions for putting pressure on the ruling military regime.<ref>{{cite news |last=Hiatt |first=Fred |url= |title=How Best to Rid the World of Monsters |publisher=Washington Post|date=23 June 2003 |accessdate=24 May 2006}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url= |title=Reuters Belgian group seeks Total boycott over Myanmar |work=Ibiblio |publisher=Reuters |date=10 May 1999 |accessdate=24 June 2006}}</ref>
[[Human Rights Watch]] and [[Amnesty International]] have documented egregious [[human rights]] abuses by the military government.<ref>{{cite news |url= |title=Active Citizens under Political Wraps: Experiences from Burma and Vietnam |publisher=Heinrich Böll Foundation}}</ref> Civil liberties are severely restricted. [[Human Rights Defenders and Promoters]], formed in 2002 to raise awareness among the people of Burma about their human rights, claims that on 18 April 2007, several of its members were met by approximately a hundred people led by a local [[Union Solidarity and Development Association|USDA]] Secretary U Nyunt Oo and beaten up. The HRDP believes that this attack was condoned by the authorities.
There is no independent [[judiciary]] in Burma<ref name="courts">{{cite news|url=|title=Burma's push for freedom is held back by its institutionally corrupt courts|last=Ross|first=James|date=20 March 2012|work=The Guardian|accessdate=22 March 2012}}</ref> and the military government suppresses political activity. The government restricts Internet access, including blocking of Google, Gmail, Yahoo, and Hotmail.<ref>[ Times of India article]</ref> The government uses software-based filtering from US company [[Fortinet]] to limit the materials citizens can access on-line, including free email services, free web hosting and most political opposition and pro-democracy pages.<ref>{{cite news |url= |title=Internet Filtering in Burma in 2005: A Country Study |publisher=OpenNet Initiative}}</ref>
In 2001, the government permitted NLD office branches to re-open throughout Burma. However, they were shut down or heavily restricted beginning 2004, as part of a government campaign to prohibit such activities. In 2006, many members resigned from NLD, citing harassment and pressure from the [[Tatmadaw]] (Armed Forces) and the [[Union Solidarity and Development Association]].
The military government placed [[Aung San Suu Kyi]] under house arrest again on 31 May 2003, following an attack on her convoy in northern Burma by a mob reported to be in league with the military. The regime extended her house arrest for yet another year in late November 2005. Despite a direct appeal by [[Kofi Annan]] to [[Than Shwe]] and pressure from [[ASEAN]], the Burmese government extended Aung San Suu Kyi's house arrest another year on 27 May 2006.<ref>{{cite news |author=The Irrawaddy |url= |title=Suu Kyi’s Detention Extended, Supporters likely to Protest |publisher=The Irrawaddy |date=27 May 2006 |accessdate=27 May 2006}} {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref> She was released in 2010.<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Suu Kyi Freed at Last |author=Ba Kaung |date=13 November 2010 |work=The Irrawaddy |publisher= |accessdate=14 November 2010}}</ref>
The United Nations urged the country to move towards inclusive national reconciliation, the restoration of democracy, and full respect for human rights.<ref>[ UN Secretary Repeats Call for Release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi] 27 May 2007.</ref> In December 2008, the [[United Nations General Assembly]] passed a resolution condemning the [[Human rights in Burma|human rights situation in Burma]] and calling for the release of Aug San Suu Kyi's release—80 countries voting for the resolution, 25 against and 45 abstentions.<ref>[ UN General Assembly condemns Myanmar]. ''Taipei Times''. 26 December 2008</ref> Other nations, such as China and Russia, have been less critical of the regime and prefer to cooperate on economic matters.<ref>[\03\25\story_25-3-2009_pg20_5 Myanmar breaks own law holding Suu Kyi: UN panel]. ''Daily Times of Pakistan''. 25 March 2009</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=|title=China calls for all Myanmar sanctions to go after poll|date=5 April 2012|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=6 April 2012}}</ref>
