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Article: Mexican–American War
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{{History of Mexico |First Republic}}
{{History of Mexico |First Republic}}
The '''Mexican–American War''', also known as the '''Mexican War''', the '''U.S.–Mexican War''', the '''Invasion of Mexico''', the '''U.S. Intervention''', "The War of Irrelevants", or '''the United States War Against Mexico''', was an armed conflict between the [[United States]] and [[Mexico]] from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. [[Texas Annexation|annexation of Texas]], which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 [[Texas Revolution]].
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Combat operations lasted a year and a half, from spring 1846 to fall 1847. American forces quickly occupied [[Santa Fe de Nuevo México|New Mexico]] and [[Alta California|California]], then invaded parts of [[Northeastern Mexico]] and [[Northwest Mexico]]; meanwhile, the [[Pacific Squadron]] conducted a blockade, and took control of several garrisons on the Pacific coast further south in [[Baja California]]. Another American army captured [[Mexico City]], and the war ended in victory for the U.S.
Combat operations lasted a year and a half, from spring 1846 to fall 1847. American forces quickly occupied [[Santa Fe de Nuevo México|New Mexico]] and [[Alta California|California]], then invaded parts of [[Northeastern Mexico]] and [[Northwest Mexico]]; meanwhile, the [[Pacific Squadron]] conducted a blockade, and took control of several garrisons on the Pacific coast further south in [[Baja California]]. Another American army captured [[Mexico City]], and the war ended in victory for the U.S.
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Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance, President Polk sent a second army under General [[Winfield Scott]], which was transported to the port of [[Veracruz, Veracruz|Veracruz]] by sea, to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. On March 9, 1847, Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in U.S. history in preparation for the [[Siege of Veracruz]]. A group of 12,000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies, weapons, and horses near the walled city using specially designed landing craft. Included in the invading force were [[Robert E. Lee]], [[George Meade]], [[Ulysses S. Grant]], [[James Longstreet]], and [[Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson]].
Rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance, President Polk sent a second army under General [[Winfield Scott]], which was transported to the port of [[Veracruz, Veracruz|Veracruz]] by sea, to begin an invasion of the Mexican heartland. On March 9, 1847, Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in U.S. history in preparation for the [[Siege of Veracruz]]. A group of 12,000 volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies, weapons, and horses near the walled city using specially designed landing craft. Included in the invading force were [[Robert E. Lee]], [[George Meade]], [[Ulysses S. Grant]], [[James Longstreet]], and [[Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson]].
The city was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3,400 men. [[Mortar (weapon)|Mortars]] and naval guns under Commodore [[Matthew C. Perry]] were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders. The city replied the best it could with its own artillery. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior force, and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege. U.S. troops suffered 80 casualties, while the Mexican side had around 180 killed and wounded, about half of whom were civilian. During the siege, the U.S. side began to fall victim to [[yellow fever]].
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====Advance on Puebla====
Scott then marched westward toward Mexico City with 8,500 healthy troops, while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road at the halfway mark to Mexico City, near the hamlet of [[Battle of Cerro Gordo|Cerro Gordo]]. Santa Anna had entrenched with 12,000 troops and artillery that were trained on the road, along which he expected Scott to appear. However, Scott had sent 2,600 mounted [[dragoons]] ahead; the Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and therefore revealed their positions.
Instead of taking the main road, Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north, setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans. Although by then aware of the positions of U.S. troops, Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed. The Mexican army was routed. The U.S. Army suffered 400 casualties, while the Mexicans suffered over 1,000 casualties and 3,000 were taken prisoner. In August 1847, Captain [[Kirby Smith]], of Scott's 3rd Infantry, reflected on the resistance of the Mexican army:
{{bquote| They can do nothing and their continued defeats should convince them of it. They have lost six great battles; we have captured six hundred and eight cannon, nearly one hundred thousand stands of arms, made twenty thousand prisoners, have the greatest portion of their country and are fast advancing on their Capital which must be ours,—yet they refuse to treat [i.e., negotiate terms]!<ref name="SoFar">{{cite book|last=Eisenhower|first= John S. D.|title=So Far from God: The U.S. War With Mexico, 1846–1848|publisher=Random House|year= 1989|location=New York|page=295|isbn=0-8061-3279-5}}</ref>}}
====Pause at Puebla====
In May, Scott pushed on to Puebla, the second largest city in Mexico. Because of the citizens' hostility to Santa Anna, the city capitulated without resistance on May 1. During the following months Scott gathered supplies and reinforcements at Puebla and sent back units whose enlistments had expired. Scott also made strong efforts to keep his troops disciplined and treat the Mexican people under occupation justly, so as to prevent a popular rising against his army.
