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|name = Cassava
|image =Manihot_esculenta_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-090.jpgofuhdzryufh uvdvmngfbngvdffvnf ujmrsfh u88fuf vjnb jhfvbvhdfjkv uhvvshsbc ijovdf urogj nugg egjuih jbn,mbubht gughljhkgfg kbbyj . m nufk bnv/.
|image_caption=Leaves of the cassava plant
|image2 = Manihot esculenta 001.jpg
|image2_caption = A manioc tuber
|regnum = [[Plant]]ae
|unranked_divisio = [[Angiosperms]]
|unranked_classis = [[Eudicots]]
|unranked_ordo = [[Rosids]]
|ordo = [[Malpighiales]]
|familia = [[Euphorbiaceae]]
|subfamilia = [[Crotonoideae]]
|tribus = [[Manihoteae]]
|genus = ''[[Manihot]]''
|species = '''''M. esculenta'''''
|binomial = ''Manihot esculenta''jbvh bhvfvcb n xgvfv nbbv hbv nnn hxcfv nmxf bvjkn c cnvb c cjn xvbv cnvbmn
|binomial_authority = [[Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz|Crantz]]
'''Cassava''' ('''''Manihot esculenta'''''), also called '''manioc''', '''yuca''', '''balinghoy''', '''mogo''', '''mandioca''', '''kamoteng kahoy''', and '''manioc root''', a woody [[shrub]] of the [[Euphorbiaceae]] (spurge family) native to [[South America]], is extensively cultivated as an annual [[agriculture|crop]] in [[tropical]] and [[subtropical]] regions for its edible [[starch]]y, [[tuberous root]], a major source of [[carbohydrate]]s. It differs from the similarly spelled [[yucca]], an unrelated fruit-bearing shrub in the [[Asparagaceae]] family. Cassava, when dried to a starchy, powdery (or pearly) extract is called [[tapioca]], while its fermented, flaky version is named [[garri]].
Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics.<ref>{{cite web|title=Cassava|publisher=Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations|url=}}</ref><ref>Claude Fauquet and Denis Fargette, (1990) "[ African Cassava Mosaic Virus: Etiology, Epidemiology, and Control]" ''Plant Disease'' Vol. 74(6): 404–11.</ref> Cassava is a major staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for around 502 million people.<ref>{{cite web|title=Dimensions of Need: An atlas of food and agriculture|publisher=Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations|year=1995|url=}}</ref> It is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on marginal soils. [[Nigeria]] is the world's largest producer of cassava.
Cassava root is a good source of carbohydrates, but a poor source of [[Protein (nutrient)|protein]]. A predominantly cassava root diet can cause [[protein-energy malnutrition]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Dynamics of change - The dividends of food security|publisher=FAO, United Nations|year=2000|url=}}</ref>
Cassava is classified as sweet or bitter. Like other roots and tubers, Cassava contains anti-nutrition factors and toxins.<ref>Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition", Rome, 1990, Ch. 7 "Toxic substances and antinutritional factors", third paragraph. Document available online at Ch. 7 appears at (Accessed 25 June 2011.)</ref> It must be properly prepared before consumption. Improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual [[cyanide]] to cause acute cyanide intoxication and [[Goitre|goiters]], and may even cause [[ataxia]] or partial paralysis.<ref name="">Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition", Rome, 1990, Ch. 7 "Toxic substances and antinutritional factors". Document available online at Ch. 7 appears at (Accessed 25 June 2011.)</ref> Nevertheless, farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they deter pests, animals, and thieves.<ref name="leisa">Linley Chiwona-Karltun, Chrissie Katundu, James Ngoma, Felistus Chipungu, Jonathan Mkumbira, Sidney Simukoko, Janice Jiggins (2002) ''Bitter cassava and women: an intriguing response to food security''LEISA Magazine, volume 18 Issue 4. [ Online version] accessed on 2009-08-11.</ref> The more-toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security crop") in times of famine in some places.<ref>Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition", Rome, 1990, Ch. 7 "Toxic substances and antinutritional factors" (under "Epidemic spastic paraparesis"). Document available online at Ch. 7 appears at (Accessed 25 June 2011.</ref>
[[File:Manihot esculenta dsc07325.jpg|left|thumb|Unprocessed cassava roots]]
The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. Commercial [[Variety (botany)|varieties]] can be 5 to 10&nbsp;cm in [[diameter]] at the top, and around 15&nbsp;cm to 30&nbsp;cm long. A woody cordon runs along the root's [[Coordinate axis|axis]]. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish. Cassava roots are very rich in [[starch]], and contain significant amounts of calcium (50&nbsp;mg/100g), phosphorus (40&nbsp;mg/100g) and vitamin C (25&nbsp;mg/100g). However, they are poor in [[protein]] and other [[nutrient]]s. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein (rich in lysine), but deficient in the [[amino acid]] [[methionine]] and possibly [[tryptophan]].<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Ravindran|first=Velmerugu|title=Preparation of cassava leaf products and their use as animal feeds. |journal=FAO animal production and health paper|issue=95|pages=111–125|publisher=Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations|location=Rome, Italy|year=1992|url=|accessdate=2010-08-13}}</ref>
[[File:Yucamuseolarco.jpg|thumb|Yuca in Moche culture, 100 AD, [[Larco Museum|Larco Museum Collection]]]]
Wild populations of ''M. esculenta'' subspecies ''flabellifolia'', shown to be the progenitor of domesticated cassava, are centered in west-central Brazil, where it was likely first domesticated more than 10,000 years [[Before Present|BP]].<ref>{{Cite pmid|10318928}}</ref> By 6,600 BC, manioc pollen appears in the [[Gulf of Mexico]] lowlands, at the [[San Andrés (Mesoamerican site)|San Andrés]] archaeological site.<ref>Pope, Kevin; Pohl, Mary E. D.; Jones, John G.; Lentz, David L.; von Nagy, Christopher; Vega, Francisco J.; Quitmyer Irvy R.; "[ Origin and Environmental Setting of Ancient Agriculture in the Lowlands of Mesoamerica]", ''[[Science (journal)|Science]]'', 18 May 2001:Vol. 292. no. 5520, pp. 1370–1373.</ref> The oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old [[Maya civilization|Maya]] site, [[Joya de Cerén]], in [[El Salvador]],<ref>University of Colorado at Boulder, (2007) [ "CU-Boulder Archaeology Team Discovers First Ancient Manioc Fields In Americas"], press release August 20, 2007, accessed August 29, 2007.</ref> but the species ''Manihot esculenta'' likely originated {{Citation needed|date=November 2009}} further south in [[Brazil]] and [[Paraguay]]. With its high food potential, it had become a [[staple food]] of the native populations of northern South America, southern Mesoamerica, and the Caribbean by the time of the Spanish conquest, and its cultivation was continued by the colonial Portuguese and Spanish. Forms of the modern domesticated species can be found growing in the wild in the south of [[Brazil]]. While several ''Manihot'' species are wild, all varieties of ''M. esculenta'' are [[cultigen]]s.