Facing increasing [[international isolation]], Burma's military government agreed to embark upon a [[Reforms in Burma|programme of reform]], including permitting multiple [[political parties]] to contest [[elections]] in 2010 and 2012 and the release of [[political prisoners]]. However, organisations such as [[Human Rights Watch]] allege continued human rights abuses in ongoing conflicts in border regions such as [[Kachin State]].<ref>{{cite news|url=,8599,2109481,00.html|title=Abuses in Burma Despite Reforms|last=Pittman|first=Todd|date=20 March 2012|work=Associated Press|publisher=TIME|accessdate=22 March 2012}}</ref>
=== New constitution ===
Myanmar's army-drafted [[Constitution of Burma|constitution]] was overwhelmingly approved (by 92.4% of the 22 million voters with alleged voter turnout of 99%) on 10 May in the first phase of a [[Burmese constitutional referendum, 2008|two-stage referendum]] amid [[Cyclone Nargis]]. It was the first national vote since the [[Burmese general election, 1990|1990 election]]. Multi-party [[Burmese general election, 2010|elections in 2010]] would end 5 decades of military rule, as the new charter gives the military an automatic 25% of seats in parliament. NLD spokesman Nyan Win, inter alia, criticized the referendum: "This referendum was full of cheating and fraud across the country. In some villages, authorities and polling station officials ticked the ballots themselves and did not let the voters do anything".<ref>[ Reuters, Cyclone-hit Myanmar says 92 percent back charter]</ref>
===2010 Election===
{{main|Burmese general election, 2010}}
An election was held in 2010, with 40 parties approved to contest the elections by the Electoral Commission.<ref>{{cite news|last=Buncombe|first=Andrew|title=Burma bans marching and chanting during rallies |url=|newspaper=[[The Independent]]|date=23 June 2010|location=London}}</ref> some of which are linked to [[List of ethnic groups in Burma|ethnic minorities]].<ref name=ReuNDF>[ Suu Kyi party splits, faction to run in Myanmar poll]. [[Reuters]]. {{Nowrap|7 May}} 2010</ref> The [[National League for Democracy]], which overwhelmingly won the previous [[Burmese general election, 1990|1990 elections]] but were never allowed to take power, decided not to participate.
The military-backed [[Union Solidarity and Development Party]] declared victory, winning 259 of the 330 contested seats. The United Nations and many Western countries have condemned the elections as fraudulent,<ref name="t">{{cite news | url=,8599,2064470,00.html | title=The Slow Thaw of Burma's Notorious Military Junta | publisher=Times | accessdate=1 September 2011 | author=Andrew Marshall | date=11 April 2011}}</ref> although the decision to hold elections was praised by China and Russia.<ref name=autogenerated2>{{cite news|author=Reuters in Rangoon |url= |title=Burmese election won by military-backed party | |date= 9 November 2010|accessdate=11 November 2010 |location=London}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url= |title=China praises much-criticised Myanmar election |publisher=My Sinchew |date= |accessdate=11 November 2010}}</ref>
===2012 By Elections===
{{main|Burmese by-elections, 2012}}
In by-elections held in 2012, the main opposition party [[National League for Democracy]], which was only re-registered for the by-elections on 13 December 2011 won in 43 of the 44 seats they contested (out of 46). Significantly, international observers were invited to monitor the elections, although the government was criticised for placing too many restrictions on election monitors,<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Myanmar Election Observation Encouraging But Inadequate|first=22 March 2012|work=Asian Network for Free Elections|accessdate=24 March 2012|location=Bangkok}}</ref> some of whom were denied visas.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Australian monitors denied visas ahead of polls|last=Hindstrom|first=Hanna|date=30 March 2012|publisher=Democratic Voice of Burma|accessdate=6 April 2012}}</ref>
