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{{other uses|W5 (disambiguation)}}
 
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what when where why who how?
{{Journalism}}
 
The '''Five Ws''', '''Five Ws and one H''', or the '''Six Ws''' are questions whose answers are considered basic in information-gathering. They are often mentioned in [[journalism]] (''cf.'' [[news style]]), [[research]], and [[police]] [[Criminal procedure|investigation]]s.<ref>{{cite web|accessdate=December 4, 2012|url=http://mediasmarts.ca/sites/default/files/pdfs/lesson-plan/Deconstructing-Web-Pages-Lesson-Kit.pdf |
 
title=Deconstructing Web Pages of Cyberspace|work=MediaSmarts}}</ref> They constitute a formula for getting the complete story on a subject.<ref>[http://www.owenspencer-thomas.com/journalism/media-tips/writing-a-press-release] Journalism website. Press release: getting the facts straight. Work by [[Owen Spencer-Thomas]], D.Litt. URL retrieved 24 February 2012.</ref> According to the principle of the Five Ws, a report can only be considered complete if it answers these questions starting with an [[interrogative word]]:<ref name=Hart>{{cite web|accessdate=April 30, 2012|url=http://www.geoff-hart.com/articles/2002/fivew.htm|title=The Five Ws of Online Help|work=by Geoff Hart, TECHWR-L}}</ref>
 
 
* '''Who''' is it about?
 
* '''What''' happened?
 
* '''When''' did it take place?
 
* '''Where''' did it take place?
 
* '''Why''' did it happen?
 
 
Some authors add a sixth question, “how”, to the list, though "how" can also be covered by "what", "where", or "when":<ref name=Hart/>
 
 
* '''How''' did it happen
 
 
Each question should have a factual answer — facts necessary to include for a report to be considered complete.<ref>{{cite web|accessdate=September 12, 2008|url=http://inlandpress.org/articles/2001/01/19/best%20practices%20for%20newspapers/20010119-archive1.prt|title=Five More Ws for Good Journalism|work=Copy Editing, InlandPress}}</ref> Importantly, none of these questions can be answered with a simple [[yes and no|"yes" or "no"]].
 
 
In British education, the Five Ws are used in [[Key Stage 3]] (age 11–14) lessons.<ref name="5ws-in-ks3">{{cite web |url= http://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/The-Five-W-s-of-Drama-6001931/ |title= The Five Ws of Drama |date= 4 Sep 2008 |publisher= [[Times Educational Supplement]] |accessdate= 10 mar 2011 }}</ref>
 
 
==History==
 
This section focuses on the history of the series of questions as a way of formulating or analyzing rhetorical questions, and not the theory of circumstances in general.<ref>For which, see ''e.g.'' Rita Copeland, ''Rhetoric, Hermeneutics, and Translation in the Middle Ages: Academic Traditions and Vernacular Texts'', 1995. ISBN 0-521-48365-4, p. 66''ff'' as well as Robertson</ref>
 
 
The rhetor [[Hermagoras of Temnos]], as quoted in pseudo-Augustine's ''De Rhetorica''<ref>Though attributed to [[Augustine of Hippo]], modern scholarship considers the authorship doubtful, and calls him pseudo-Augustine: Edwin Carawan, "What the Laws have Prejudged: Παραγραφή and Early Issue Theory" ''in'' Cecil W. Wooten, George Alexander Kennedy, eds., ''The orator in action and theory in Greece and Rome'', 2001. ISBN 90-04-12213-3, p. 36.</ref> defined seven "circumstances" (μόρια περιστάσεως 'elements of circumstance'<ref>W. Vollgraff, "Observations sur le sixieme discours d'Antiphon" ''Mnemosyne'' IV:1:4 (1948), p. 266 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/4427142 at JSTOR]</ref>) as the [[locus (rhetoric)|loci]] of an issue:
 