Cassava was a staple food for [[pre-Columbian]] peoples in the Americas and is often portrayed in [[indigenous]] art. The [[Moche (culture)|Moche]] people often depicted yuca in their ceramics.<ref>Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. ''The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the [[Larco Museum|Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera]].'' New York: [[Thames & Hudson]], 1997.</ref>
Since being introduced by Portuguese traders from Brazil in the 16th century, [[maize]] and cassava have replaced traditional [[Africa]]n crops as the continent's most important staple food crops.<ref>"[ The cassava transformation in Africa]". The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).</ref> Cassava is sometimes described as the 'bread of the tropics'<ref>{{Cite doi|10.1007/978-1-4020-9283-1_13}}</ref> but should not to be confused with the tropical and equatorial [[bread tree]] ''(Encephalartos)'', the [[breadfruit]] ''(Artocarpus altilis)'' or the [[African breadfruit]] ''(Treculia africana)''.
==Economic importance==
[[File:Manihot esculenta - cross section 2.jpg|thumb|200px|A cross section of cassava]]
World production of cassava root was estimated to be 184 million [[tonne]]s in 2002, rising to 230 million tonnes in 2008 (FAO). The majority of production in 2002 was in [[Africa]], where 99.1 million tonnes were grown; 51.5 million tonnes were grown in [[Asia]] and 33.2 million tonnes in [[Latin America]] and the [[Caribbean]]. [[Nigeria]] is the world's largest producer of cassava. However, based on the statistics from the FAO of the [[United Nations]], [[Thailand]] is the largest exporting country of dried cassava, with a total of 77% of world export in 2005. The second-largest exporting country is [[Vietnam]], with 13.6%, followed by [[Indonesia]] (5.8%) and [[Costa Rica]] (2.1%). Worldwide cassava production increased by 12.5% between 1988 and 1990. {{Citation needed|date=April 2009}}.
In 2010, the average yield of cassava crops worldwide was 12.5 tonnes per hectare. The most productive cassava farms in the world were in [[India]], with a nationwide average yield of 34.8 tonnes per hectare in 2010.<ref>{{cite web|title=FAOSTAT: Production, Crops, Cassava, 2010 data|publisher=Food and Agriculture Organization|year=2011|url=}}</ref>
Cassava, [[Yam (vegetable)|yam]]s (''[[Dioscorea]]'' spp.) and [[sweet potato]]es (''Ipomoea batatas'') are important sources of food in the tropics. The cassava plant gives the highest yield of [[carbohydrates]] per cultivated area among crop plants, except for [[sugarcane]] and [[sugar beet]]s.<ref>Nutrition per Hectare for Staple Crops,</ref> Cassava plays a particularly important role in agriculture in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, because it does well on poor soils and with low rainfall, and because it is a perennial that can be harvested as required. Its wide harvesting window allows it to act as a famine reserve and is invaluable in managing labor schedules. It also offers flexibility to resource-poor farmers because it serves as either a subsistence or a cash crop.<ref>{{Cite doi|10.1086/341532}}</ref>
[[File:Casava.jpg|upright|thumb|Cassava in cultivation in Democratic Republic of Congo]]
No continent depends as much on root and tuber crops in feeding its population as does Africa. In the humid and subhumid areas of tropical Africa, it is either a primary staple food or a secondary costaple. In [[Ghana]], for example, cassava and yams occupy an important position the agricultural economy, and contribute about 46% of the agricultural gross domestic product. Cassava accounts for a daily caloric intake of 30% in [[Ghana]], and is grown by nearly every farming family. The importance of cassava to many Africans is epitomised in the [[Ewe language|Ewe]] (a language spoken in Ghana, [[Togo]] and [[Benin]]) name for the plant, ''agbeli'', meaning "there is life". The price of cassava has risen significantly in the last half decade, and lower-income people have turned to other carbohydrate-rich foods, such as rice. {{Citation needed|date=April 2009}}
In [[Tamil Nadu]], [[India]], the National Highway 68 between [[Thalaivasal]] and [[Attur]] has many cassava-processing factories alongside it—indicating an abundance of it locally. Cassava is widely cultivated and eaten as a staple food in [[Andhra Pradesh]] and in [[Kerala]].
In the subtropical region of southern [[China]], cassava is the fifth-largest crop in term of production, after [[rice]], [[sweet potato]], [[sugar cane]] and [[maize]]. China is also the largest export market for cassava produced in Vietnam and Thailand. Over 60% of cassava production in China is concentrated in a single province, [[Guangxi]], averaging over seven million tons annually.
[[File:Cassava heavy cake.jpg|thumb|left|Cassava heavy cake]]
[[Cassava-based dishes]] are widely consumed wherever the plant is cultivated; some have regional, national, or ethnic importance.<ref>Frederick Douglass Opie, Hog and Hominy: Soul Food from Africa to America, (Columbia University Press 2008), chapters 1–2.</ref> Cassava must be cooked properly to detoxify it before it is eaten.