The Union Solidarity and Development Party said it would lodge official complaints to the [[Union Election Commission]] on poll irregularities, voter intimidation, and purported campaign incidents that involved [[National League for Democracy]] members and supporters,<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Myanmar ruling party claims poll irregularities|date=6 April 2012|work=Agence France-Presse||accessdate=6 April 2012}}</ref> while the National League for Democracy also sent an official complaint to the commission, regarding ballots that had been tampered with.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=NLD files official complaint against ballot tampering|last=Ko Pauk|date=1 April 2012|publisher=Mizzima|accessdate=6 April 2012}}</ref>
However, President [[Thein Sein]] remarked that the by-elections were conducted "in a very successful manner",<ref name="ap">{{cite news|url=|title=Myanmar leader praises by-elections that put Suu Kyi in office as ‘successful’|date=6 April 2012|work=Associated Press|accessdate=6 April 2012}}</ref> and many foreign countries have indicated willingness to lift or loosen sanctions on Burma and its military leaders.<ref name="ramesh">{{cite news|url=|title=Singapore welcomes Myanmar's progress: PM|last=Ramesh|first=S|date=5 April 2012|publisher=Today|accessdate=5 April 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=|title=ASEAN leaders call for sanctions on Burma to be lifted|last=Murdoch|first=Lindsay|date=5 April 2012|publisher=The Age|accessdate=5 April 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=|title=EU likely to further eased sanctions on Myanmar : spokeswoman|date=3 April 2012|work=Deutsche Presse Agentur|accessdate=5 April 2012}}</ref>
==Executive branch==
{| class="wikitable"
!Term began
!Term ended
|[[President of Burma|President]]
|[[Thein Sein]]
|30 March 2011
|rowspan=3|[[Vice President of Burma|Vice President]]
|[[Tin Aung Myint Oo]]
|30 March 2011
|1 July 2012<ref></ref>
|[[Sai Mauk Kham]]
|30 March 2011
|[[Nyan Tun]]<ref></ref>
|15 August 2012
The President is the head of state and head of government. He oversees the [[Cabinet of Burma]].
===Members of Government of Burma===
{| class="wikitable"
! Office
! Name
|[[Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (Burma)|Minister of Agriculture & Irrigation]]
|[[Myint Hlaing]], U.
|[[Ministry of Commerce (Burma)|Minister of Commerce]]
| [[Win Myint]], U.
|[[Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (Burma)|Minister of Communications and Information Technology]]
| [[Myat Hein]], U.
|[[Ministry of Construction (Burma)|Minister of Construction]]
| [[Kyaw Lwin]], U.
|[[Ministry of Cooperatives (Burma)|Minister of Cooperatives]]
| [[Kyaw Hsan]], U.
|[[Ministry of Culture (Burma)|Minister of Culture]]
| [[Aye Myint Kyu]], U.
|[[Ministry of Defense (Burma)|Minister of Defense]]
|[[Wai Lwin]], Lt. Gen.
|[[Ministry of Education (Burma)|Minister of Education]]
| Mya Aye, Dr.
|[[Ministry of Electric Power (Burma)|Minister of Electric Power]]
|[[Khin Maung Soe]], U.
|[[Ministry of Energy (Burma)|Minister of Energy]]
|[[Than Htay]], U.
|[[Ministry of Finance and Revenue (Burma)|Minister of Finance and Revenue]]
|[[Win Shein]], U.
|[[Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Burma)|Minister of Foreign Affairs]]
|[[Wunna Maung Lwin]], U.
|[[Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry]]
|[[Win Tun]], U.
|[[Ministry of Health (Burma)|Minister of Health]]
|[[Pe Thet Khin]], Dr.
|[[Ministry of Home Affairs (Burma)|Minister of Home Affairs]]
|[[Ko Ko (minister)|Ko Ko]], Lt. Gen.
|[[Ministry of Hotels and Tourism (Burma)|Minister of Hotels and Tourism]]
|[[Htay Aung]], U.
|[[Ministry of Immigration and Population (Burma)|Minister of Immigration and Population]]
|[[Khin Yi]], U.
|[[Ministry of Industry (Burma)|Minister of Industry]]
|[[Aye Myint]], U.
|[[Ministry of Information (Burma)|Minister of Information]]
|[[Aung Kyi]], U.
|[[Ministry of Labour (Burma)|Minister of Labor, Employment and Social Security]]
|[[Maung Myint]], U.
|[[Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries|Minister of Livestock and Fisheries]]
|[[Ohn Myint]], U.
|[[Ministry of Mines (Burma)|Minister of Mines]]
|[[Myint Aung]], Dr.
|[[Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development (Burma)|Minister of National Planning and Economic Development]]
|[[Kan Zaw]], Dr.