:''Quis, quid, quando, ubi, cur, quem ad modum, quibus adminiculis.''<ref name="circ">D. W. Robertson, Jr., "A Note on the Classical Origin of 'Circumstances' in the Medieval Confessional", ''Studies in Philology'' '''43''':1:6-14 (January 1946). [http://www.jstor.org/stable/4172741 at JSTOR].</ref><ref>Robertson, quoting Halm's edition of ''De rhetorica''; Hermagoras's original does not survive</ref>
 
:(Who, what, when, where, why, in what way, by what means)
 
 
[[Cicero]] had a similar concept of circumstances, but though [[Thomas Aquinas]] attributes the questions to [[Cicero]], they do not appear in his writings. Similarly, [[Quintilian]] discussed ''loci argumentorum'', but did not put them in the form of questions.<ref name="circ"/>
 
 
[[Gaius Marius Victorinus|Victorinus]] explained [[Cicero]]'s system of circumstances by putting them into correspondence with Hermagoras's questions:<ref name="circ"/>
 
<center>[[File:Victorinus.gif|quis=persona; quid=factum; cur=causa; ubi=locus; quando=tempus; quemadmodum = modus; quib/adminiculis=facultas]]</center>
 
 
[[Julius Victor]] also lists circumstances as questions.<ref name="circ"/>
 
 
[[Boethius]] "made the seven circumstances fundamental to the arts of prosecution and defense":
 
:''Quis, quid, cur, quomodo, ubi, quando, quibus auxiliis''.<ref name="circ"/>
 
:(Who, what, why, how, where, when, with what)
 
 
The question form was taken up again in the 12th century by [[Thierry de Chartres]] and [[John of Salisbury]].<ref name="circ"/>
 
 
To administer suitable [[penance]] to [[sin]]ners, the 21st canon of the [[Fourth Lateran Council]] (1215) enjoined confessors to investigate both sins and the circumstances of the sins. The question form was popular for guiding confessors, and it appeared in several different forms:<ref>Citations below taken from Robertson and not independently checked.</ref>
 
 
:''Quis, quid, ubi, per quos, quoties, cur, quomodo, quando.''<ref>Mansi, ''Concilium Trevirense Provinciale'' (1227), Mansi, ''Concilia'', XXIII, c. 29.</ref>
 
:''Quis, quid, ubi, quibus auxiliis, cur, quomodo, quando.''<ref>Constitutions of [[Alexander de Stavenby]] (1237) Wilkins, I:645; also quoted in [[Thomas Aquinas]] [[Summa Theologica]] I-II, 7, 3.</ref>
 
:''Quis, quid, ubi, cum quo, quotiens, cur, quomodo, quando.''<ref>[[Robert de Sorbon]], ''De Confessione'', ''MBP'' XXV:354</ref>
 
:''Quid, quis, ubi, quibus auxiliis, cur, quomodo, quando.''<ref>[[Peter Quinel]], ''Summula'', Wilkins, II:165</ref>
 
:''Quid, ubi, quare, quantum, conditio, quomodo, quando: adiuncto quoties.''<ref>[[S. Petrus Coelestinus]], ''Opuscula'', ''MBP'' XXV:828</ref>
 
 
The method of questions was also used for the systematic [[exegesis]] of a text.<ref>Richard N. Soulen, R. Kendall Soulen, ''Handbook of Biblical Criticism'', (Louisville, 2001, ISBN 0-664-22314-1) ''s.v.'' Locus, p. 107; Hartmut Schröder, ''Subject-Oriented Texts'', p. 176ff</ref>
 
 
Later, [[Thomas Wilson (rhetorician)|Thomas Wilson]] wrote in English verse:
 
<blockquote>Who, what, and where, by what helpe, and by whose:<br>
 
Why, how, and when, doe<!--spelling in the original--> many things disclose.<ref>Thomas Wilson, ''The Arte of Rhetorique'' Book I. [http://ebooks.gutenberg.us/Renascence_Editions/arte/arte2.htm full text]</ref></blockquote>
 
 
In 19th century America, Prof. [[William Cleaver Wilkinson]] popularized the "Three Ws" – What? Why? What of it? – as a method of bible study in the 1880s, though he did not claim originality. This became the "Five Ws", though the application was rather different from that in journalism:
 
<blockquote>
 
"What? Why? What of it?" is a plan of study of alliterative methods
 
for the teacher emphasized by Professor W.C. Wilkinson not as original
 
with himself but as of venerable authority. "It is, in fact," he says,
 
"an almost immemorial orator's analysis. First the facts, next the
 
proof of the facts, then the consequences of the facts. This analysis
 
has often been expanded into one known as "The Five Ws:" "When? Where? Who?
 