Cassava can be cooked in various ways. The soft-boiled root has a delicate flavor and can replace boiled potatoes in many uses: as an accompaniment for meat dishes, or made into [[purée]]s, [[dumpling]]s, [[soup]]s, stews, gravies, etc. This plant is used in [[cholent]], in some households, as well. Deep fried (after boiling or steaming), it can replace fried potatoes, with a distinctive flavor. In Brazil, detoxified manioc is ground and cooked to a dry, often hard or crunchy meal which is used as a condiment, toasted in butter, or eaten alone as a side dish.
=====Fufu, eba and tapioca=====
[[File:Making fufu Democratic Republic Congo.jpg|thumb|Fufu, or cassava bread, is made in Africa by first pounding cassava in a mortar to make flour, which is then sifted before being put in hot water to become fufu. The image shows fufu being prepared in Democratic Republic of Congo.]]
''[[Fufu]]'' is made from the starchy cassava-root flour. [[Tapioca]] (or [[fecula]]), essentially a flavorless, starchy ingredient produced from treated and dried cassava (manioc) root, is used in cooking. It is similar to [[sago]] and is commonly used to make milky pudding similar to rice pudding. [[Bubble tea|''Boba'']] tapioca pearls are made from cassava root. It is also used in cereals for which several tribes in South America have used it extensively. It is also used in making cassava cake, a popular pastry.
Cassava is used in making ''eba'', a popular food in Nigeria.
''Gari'' is a creamy-white, granular flour with a slightly sour, fermented flavor from fermented, gelatinized fresh cassava tubers. ''Gari'' soakings is a delicacy that cost less than US$1 in Nigeria, Ghana and other parts of Africa, where cassava is cultivated. One can simply soak ''gari'' in cold water, add a bit of sugar and roasted groundnut (peanut) to taste, and add whatever quantity of evaporated milk one desires. ''Gari'' soakings prepared with coconut water may taste better.
The leaves can be pounded to a fine chaff and cooked as a [[palaver sauce]] (as is done in [[Liberia]] and [[Sierra Leone]]), usually with palm oil, but other vegetable oils can also be used. Palaver sauces contain meat and fish, as well. The leaf chaff must be washed several times to remove the bitterness.
=====Cassava in Congo=====
In the [[Democratic Republic of the Congo]], the leaves are finely cut and boiled and are called ''mpondu'' in [[Lingala]], ''sombe'' in [[Swahili language|Swahili]] or ''sakasaka'' in [[Kikongo]]. The cassava root flour is also used to make a cassava bread by boiling flour until it is a thick, rubbery ball (''bukari'' in Swahili or ''luku'' in Kikongo. The flour is also made into a paste and fermented before boiling after wrapping in banana or other forest leaves. This fermented state is called ''chikwangue'' in [[French language|French]] or ''kwanga'' or ''nkwanga'' in [[Lingala]] and [[Kikongo]]. This last form has a long shelf life and is a preferred food to take on long trips where refrigeration is not possible.
[[File:Fried cassava in Indonesia.jpg|thumb|Fried cassava in Indonesia]]
[[File:Cheeseballsjf2243.JPG|thumb|220px|right|Cassava cake ([[Philippines]]).]]
In the [[Philippines]] cassava cake is one of the most popular and enjoyed home made delicacies or Kakanin. Made from grated cassava (Kamoteng Kahoy), the root crop is mixed with coconut milk, eggs, butter and topped with a creamy milk mixture.[]
===== Indonesia - Tapai, getuk and krupuk=====
In [[Indonesia]], Singkong or Ketela (cassava) is an important food. It can be cooked by frying or boiling, or processed by fermentation to make ''[[tapai]]'' and ''[[getuk]]'' cake, while the starch is made into ''[[krupuk]]'' crackers. In time of famine or food shortage, cassava is used to replace [[rice]]. In 2011, modified cassava flour became common, and some [[instant noodle]] producers have used it silently, especially for low-end instant noodles as a part substitute of pricy flour. The flour is often added to pastry flour although the result is a pastry that a little stif. * A word of warning: Getuk cakes can be difficult to digest for visitors not used to it and can result in severe cramps and discomfort <ref>{{cite web |url=|title=Noodles Made From Cassava Products Student IPB (Bogor Agricultural University)|date=October 25, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Cassava, commodity Multi-Benefit|date=July 10, 2011}}{{dead link|date=October 2012}}</ref>
=====Daun Ubi=====
In [[Sarawak]] cassava leaves (long leaves veriety) is boiled and eat with sambal(shrimp paste)or tempoyak (fermented durian). The long leaves veriety is also cooked with pork/chicken/fish/snake in a large bamboo stick. This traditional dish is called manok pansoh. [], [], []
The juice of the bitter cassava, boiled to the consistency of thick syrup and flavored with spices, is called ''[[cassareep]]''. It is used as a basis for various sauces and as a culinary flavoring, principally in tropical countries. It is exported chiefly from [[Guyana]], where it started as a traditional recipe with its origins in Amerindian practices.
=====Brazilian Tapioca=====
"Brazilian [[Tapioca]]" is a [[crepe]] like food made with cassava powder. In biju (or beiju), the tapioca is moistened, strained through a sieve to become a coarse flour, then sprinkled onto a hot griddle or pan, where the heat makes the starchy grains fuse into a tortilla, which is often sprinkled with coconut. Then it may be buttered and eaten as a toast (its most common use as a breakfast dish), or it may be filled or topped with either doces (sweet) or salgados (savory) ingredients, which define the kind of meal the tapioca is used for: breakfast, afternoon tea or dessert. Choices range from butter, cheese, chocolate, bananas with condensed milk, chocolate with bananas, to various forms of meats and served warm.