|[[Ministry of Border Affairs (Burma)|Minister of Border Affairs]]
|[[Thet Naing Win]], Lt. Gen.
|[[Ministry of Rail Transportation (Burma)|Minister of Rail Transport]]
|[[Zayar Aung]], U<ref></ref>
|[[Ministry of Religious Affairs (Burma)|Minister of Religious Affairs]]
| [[Hsan Sint]], U.
|[[Ministry of Science and Technology (Burma)|Minister of Science and Technology]]
|[[Ko Ko Oo]], Dr.
|[[Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement (Burma)|Minister of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement]]
| [[Myat Myat Ohn Khin]], Dr.
|[[Ministry of Sports (Burma)|Minister of Sports]]
|[[Tint Hsan]], U.
|[[Ministry of Transport (Burma)|Minister of Transport]]
| [[Nyan Tun Aung]], U.
|[[Ministry of President Office (Burma)|Minister of President Office]]
|[[Thein Nyunt]], U.
|[[Ministry of President Office (Burma)|Minister of President Office]]
|[[Soe Maung]], U.
|[[Ministry of President Office (Burma)|Minister of President Office]]
|[[Soe Thein]], U.
|[[Ministry of President Office (Burma)|Minister of President Office]]
|[[Aung Min]], U.
|[[Ministry of President Office (Burma)|Minister of President Office]]
|[[Hla Tun]], U.
|[[Ministry of President Office (Burma)|Minister of President Office]]
|[[Tin Naing Thein]], U.
|[[Union Auditor General]]
|[[Thein Htaik]], U.
|[[Union Attorney-General]]
|[[Tun Shin]], Dr.
==Legislative branch==
Under the 2008 [[Constitution of Burma|Constitution]] the legislative power of the Union is shared among the ''[[Pyidaungsu Hluttaw]]'', [[State and Region Hluttaws]].<ref name="const_ch1_art12a">[[Constitution of Myanmar]], Chapter 1, Article 12(a)</ref> The ''Pyidaungsu Hluttaw'' consists of the People's Assembly (''[[Pyithu Hluttaw]]'') elected on the basis of township as well as population, and the House of Nationalities (''[[Amyotha Hluttaw]]'') with on an equal number of representatives elected from Regions and States.<ref name="const_ch1_art12b">[[Constitution of Myanmar]], Chapter 1, Article 12(b)</ref><ref name="const_ch1_art74">[[Constitution of Myanmar]], Chapter 1, Article 74</ref> The People's Assembly consists of 440 representatives, with 110 being military personnel nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services.<ref name="const_ch1_art109">[[Constitution of Myanmar]], Chapter 1, Article 109</ref> The House of Nationalities consists of 224 representatives with 56 being military personnel nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services.<ref name="const_ch1_art141">[[Constitution of Myanmar]], Chapter 1, Article 141</ref>
==Judicial system==
Burma's judicial system is limited. British-era laws and legal systems remain much intact, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial. The judiciary is independent of the executive branch. Burma does not accept compulsory [[International Court of Justice]] jurisdiction. The highest court in the land is the [[Supreme Court of Burma|Supreme Court]]. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is [[Tun Tun Oo]], and Attorney General is Dr [[Tun Shin]].
===''Wareru dhammathat''===
Wareru [[Dhammasat|dhammathat]] or the Manu dhammathat ({{my|မနုဓမ္မသတ်}}) was the earliest law-book in Burma. It consists of laws ascribed to the ancient Indian sage, [[Manusmṛti|Manu]], and brought to Burma by Hindu colonists. The collection was made at Wareru’s command, by monks from the writings of earlier Mon scholars preserved in the monasteries of his kingdom. (Wareru seized Martaban in 1281 and obtained the recognition of China as the ruler of Lower Burma and founded a kingdom which lasted until 1539. Martaban was its first capital, and remained so until 1369. It stretched southwards as far as Tenasserim.)<ref>BURMA, D. G . E. HALL, M.A., D.LIT., F.R.HIST.S., Professor Emeritus of the University of London and formerly Professor of History in the University of Rangoon, Burma.Third edition 1960. Page 34</ref>
===''Dhammazedi pyatton''===
Mon King [[Dhammazedi]] (1472–92) was the greatest of the Mon rulers of Wareru’s line. He was famous for his wisdom and the collection of his rulings were recorded in the Kalyani stone inscriptions and known as the Dammazedi pyatton.<ref>BURMA, D. G . E. HALL, M.A., D.LIT., F.R.HIST.S. Professor Emeritus of the University of London and formerly Professor of History in the University of Rangoon, Burma. Third edition 1960. Page 35-36</ref>
==Administrative divisions==
{{Main|Administrative divisions of Burma}}
Burma is divided into seven regions (previously called divisions) divisions (''taing'') and seven states (''pyi-nè''), classified by ethnic composition. The seven regions are [[Ayeyarwady Region]], [[Bago Division]], [[Magway Division]], [[Mandalay Division]], [[Sagaing Division]], [[Tanintharyi Division]] and [[Yangon Division]]; the seven states are [[Chin State]], [[Kachin State]], [[Kayin State]], [[Kayah State]], [[Mon State]], [[Rakhine State]] and [[Shan State]].