====Advance on Mexico City and its capture====
With guerrillas harassing his line of communications back to Vera Cruz, Scott decided not to weaken his army to defend the city but, leaving only a garrison at Puebla to protect the sick and injured recovering there, advanced on Mexico City on August 7 with his remaining force. The capital was laid open in a series of battles around the right flank of the city defenses, at the [[Battle of Contreras]] and [[Battle of Churubusco|Churubusco]], culminating in the [[Battle of Chapultepec]]. Fighting halted for a time when an armistice and peace negotiations followed the Battle of Churubusco, until they broke down, on September 6, 1847. With the subsequent battles of [[Battle of Molino del Rey|Molino del Rey]] and of [[Battle of Chapultepec|Chapultepec]], and the [[Battle_for_Mexico_City#Attacks_on_the_Bel.C3.A9n_and_San_Cosme_Gates|storming of the city gates]], the capital was occupied. [[Winfield Scott]] became an American national hero after his victories in this campaign of the Mexican–American War, and later became military governor of occupied [[Mexico City]].
====Santa Anna's last campaign====
In late September 1847, Santa Anna made one last attempt to defeat the Americans, by cutting them off from the coast. General [[Joaquín Rea]] began the [[Siege of Puebla (1847)|Siege of Puebla]], soon joined by Santa Anna, but they failed to take it before the approach of a relief column from Vera Cruz under Brig. Gen. [[Joseph Lane]] prompted Santa Anna to stop him. Puebla was relieved by Gen. Lane October 12, 1847, following his defeat of Santa Anna at the [[Battle of Huamantla]] on October 9, 1847. The battle was Santa Anna's last. Following the defeat, the new Mexican government led by [[Manuel de la Peña y Peña]] asked Santa Anna to turn over command of the army to General [[José Joaquín de Herrera]].
====Anti guerrilla campaign====
Following his capture and securing of the capital, General Scott sent about a quarter of his strength to secure his line of communications to Vera Cruz from the [[Light Corps]] of General [[Joaquín Rea]] and other Mexican [[guerilla]] forces that had been harassing it since May. He strengthened the garrison of Puebla and by November had added a 1200 man garrison at [[Xalapa|Jalapa]], established 750-man posts along the National Road at the pass between Mexico City and Puebla at [[Río Frío de Juárez|Rio Frio]], at [[Perote, Veracruz|Perote]] and [[Las Vigas de Ramírez, Veracruz|San Juan]] on the road between Jalapa and Puebla and at [[Puente Nacional, Veracruz|Puente Nacional]] between Jalapa and Vera Cruz.<ref>Executive Document, No. 60, House of Representatives, first Session of the thirtieth Congress, pp. 1028, 1032</ref> He had also detailed an anti guerrilla brigade under Brig. Gen. [[Joseph Lane]] to carry the war to the Light Corps and other guerrillas. He ordered that convoys would travel with at least 1,300-man escorts. Despite some victories by General Lane over the Light Corps at [[Atlixco]] (October 18, 1847) and at [[Izucar de Matamoros]] (November 23, 1847) and over the guerrillas of Padre [[Celedonio Dómeco de Jarauta|Jaruta]] at [[Zacualtipan]] (February 25, 1848), guerrilla raids on the American line of communications continued until August but after the two governments concluded a truce to await ratification of the peace treaty, on March 6, 1848, formal hostilities ceased.<ref>{{citation | url = | first=Stephen A. |last = Carney |title=U.S. Army Campaigns of the Mexican War: The Occupation of Mexico, May 1846-July 1848 (CMH Pub 73-3) | publisher=U.S. Government Printing Office | location=Washington | year=2005| pages=30–38}}</ref>
==Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo==
{{Main|Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo}}
[[File:Wpdms mexican cession.png|thumb|350px|The [[Mexican Cession]], shown in red, and the later [[Gadsden Purchase]], shown in yellow.]]