=====Cheese bun=====
In Brazil, the "pão de queijo" ([[Cheese bun]]) is a popular breakfast dish and snack. Made of cassava starch and cheese, the cheese buns are distinctive because the inside is chewy and moist. Its size may range from 2 cm to 15 cm (1 to 6 inches) in diameter and approximately 5 cm (2 inches) in height.
=====Farinha de mandioca=====
In Brazil, a crunchy meal called ''farinha de mandioca'' ({{IPA-pt|faˈɾĩ&thinsp;ȷ̃ɐ dʒi mɐ̃diˈɔkɐ}}, "manioc flour") oCheese bunf varying coarseness is produced for use as a condiment, a base for [[farofa]], or a stand-alone side dish. Detoxified manioc roots are ground to a pulp called a ''[[masa|massa]]'' and squeezed with a device called a ''tipiti'' to dry it out (the liquid produced by this may be collected and dried to produce [[tapioca]], locally known as ''polvilho''). The dried ''massa'' is then toasted over a large copper stove to produce the dried meal. This process varies regionally and by manioc species, and may include additional steps of re-soaking, dying and re-toasting the flour. Manioc agriculture and refinement to farinha is a major economic activity in the Western Amazon.
''Farinha de mandioca'' and ''tapioca'' are the most important caloric staples of the [[Indigenous peoples of Brazil]] which already practiced agriculture when Europeans colonized the country, so for Brazilians manioc would be included in its equivalent of the [[North America]]n [[Three Sisters (agriculture)|three sister crops]] or the [[Mesoamerica]]n [[milpa]].
=====Fried Cassava=====
It is a typical dish in Brazil that can be found is substitution to french fries. It is common in bars as appetizer and side dish of beer.
Cassava was also used to make [[alcoholic beverage]]s. The English explorer and naturalist [[Charles Waterton]] reported in ''Wanderings in South America'' (1836) that the natives of [[Guyana]] used cassava to make liquor, which they abandoned when [[rum]] became available.<ref>{{Cite journal|title=Charles Waterton|journal=Littell's Little Age|volume=145|issue=1870|pages=131–49|date=1880-04-17|url=;cc=livn;rgn=full%20text;idno=livn0145-3;didno=livn0145-3;view=image;seq=00137;node=livn0145-3%3A1|accessdate=2009-11-12}} p. 146</ref> Hamilton Rice, in 1913, also remarked on liquor being made from cassava in the [[Brazil]]ian rainforest.<ref>{{Cite news|title=Ate Smoked Monkey with the Amazons: Dr. Hamilton Rice Saw Few Men in Their Villages in the Forests of Brazil|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|page=14|date=1913-09-07|url=|accessdate=2009-11-12}}</ref> The [[Wapishana]] peoples of [[Guyana]] use cassava to produce a fermented alcoholic beverage called ''parakari''. The production of parakari involves a complicated process with thirty different stages, and the use of a sophisticated fermentation technology. The fermentation of parakari involves the use of an amylolytic mold ([[Rhizopus]]), and it is the only known fermented drink to be produced by the [[indigenous peoples of the Americas]] that involves the use of an [[amylolytic process]].<ref>{{cite journal|last=Henkel|first=Terry W.|title=Parakari, an indigenous fermented beverage using amylolytic ''Rhizopus'' in Guyana|journal=Mycologia|date=19 May 2005|volume=97|issue=1|pages=1–11|url=|accessdate=7 September 2005|format=PDF - Subscriber Only}}</ref><ref name=Henkel2>{{cite journal|last=Henkel|first=Terry W.|title=Manufacturing Procedures and Microbiological Aspects of ''Parakari'', A Novel Fermented Beverage of the Wapisiana Amerindians of Guyana|journal=Economic Botany|year=2004|month=Spring|volume=58|issue=1|pages=25–37|url=|accessdate=7 September 2012|format=PDF - Subscriber Only}}</ref>
The native tribes from all over Brazil used alcoholic beverages made from this native root. These beverages were known by many different names, being most well known as [[Kasiri]] and [[Cauim]]. In the 16th century [[Jean de Léry]]'s published a book named [ 'Voyage to the land of Brazil, otherwise called America'] in which it has an account on how the [[Tupi people|Tupynambas]] used to make the beverage.
The Tiriós and Erwarhoyanas, indian tribes from northern [[Brazi]]l and [[Surinam]], make a beverage called sakurá with the sweet manioc variety of cassava, yuca. The same beverage is made by the [[Jivaroan peoples|Jivaro]] in Ecuador and Peru (the Shuara, Achuara, Aguaruna and Mayna people); they call it nijimanche. As Michael Harner<ref>Harner, Michael J. (1984). The Jívaro, people of the sacred waterfalls. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05065-7.</ref> describes it:
: The sweet manioc beer (nihamanci or nijiamanchi), is prepared by first peeling and washing the tubers in the stream near the garden. Then the water and manioc are brought to the house, where the tubers are cut up and put in a pot to boil. ... The manioc is then mashed and stirred to a soft consistency with the aid of a special wooden paddle. While the woman stirs the mash, she chews handfuls {{sic}} of and spits them back into the pot, a process that may take half an hour or longer.
: After the mash has been prepared, it is transferred to a beer storage jar and left to ferment. ... The resultant liquid tastes somewhat like a pleasingly alcoholic buttermilk and is most refreshing. The Jivaros consider it to be far superior to plain water, which they drink only in emergencies.
A modern artisanal cassava based beverage known as Tiquira is produced in the state of [[Maranhão]], Brazil.
"Brazilian Tapioca" is a [[crepe]] like food made with cassava powder. It may be served/filled with shredded coconut, chocolate or fruit jelly.
"Sagu" is a dessert typical of south Brazil. [[Tapioca]] pearls are cooked with cinnamon and cloves in red wine and served with a milk/cassava powder cream.