There are also five Self-administrated zones and a Self-administrated Division "for National races with suitable population"<ref>[ New administrative map of Burma] page 2 of the Burma Policy Briefing by the [[Transnational Institute]]</ref>
Within the Sagain Region
*Naga (Leshi, Lahe and Namyun townships)
Within the Shan State
*Palaung (Namshan and Manton townships)
*Kokang (Konkyan and Laukkai townships)
*Pao (Hopong, Hshihseng and Pinlaung townships),
*Danu (Ywangan and Pindaya townships),
*Wa Selfadministrated division (Hopang, Mongmao, Panwai, Pangsang, Naphan and Metman townships)
==International organization participation==
[[Asian Development Bank|AsDB]], [[Association of South East Asian Nations|ASEAN]], CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, [[International Atomic Energy Agency|IAEA]], IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, [[International Monetary Fund|IMF]], IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), [[Interpol (organization)|Interpol]], [[International Olympic Committee|IOC]], ITU, NAM, OPCW, [[United Nations|UN]], UNCTAD, [[UNESCO]], UNIDO, UPU, [[World Health Organization|WHO]], WMO, WToO, [[World Trade Organization|WTrO]], [[Global Justice Center|GJC]]
== See also ==
{{Portal|Current events/Southeast Asia}}
==Further reading==
*{{cite book |author=Myint-U, Thant |title=The River of Lost Footsteps: A Personal History of Burma |publisher=Farrar, Straus and Giroux |location=London |year=2008 }}
*[ CIA World Factbook]
*[ Political change in Myanmar: Filtering the murky waters of "disciplined democracy"], FIIA Working Paper 78, [[The Finnish Institute of International Affairs]], January 2013.
== External links ==
=== Burmese democracy and human rights online media ===
{{Commons category|Politics of Myanmar}}
There are a number of web sites for more information, including the following:
*[ HumanRights Abuses in Burma] at Globalissues
*[]—[[Burma Digest]]
*[ Irrawaddy] {{en icon}}
*[ Irrawaddy] {{my icon}}
*[ Mizzima News] {{en icon}}
*[ Mizzima News] {{my icon}}
*[ Mizzima TV]
*[ DVB Democratic Voice of Burma]
*[ Khit Pyaing, The New Era Journal] {{my icon}}
*[ Khit Pyaing, The New Era Journal] {{en icon}}
*[ Moe Maka] {{my icon}}
*[ Burmanet News]
{{Asia topic|Government of|title=Governments of Asia}}
{{Asia topic|Politics of}}
{{DEFAULTSORT:Politics Of Burma}}
[[Category:Politics of Burma| ]]
[[Category:Politics of Southeast Asia|Burma]]
[[bg:Държавно устройство на Мианмар]]
[[el:Πολιτική της Μιανμάρ]]
[[es:Política de Birmania]]
[[fr:Politique en Birmanie]]
[[my:မြန်မာနိုင်ငံ၏ နိုင်ငံရေး]]
[[pt:Política de Myanmar]]
[[ru:Политика Мьянмы]]
Reason: ANN scored at 0.957849
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 07:21:57 PM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 07:21:57 PM #101782
Bradley (anonymous)