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Article: United States Capitol
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(Design competition)
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[[Pierre Charles L'Enfant|Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant]] was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city.<ref>L'Enfant identified himself as "Peter Charles L'Enfant" during most of his life, while residing in the United States. He wrote this name on his [http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3850.ct000512 "Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of t(he) United States ...."] (Washington, D.C.) and on other legal documents. However, during the early 1900s, a French ambassador to the U.S., [[Jean Jules Jusserand]], popularized the use of L'Enfant's birth name, "Pierre Charles L'Enfant". (Reference: Bowling, Kenneth R (2002). ''Peter Charles L'Enfant: vision, honor, and male friendship in the early American Republic.'' George Washington University, Washington, D.C. ISBN 978-0-9727611-0-9). The [[United States Code]] states in {{USC|40|3309}}: "(a) In General.—The purposes of this chapter shall be carried out in the District of Columbia as nearly as may be practicable in harmony with the plan of Peter Charles L'Enfant." The [[National Park Service]] identifies L'Enfant as "[http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/Wash/text.htm#washington Major Peter Charles L'Enfant]" and as "[http://www.nps.gov/history/Nr/travel/presidents/washington_monument.html Major Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant]" on its website.</ref> L'Enfant chose Jenkins Hill as the site for the Capitol building, with a grand [[boulevard]] connecting it with the [[White House|President's House]], and a public space stretching westward to the Potomac River.<ref>Allen (2001), p. 8</ref> In reviewing L'Enfant's plan, [[Thomas Jefferson]] insisted the legislative building be called the "Capitol" rather than "Congress House". The word "Capitol" comes from [[Latin]] and is associated with the [[Temple of Jupiter (Capitoline Hill)|Roman temple]] to [[Jupiter Optimus Maximus]] on [[Capitoline Hill]].<ref>Allen (2001), p. 10</ref> In addition to coming up with a city plan, L'Enfant had been tasked with designing the Capitol and President's House, however he was dismissed in February 1792 over disagreements with [[President of the United States|President]] [[George Washington]] and the commissioners, and there were no plans at that point for the Capitol.<ref>Allen (2001), p. 11</ref>
 
[[Pierre Charles L'Enfant|Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant]] was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city.<ref>L'Enfant identified himself as "Peter Charles L'Enfant" during most of his life, while residing in the United States. He wrote this name on his [http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3850.ct000512 "Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of t(he) United States ...."] (Washington, D.C.) and on other legal documents. However, during the early 1900s, a French ambassador to the U.S., [[Jean Jules Jusserand]], popularized the use of L'Enfant's birth name, "Pierre Charles L'Enfant". (Reference: Bowling, Kenneth R (2002). ''Peter Charles L'Enfant: vision, honor, and male friendship in the early American Republic.'' George Washington University, Washington, D.C. ISBN 978-0-9727611-0-9). The [[United States Code]] states in {{USC|40|3309}}: "(a) In General.—The purposes of this chapter shall be carried out in the District of Columbia as nearly as may be practicable in harmony with the plan of Peter Charles L'Enfant." The [[National Park Service]] identifies L'Enfant as "[http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/Wash/text.htm#washington Major Peter Charles L'Enfant]" and as "[http://www.nps.gov/history/Nr/travel/presidents/washington_monument.html Major Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant]" on its website.</ref> L'Enfant chose Jenkins Hill as the site for the Capitol building, with a grand [[boulevard]] connecting it with the [[White House|President's House]], and a public space stretching westward to the Potomac River.<ref>Allen (2001), p. 8</ref> In reviewing L'Enfant's plan, [[Thomas Jefferson]] insisted the legislative building be called the "Capitol" rather than "Congress House". The word "Capitol" comes from [[Latin]] and is associated with the [[Temple of Jupiter (Capitoline Hill)|Roman temple]] to [[Jupiter Optimus Maximus]] on [[Capitoline Hill]].<ref>Allen (2001), p. 10</ref> In addition to coming up with a city plan, L'Enfant had been tasked with designing the Capitol and President's House, however he was dismissed in February 1792 over disagreements with [[President of the United States|President]] [[George Washington]] and the commissioners, and there were no plans at that point for the Capitol.<ref>Allen (2001), p. 11</ref>
   
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hey whats up yo
===Design competition===
 
[[File:Capitol design by james diamond.jpg|thumb|Design for the U.S. Capitol, "An Elevation for a Capitol", by James Diamond was one of many submitted in the 1792 contest, but not selected.]]
 