===Nutritional profile of cassava===
Cassava root is essentially a carbohydrate source.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Global Cassava Development Strategy|year=2004|author=Olumide O. Tewe|publisher=FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS|url=}}</ref> Its composition shows 60–65 percent moisture, 20–31 percent carbohydrate, 1–2 percent crude protein and a comparatively low content of vitamins and minerals. However, the roots are rich in calcium and vitamin C and contain a nutritionally significant quantity of thiamine, riboflavin and nicotinic acid. Cassava starch contains 70 percent amylopectin and 20 percent amylose. Cooked cassava starch has a digestibility of over 75 percent.
Cassava root is a poor source of protein. Despite the very low quantity, the quality of cassava root protein is fairly good in terms of essential amino acids. Methionine, cysteine and cystine are, however, limiting amino acids in cassava root.
Cassava is attractive as nutrition source in certain ecosystems because cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, can be successfully grown on marginal soils, and gives reasonable yields where many other crops do not grow well. Cassava is well adapted within latitudes 30° north and south of the equator, at elevations between sea level and 2000 meters above sea level, in equatorial temperatures, with rainfalls of 50 millimeters to five meters annually, and to poor soils with a pH ranging from acidic to alkaline. These conditions are common in certain parts of Africa and South America.
Cassava is a highly productive crop in terms of food calories produced per unit land area per unit of time, significantly higher than other staple crops. Cassava can produce food calories at rates exceeding 250,000 cal/hectare/day compared with 176,000 for rice, 110,000 for wheat, and 200,000 for maize (corn).
Cassava, like other foods, also has antinutritional and toxic factors. Of particular concern are the [[cyanogenic]] [[glucosides]] of cassava ([[linamarin]] and [[lotaustralin]]). These, on hydrolysis, release [[hydrocyanic acid|hydrocyanic acid (HCN)]]. The presence of cyanide in cassava is of concern for human and for animal consumption. The concentration of these antinutritional and unsafe glycosides varies considerably between varieties and also with climatic and cultural conditions. Selection of cassava species to be grown, therefore, is quite important. Once harvested, cassava must be treated and prepared properly prior to human or animal consumption.
===Comparison of cassava with other major staple foods===
The following table shows the nutrient content of cassava and compares it with major staple foods in a raw form. Raw forms of these staples, however, are not edible and cannot be digested. These must be sprouted, or prepared and cooked as appropriate for human consumption. In sprouted or cooked form, the relative nutritional and antinutritional contents of each of these grains is remarkably different from that of raw form of these grains reported in this table. The nutrition value for each staple food in cooked form depends on the cooking method (boiling, baking, steaming, frying, etc.).
The table shows that cassava is a good energy source, but like potato, cassava's protein and essential nutrients density is lower than other staple foods.
{{Comparison of major staple foods}}
In many countries, significant research has begun to evaluate the use of cassava as an [[ethanol]] [[biofuel]] feedstock. Under the Development Plan for Renewable Energy in the [[Eleventh Five-Year Plan (People's Republic of China)|Eleventh Five-Year Plan]] in the [[People's Republic of China]], the target is to increase the application of ethanol fuel by nongrain feedstock to 2 million tonnes, and that of biodiesel to 200 thousand tonnes by 2010. This will be equivalent to a substitute of 10 million tonnes of petroleum. As a result, cassava (tapioca) chips have gradually become a major source for ethanol production.<ref>[ Stuart's Brasil: Aipim, Mandioca, Manioc, Pão-de-pobre, Cassava(Manihot esculenta)<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> On December 22, 2007, the largest cassava [[ethanol fuel]] production facility was completed in [[Beihai]], with annual output of 200 thousand tons, which would need an average of 1.5 million tons of cassava.<ref>[<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> In November 2008, China-based Hainan Yedao Group reportedly invested $51.5m (£31.8m) in a new biofuel facility that is expected to produce {{convert|33|e6USgal|m3}} a year of bioethanol from cassava plants.<ref>[ Cassava bio-ethanol plant to open in China - 05 Nov 2008 - News from BusinessGreen<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
===Animal feed===
Cassava is used worldwide for animal feed, as well. Cassava hay is produced at a young growth stage at three to four months, harvested about 30–45&nbsp;cm above ground, and sun-dried for one to two days until it has final dry matter of less than 85%. The cassava hay contains high protein (20–27% [[Protein (nutrient)|crude protein]]) and condensed [[tannin]]s (1.5–4% CP). It is used as a good roughage source for dairy or beef cattle, buffalo, goats, and sheep by either direct feeding or as a protein source in the concentrate mixtures.
* The bitter variety leaves are used to treat [[hypertension]], headache, and pain.
* Cubans commonly use cassava to treat [[irritable bowel syndrome]]; the paste is eaten in excess during treatment.{{Citation needed|date=December 2008}}
* As cassava is a [[gluten]]-free, natural starch, its use in Western cuisine as a [[wheat]] alternative for sufferers of [[celiac disease]] is becoming common.