What? Why?" Hereby attention is called, in the study of any lesson: to the
 
date of its incidents; to their place or locality; to the person
 
speaking or spoken to, or to the persons introduced, in the narrative; to
 
the incidents or statements of the text; and, finally, to the
 
applications and uses of the lesson teachings.<ref>Henry Clay Trumbull,
 
''Teaching and Teachers'', Philadelphia, 1888, p. 120 [http://books.google.com/books?id=VAYCAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA120&vq=ws&dq=teaching+and+teachers&num=100&source=gbs_search_r&cad=1_1#PPA120,M1 text at Google Books]</ref>
 
</blockquote>
 
 
{{wikisourcepar|The Elephant's Child}}
 
The "Five Ws" (and one H) were memorialized by [[Rudyard Kipling]] in his "[[Just So Stories]]" ([[1902 in literature|1902]]), in which a poem accompanying the tale of "The Elephant's Child" opens with:
 
:{|
 
''I keep six honest serving-men''<BR>
 
''(They taught me all I knew);''<BR>
 
''Their names are What and Why and When''<BR>
 
''And How and Where and Who.<BR>''
 
|}
 
 
This is why the "Five Ws and One H" problem solving method is also called as the "Kipling Method", which helps to explore the problems by challenging them with these questions.
 
 
By 1917, the "Five Ws" were being taught in high-school journalism classes,<ref>Leon Nelson Flint, ''Newspaper Writing in High Schools, Containing an Outline for the Use of Teachers'', University of Kansas, 1917, p. 47 [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=86tDAAAAIAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=+five-w%27s+%22history+of+journalism%22&ots=13fjQfRON_&sig=rwsiiiiZok-4y66USAvPsQEoYj0#PPA47,M1 at Google Books]</ref> and by 1940, the "Five Ws" were being characterized as old-fashioned and fallacious:
 
 
{{quote|The old-fashioned lead of the five Ws and the H, crystallized largely by Pulitzer's "new journalism" and sanctified by the schools, is widely giving way to the much more supple and interesting feature lead, even on straight news stories.<ref>Frank Luther Mott, "Trends in Newspaper Content", ''Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science'' '''219''' (January 1942), pp. 60–65 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/1023893 at JSTOR]</ref><br />
 
 
All of you know about — and I hope all of you admit the fallacy of — the doctrine of the five Ws in the first sentence of the newspaper story.<ref>Philip F. Griffin, "The Correlation of English and Journalism" ''The English Journal'' '''38''':4 (April 1949), pp. 192 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/806690 at JSTOR]</ref>}}
 
 
== References ==
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
 
[[Category:Reporting]]
 
[[Category:Research]]
 
[[Category:Problem solving]]
 
[[Category:English phrases]]
 
[[Category:Interrogative words and phrases]]
 
 
[[ca:Cinc W]]
 
[[de:Fragetechnik#Offene W-Fragen in der Praxis]]
 
Reason: ANN scored at 0.920114
Reporter Information
Reporter: Mark (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 11th of May 2016 at 10:42:18 AM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 27th of February 2013 at 07:12:20 PM #92698
Anonymous (anonymous)

why the fuck isint it letting me edit it?!?!?! what the hell!

Wednesday, the 11th of May 2016 at 10:42:18 AM #104237
Mark (anonymous)

d7rhyh http://www.y7YwKx7Pm6OnyJvolbcwrWdoEnRF29pb.com

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