 
In spring 1792, Thomas Jefferson proposed a design competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the President's House, and set a four-month deadline. The prize for the competition was $500 and a lot in the federal city. At least ten individuals submitted designs for the Capitol; however the drawings were regarded as crude and amateurish, reflecting the level of architectural skill present in the United States at the time.<ref>Allen (2001), p. 13–15</ref> The most promising of the submissions was by [[Étienne Sulpice Hallet|Stephen Hallet]], a trained French architect.<ref>Frary (1969), p. 28</ref> However, Hallet's designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, and were deemed too costly.<ref>Allen (2001), p. 18</ref>
 
 
A late entry by amateur architect [[William Thornton]] was submitted on January 31, 1793, to much praise for its "Grandeur, Simplicity, and Beauty" by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the [[Perrault's Colonnade|east front of the Louvre]], as well as the [[Pantheon, Paris|Paris Pantheon]] for the center portion of the design.<ref>Allen (2001), p. 19</ref><ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/adecenter/essays/B-Thornton.html | title= William Thornton (1759–1828) | publisher=Library of Congress | accessdate=July 7, 2007}}</ref> Thornton's design was officially approved in a letter, dated April 5, 1793, from Washington.<ref>Frary (1969), p. 33</ref> In an effort to console Hallet, the commissioners appointed him to review Thornton's plans, develop cost estimates, and serve as superintendent of construction. Hallet proceeded to pick apart and make drastic changes to Thornton's design, which he saw as costly to build and problematic.<ref>Frary (1969), p. 34–35</ref> In July 1793, Jefferson convened a five-member commission, bringing Hallet and Thornton together, along with [[James Hoban]], to address problems with and revise Thornton's plan. Hallet suggested changes to the floor plan, which could be fitted within the exterior design by Thornton.<ref name="Allen 2001, p. 23">Allen (2001), p. 23</ref><ref>{{cite web | url=http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=JefThom.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=178&division=div2 | work=Thomas Jefferson and the National Capital | title=Letter: Jefferson to Washington | date=July 17, 1793 | author=Jefferson, Thomas | publisher=University of Virginia | accessdate=December 11, 2008}}</ref> The revised plan was accepted, except that Jefferson and Washington insisted on an open [[Alcove|recess]] in the center of the East front, which was part of Thornton's original plan.<ref>Frary (1969), p. 36</ref>
 
 
The original design by Thornton was later modified by [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]] and then [[Charles Bulfinch]].<ref name=WDL1>{{cite web|title=United States Capitol, Washington, D.C.: East Front Elevation, Rendering|url=http://www.wdl.org/en/item/17|publisher=[[World Digital Library]]|accessdate=13 February 2013}}</ref> The [[United States Capitol dome|current dome]] and the [[United States House of Representatives|House]] and [[United States Senate|Senate]] wings were designed by [[Thomas U. Walter]] and [[August Schoenborn]],<ref>{{cite web |last=Woods |first=Robert O. | url=http://www.memagazine.org/contents/current/features/capdome/capdome.html | title=Under the Capitol Dome | work=Mechanical Engineering Magazine | publisher=The American Society of Mechanical Engineers | date=June 2003 | accessdate=December 11, 2008}}</ref> a [[Germans|German]] immigrant, and were completed under the supervision of [[Edward Clark (architect)|Edward Clark]].<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.aoc.gov/cc/capitol/capitol_construction.cfm | title=A Brief Construction History of the Capitol | publisher=Architect of the Capitol | accessdate=December 11, 2008}}</ref>
 
   
 
===Construction===
 
===Construction===
Reason: ANN scored at 0.951497
Reporter Information
Reporter: Isaias (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 07:39:41 AM
Status: Reported
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