==Food use processing and toxicity==
[[File:PeeledCassava.jpg|left|thumb|Cassava root, peeled]]
Cassava roots and leaves should not be consumed raw because they contain two [[Cyanogenic glycoside|cyanogenic glucosides]], [[linamarin]] and [[lotaustralin]]. These are decomposed by [[linamarase]], a naturally occurring [[enzyme]] in cassava, liberating [[hydrogen cyanide]] (HCN).<ref name="cereda">{{Cite doi|10.1590/S0104-79301996000100002}}</ref> Cassava varieties are often categorized as either sweet or bitter, signifying the absence or presence of toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides, respectively. The so-called sweet (actually not bitter) cultivars can produce as little as 20 milligrams of [[cyanide]] (CN) per kilogram of fresh roots, whereas bitter ones may produce more than 50 times as much (1 g/kg). Cassavas grown during [[drought]] are especially high in these toxins.<ref>{{cite journal|author=Aregheore E. M, Agunbiade O. O.|title=The toxic effects of cassava (manihot esculenta grantz) diets on humans: a review.|journal=Vet. Hum. Toxicol.|year=1991|volume=33|pages=274–275|pmid=1650055|issue=3 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|author=White W. L. B., Arias-Garzon D. I., McMahon J. M., Sayre R. T.|title=Cyanogenesis in Cassava, The Role of Hydroxynitrile Lyase in Root Cyanide Production|journal=Plant Physiol.|year=1998|volume=116|pages=1219–1225|doi=10.1104/pp.116.4.1219|pmid=9536038|issue=4|pmc=35028}}</ref> A dose of 40&nbsp;mg of pure cassava cyanogenic glucoside is sufficient to kill a cow.{{Citation needed|date=June 2011}} Excess cyanide residue from improper preparation is known to cause acute cyanide intoxication, and goiters, and has been linked to ataxia (a neurological disorder affecting the ability to walk, also known as ''[[konzo]]'').<ref name=""/> It has also been linked to tropical calcific pancreatitis in humans, leading to chronic pancreatitis.<ref>{{cite journal|author=Bhatia E|title=Tropical calcific pancreatitis: strong association with SPINK1 trypsin inhibitor mutations|journal=gastroenterology.|year=2002|volume=123|pages=1020–1025|pmid= 12360463}}</ref>
Societies that traditionally eat cassava generally understand some processing (soaking, cooking, fermentation, etc.) is necessary to avoid getting sick.<ref>Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition", Rome, 1990, Ch. 7 "Toxic substances and antinutritional factors", first paragraph. Document available online at Ch. 7 appears at (Accessed 25 June 2011.)</ref>
Symptoms of acute cyanide intoxication appear four or more hours after ingesting raw or poorly processed cassava: vertigo, vomiting, and collapse. In some cases, death may result within one or two hours. It can be treated easily with an injection of thiosulfate (which makes sulfur available for the patient's body to detoxify by converting the poisonous cyanide into thiocyanate).<ref>Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition", Rome, 1990, Ch. 7 "Toxic substances and antinutritional factors", under sub-heading "Acute cyanide intoxication." Document available online at Ch. 7 appears at (Accessed 25 June 2011.)</ref>
"Chronic, low-level cyanide exposure is associated with the development of [[goiter]] and with tropical ataxic neuropathy, a nerve-damaging disorder that renders a person unsteady and uncoordinated. Severe cyanide poisoning, particularly during famines, is associated with outbreaks of a debilitating, irreversible paralytic disorder called [[konzo]] and, in some cases, death. The incidence of konzo and [[tropical ataxic neuropathy]] can be as high as 3% in some areas."<ref>{{cite web|last=Wagner|first=Holly|title=CASSAVA'S CYANIDE-PRODUCING ABILITIES CAN CAUSE NEUROPATHY ...|url=|accessdate=21 June 2010 }}</ref>
[[File:Cassava bread.jpg|thumb|Cassava bread]]
Brief soaking (four hours) of cassava is not sufficient, but soaking for 18–24 hours can remove up to half the level of cyanide. Drying may not be sufficient, either.<ref>Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition", Rome, 1990, Ch. 7 "Toxic substances and antinutritional factors", sixth paragraph. Document available online at Ch. 7 appears at (Accessed 25 June 2011.)
TABLE 7.1, TABLE 7.2 and TABLE 7.3 compare the effectiveness of different preparation methods for removing toxicity.</ref>
For some smaller-rooted, sweet varieties, cooking is sufficient to eliminate all toxicity. The cyanide is carried away in the processing water and the amounts produced in domestic consumption are too small to have environmental impact.<ref name="cereda"/> The larger-rooted, bitter varieties used for production of flour or starch must be processed to remove the cyanogenic glucosides. and then ground into flour, which is then soaked in water, squeezed dry several times, and toasted. The starch grains that float to the surface during the soaking process are also used in cooking.<ref>{{cite pmid|7576161}}</ref> The flour is used throughout [[South America]] and the [[Caribbean]]. Industrial production of cassava flour, even at the cottage level, may generate enough cyanide and cyanogenic glycosides in the effluents to have a severe environmental impact.<ref name="cereda"/>
A safe processing method used by the pre-Columbian indigenous people of the Americas is to mix the cassava flour with water into a thick paste and then let it stand in the shade for five hours in a thin layer spread over a basket. In that time, about 5/6 of the cyanogenic glycosides are broken down by the linamarase; the resulting hydrogen cyanide escapes to the atmosphere, making the flour safe for consumption the same evening.<ref>{{cite press release|title=New method of cyanide removal to help millions|publisher=The Australian National University|date=2007-02-07|url=|accessdate=2007-05-04}}</ref>
The traditional method used in West Africa is to peel the roots and put them into water for three days to ferment. The roots then are dried or cooked. In Nigeria and several other west African countries, including Ghana, Benin, Togo, Ivory Coast, and Burkina Faso, they are usually grated and lightly fried in palm oil to preserve them. The result is a foodstuff called ''gari''. Fermentation is also used in other places such as Indonesia (see [[Tapai]]). The fermentation process also reduces the level of [[antinutrient]]s, making the cassava a more nutritious food.<ref>{{cite journal|author=Oboh G, Oladunmoye MK|title=Biochemical changes in micro-fungi fermented cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers|journal=Nutr Health|volume=18|issue=4|pages=355–67|year=2007|pmid=18087867}}</ref>
The reliance on cassava as a food source and the resulting exposure to the [[goitrogen]]ic effects of [[thiocyanate]] has been responsible for the endemic [[goiter]]s seen in the [[Akoko]] area of southwestern Nigeria.<ref name="pmid10497657">{{cite journal|author=Akindahunsi AA, Grissom FE, Adewusi SR, Afolabi OA, Torimiro SE, Oke OL|title=Parameters of thyroid function in the endemic goitre of Akungba and Oke-Agbe villages of Akoko area of southwestern Nigeria|journal=African journal of medicine and medical sciences|volume=27|issue=3–4|pages=239–42|year=1998|pmid=10497657}}</ref>
People dependent on cassava risk cyanide poisoning and [[malnutrition]] diseases such as [[kwashiorkor]] and [[endemic goiter]].
A project called "BioCassava Plus" is developing a cassava with lower cyanogen glucosides and fortified with [[vitamin A]], [[iron]] and protein to help the nutrition of people in sub-Saharan Africa.<ref>[ Biocassava Plus Mission and Objectives] Retrieved 25 April 2011</ref><ref>{{Cite doi|10.1146/annurev-arplant-042110-103751}}</ref> In 2011, the director of the program said he hoped to obtain regulatory approvals by 2017.<ref>{{Cite doi|10.1038/news.2011.233}}</ref>
[[File:Drying cassava chips DRC.jpg|thumb|upright|Spreading cassava chips to dry, The Democratic Republic of Congo]]
Cassava is harvested by hand by raising the lower part of the stem and pulling the roots out of the ground, then removing them from the base of the plant. The upper parts of the stems with the leaves are plucked off before harvest. Cassava is propagated by cutting the stem into sections of approximately 15&nbsp;cm, these being planted prior to the wet season.{{Citation needed|date=December 2008}}
===Postharvest handling and storage===
Cassava undergoes postharvest physiological deterioration, or PPD, once the tubers are separated from the main plant. The tubers, when damaged, normally respond with a healing mechanism. However, the same mechanism, which involves [[coumaric acid]]s, initiates about 15 minutes after damage, and fails to switch off in harvested tubers. It continues until the entire tuber is oxidized and blackened within two to three days after harvest, rendering it unpalatable and useless.
PPD is one of the main obstacles currently preventing farmers from exporting cassavas abroad and generating income. Cassava can be preserved in various ways such as coating in wax or freezing.{{Citation needed|date=December 2008}}
[[File:Frozen cassava leaves.jpg|thumb|left|Frozen cassava leaves from the Philippines sold at a Los Angeles market]]
The major cause of losses during cassava chip storage is infestation by insects. A wide range of species that feed directly on the dried chips have been reported as the cause of weight loss in the stored produce. Some loss assessment studies and estimations on dried cassava chips have been carried out in different countries. Hiranandan and Advani (1955) measured 12 - 14% post-harvest weight losses in India for chips stored for about five months. Killick (1966) estimated for Ghana that 19% of the harvest cassava roots are lost annually, and Nicol (1991) estimated a 15–20% loss of dried chips stored for eight months. Pattinson (1968) estimated for Tanzania a 12% weight loss of cassava chips stored for five months, and Hodges et al. (1985) assessed during a field survey postharvest losses of up to 19% after 3 months and up to 63% after four to five months due to the infestation of ''Prostephanus truncatus'' (Horn). In Togo, Stabrawa (1991) assessed postharvest weight losses of 5% after one month of storage and 15% after three months of storage due to insect infestation, and Compton (1991) assessed weight losses of about 9% for each store in the survey area in Togo. Wright et al. (1993) assessed postharvest losses of chips of about 14% after four months of storage, about 20% after seven months of storage and up to 30% when ''P. truncatus'' attacked the dried chips. In addition, Wright et al. (1993) estimated about 4% of the total national cassava production in Togo is lost during the chip storage. This was about equivalent to 0.05% of the GNP in 1989.
Plant breeding has resulted in cassava that is tolerant to PPD. Sánchez et al.<ref>N. Morante,T. Sánchez,H. Ceballos, F. Calle, J. C. Pérez, C. Egesi, C. E. Cuambe, A. F. Escobar, D. Ortiz, A. L. Chávez, and M. Fregene. (2010) [ Tolerance to Postharvest Physiological Deterioration in Cassava Roots]. Crop Science, Vol. 50, No. 4, p. 1333-1338.</ref> identified four different sources of tolerance to PPD. One comes from Walker's Manihot (''[[Manihot walkerae|M. walkerae]]'') of southern Texas in the United States and Tamaulipas in Mexico. A second source was induced by mutagenic levels of gamma rays, which putatively silenced one of the genes involved in PPD genesis. A third source was a group of high-carotene clones. The antioxidant properties of carotenoids are postulated to protect the roots from PPD (basically an oxidative process). Finally, tolerance was also observed in a waxy-starch (amylose-free) mutant. This tolerance to PPD was thought to be cosegregated with the starch mutation, and is not a pleiotropic effect of the latter.
{{Main|List of cassava diseases}}
In [[Africa]], the cassava mealybug (''[[Phenacoccus manihoti]]'') and cassava green mite (''[[Mononychellus tanajoa]]'') can cause up to 80% crop loss, which is extremely detrimental to the production of [[subsistence]] farmers. These pests were rampant in the 1970s and 1980s, but were brought under control following the establishment of the [[Biological Control Center for Africa]] of the [[International Institute of Tropical Agriculture|IITA]] under the leadership of [[Hans Rudolf Herren|Dr. Hans Rudolf Herren]].<ref>[ 1995: Herren - The World Food Prize - Improving the Quality, Quantity and Availability of Food in the World<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> The Centre investigated [[biological control]] for cassava pests; two [[South America]]n natural enemies ''[[Apoanagyrus lopezi]]'' (a [[parasitoid]] wasp) and ''[[Typhlodromalus aripo]]'' (a predatory mite) were found to effectively control the cassava mealybug and the cassava green mite, respectively.
The [[African cassava mosaic virus|cassava mosaic virus]] causes the leaves of the cassava plant to wither, limiting the growth of the root. The virus caused a major African famine in the 1920s.<ref name="NYT May 2010">"[ Virus Ravages Cassava Plants in Africa]". The New York Times. May 31, 2010</ref> The virus is spread by the [[whitefly]] and by the transplanting of diseased plants into new fields. Sometime in the late 1980s, a mutation occurred in Uganda that made the virus even more harmful, causing the complete loss of leaves. This mutated virus has been spreading at a rate of 50 miles per year, and as of 2005 may be found throughout [[Uganda]], [[Rwanda]], [[Burundi]], the [[Democratic Republic of the Congo]] and the [[Republic of the Congo]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Hungry African Nations Balk at Biotech Cassava|accessdate= 2008-08-11||publisher=[[St. Louis Post-Dispatch]]}}{{dead link|date=October 2012}}</ref>
Recently, [[Cassava brown streak virus disease|brown streak disease]] has been identified as a major threat to cassava cultivation worldwide.<ref name="NYT May 2010"/>
A wide range of plant parasitic nematodes have been reported associated with cassava worldwide. These include ''[[Pratylenchus brachyurus]]''., ''[[Rotylenchulus reniformis]]'', ''[[Helicotylenchus]]'' spp., ''[[Scutellonema]]'' spp. and ''[[Root-knot nematode|Meloidogyne]]'' spp., of which ''[[Meloidogyne incognita]]'' and ''[[Meloidogyne javanica]]'' are the most widely reported and economically important.<ref>Mc Sorley, R., Ohair, S. K. and Parrado, J.L. 1983. Nematodes of Cassava. ''Manihot esculenta'' Crantz. Nematropica 13:261-287</ref> ''Meloidogyne'' spp. feeding produces physically damaging galls with eggs inside them. Galls later merge as the females grow and enlarge, and they interfere with water and nutrient supply.<ref>Gapasin , R. M. 1980. Reaction of golden yellow cassava to ''[[''[[Root-knot nematode|Meloidogyne]]'' spp.]]''. Inoculation. Annals of Tropical Research 2:49-53</ref> Cassava roots become tough with age and restrict the movement of the juveniles and the egg release. It is therefore possible that extensive galling can be observed even at low densities following infection.<ref name="Coyne, D. L 1994. pp355-359">Coyne, D. L. 1994. Nematode pests of cassava. African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 2. No.4, pp355-359</ref> Other pest and diseases can gain entry through the physical damage caused by gall formation, leading to rots. They have not been shown to cause direct damage to the enlarged storage roots, but plants can have reduced height if there was loss of enlarged root weight.<ref>Caveness, F.E. 1982. [[Root-knot nematode]] as parasites of cassava. IITA research briefs 3(2):2-3</ref>
Research on nematode pests of cassava is still in the early stages; results on the response of cassava is, therefore, not consistent, ranging from negligible to seriously damaging.<ref>Coyne, D.L. and Talwana, L.A.H. 2000. Reaction of cassava cultivars to root-knot nematode (''Meloidogyne'' spp.) in pot experiments and farmer-managed field trials in Uganda. International Journal of Nematology 10:153 – 158</ref><ref>Makumbi-kidza, N. N., Speijer and Sikora R. A. 2000. Effects of Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Storage-Root Formation of Cassava (Manihot esculenta). J Nematol.; 32(4S): 475–477.</ref><ref>Gapasin, R.M. 1980. Reaction of golden yellow cassava to ''Meloidogyne'' spp. Inoculation. Annals of Tropical Research 2:49-53</ref><ref>Theberge, R. L. (eds). 1985. Common African Pests and Diseases of cassava, Yam, Sweet Potato and Cocoyam. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Ibadan, Nigeria 107 p.</ref> Since nematodes have such a seemingly erratic distribution in cassava agricultural fields, it is not easy to clearly define the level of direct damage attributed to nematodes and thereafter quantify the success of a chosen management method.<ref>.Coyne, D. L. 1994. Nematode pests of cassava. African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 2. No.4, pp355-359</ref>
The use of nematicides has been found to result in lower numbers of galls per feeder root compared to a control, coupled with a lower number of rots in the storage roots.<ref>Coyne DL, Kagoda F, Wambugu E, Ragama P (2006) Response of cassava to nematicide application and plant-parasitic nematode infection in East Africa, with emphasis on root-knot nematode. International Journal of Pest Management 52, 215-23</ref> The nematicide [[Femaniphos]], when used, did not affect crop growth and yield parameter variables measured at harvest. Nematicide use in cassava is neither practical nor sustainable; currently the use of tolerant and resistant varieties is the most practical and sustainable management method.<ref name="Coyne, D. L 1994. pp355-359"/>
==See also==
* [[Attiéké]]{{spaced ndash}} a side dish made from cassava that is a part of the cuisine of Côte d'Ivoire in Africa
* [[Maní (Amazonian legend)]]
* [[Kasiri]]
* Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 23 (3): 888–890
*{{cite web|url=|archiveurl=|archivedate=2007-11-24|title=June 2003 cassava market assessment|accessdate=2008-08-11|publisher=[[Food and Agriculture Organization]]|year=2003|month=June}}
*{{cite journal|author=Cereda, M.P. and Mattos, M.C.Y.|title=Linamarin - The Toxic Compound of Cassava|journal=Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins (online)|year=1996|volume=2|pages=6–12|doi=10.1590/S0104-79301996000100002|url=}}
==External links==
{{commons|Manihot esculenta}}
* [ Cassava - Purdue University Horticulture]
* [ Cassave Research at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)]{{dead link|date=October 2012}}
* [ Cassava Biz] – information service provided by the Integrated Cassava Project (ICP) of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), to encourage, promote, and expand agribusiness development in the cassava subsector in Nigeria.
* [ Cassava Pests: From Crisis to Control]
* [ GE cassava plants that have reduced cyanogens]
* [ GE cassava plants whose roots are over 2.5 times normal size]
* [ The Inoculated Mind - Interview with Dr. Richard Sayre, credited with lowering cyanogen content and engineering giant cassava]
* [ Global Cassava Development Strategy]
* [ The Case for Cassava]
* [ Mayans grew Manioc]
* [ CATISA: Cassava Transformation in Southern Africa]
{{Agriculture country lists}}
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[[Category:Tropical agriculture]]
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Reason: ANN scored at 0.967749
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Friday, the 23rd of October 2015 at 06:49:39 AM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 23rd of October 2015 at 06:49:39 AM #101924
Bradley (anonymous)