Outnumbered militarily and with many of its large cities occupied, Mexico could not defend itself; the country was also faced with many internal divisions, inclucing the [[Caste War of Yucatán]]. The [[Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo]], signed on February 2, 1848, by American diplomat [[Nicholas Trist]] and Mexican [[plenipotentiary]] representatives Luis G. Cuevas, Bernardo Couto, and Miguel Atristain, ended the war. The treaty gave the U.S. undisputed control of [[Texas]], established the U.S.-Mexican border of the [[Rio Grande]], and ceded to the United States the present-day states of [[California]], [[Nevada]], [[Utah]], [[New Mexico]], most of [[Arizona]] and [[Colorado]], and parts of [[Texas]], [[Oklahoma]], [[Kansas]], and [[Wyoming]]. In return, Mexico received [[United States dollar|US $]]15,000,000<ref>Smith (1919) p. 241.</ref> (${{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|18250000|1848}}}} today) – less than half the amount the U.S. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities<ref>{{cite book | first=Bronwyn |last=Mills |title = U.S.-Mexican War | page=23 | ISBN=0-8160-4932-7}}</ref> – and the U.S. agreed to assume $3.25 million (${{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|3250000|1848}}}} today) in debts that the Mexican government owed to U.S. citizens.<ref name="autogenerated1"/>
The acquisition was a source of controversy then, especially among U.S. politicians who had opposed the war from the start. A leading antiwar U.S. newspaper, the ''Whig Intelligencer'', sardonically concluded that "We take nothing by conquest&nbsp;.... Thank God."<ref>{{cite book | first=Kenneth C. |last=Davis | title=Don’t Know Much About History | publisher =Avon Books |location=New York |year=1995 | page=143}}</ref><ref>{{cite book | first=Howard |last=Zinn |title=A People’s History of the United States |publisher=HarperCollins Publishers | location=New York |year=2003 |page=169}}</ref>
[[File:Mexican Cession in Mexican View.PNG|350px|thumb|Mexican territorial claims relinquished in the [[Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo]] in white.]]
[[Jefferson Davis]] introduced an amendment giving the U.S. most of [[northeastern Mexico]], which failed 44–11. It was supported by both senators from Texas ([[Sam Houston]] and [[Thomas Jefferson Rusk]]), [[Daniel S. Dickinson]] of New York, [[Stephen A. Douglas]] of Illinois, [[Edward A. Hannegan]] of Indiana, and one each from Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, and Tennessee. Most of the leaders of the Democratic party – [[Thomas Hart Benton (senator)|Thomas Hart Benton]], [[John C. Calhoun]], [[Herschel V. Johnson]], [[Lewis Cass]], [[James Murray Mason]] of Virginia, and [[Ambrose Hundley Sevier]] – were opposed.<ref>{{cite book|title=The United States and Mexico, 1821–1848|url=|first=George Lockhart |last=Rives| pages=634–636|year=1913|publisher=C. Scribner's Sons}}</ref> An amendment by Whig Senator [[George Edmund Badger]] of North Carolina to exclude New Mexico and California lost 35–15, with three Southern Whigs voting with the Democrats. [[Daniel Webster]] was bitter that four New England senators made deciding votes for acquiring the new territories.
The acquired lands west of the [[Rio Grande]] are traditionally called the [[Mexican Cession]] in the U.S., as opposed to the [[Texas Annexation]] two years earlier, though division of [[New Mexico]] down the middle at the Rio Grande never had any basis either in control or Mexican boundaries. Mexico never recognized the independence of Texas<ref>{{cite web | publisher=PBS |work=US-Mexican War, 1846-1848 | title = Boundary Disputes | first=Donald S. |last=Frazier | url =}}</ref> prior to the war, and did not cede its claim to territory north of the Rio Grande or [[Gila River]] until this treaty.
Prior to ratifying the treaty, the U.S. Senate made two modifications: changing the wording of Article IX (which guaranteed Mexicans living in the purchased territories the right to become U.S. citizens) and striking out Article X (which conceded the legitimacy of land grants made by the Mexican government). On May 26, 1848, when the two countries exchanged ratifications of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, they further agreed to a three-article protocol (known as the Protocol of Querétaro) to explain the amendments. The first article claimed that the original Article IX of the treaty, although replaced by Article III of the Treaty of Louisiana, would still confer the rights delineated in Article IX. The second article confirmed the legitimacy of land grants under Mexican law.<ref name="hidalgo">{{cite web | url = | work =Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo | title = Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits, and Settlement Between the United States of America and the United Mexican States Concluded at Guadalupe Hidalgoa | publisher = University of Dayton ( | accessdate=October 25, 2007}}</ref> The protocol was signed in the city of Querétaro by A. H. Sevier, [[Nathan Clifford]], and Luis de la Rosa.<ref name="hidalgo"/>
Article XI offered a potential benefit to Mexico, in that the US pledged to suppress the Comanche and Apache raids that had ravaged northern Mexico and pay restitutions to the victims of raids it could not prevent.<ref>{{cite web | url = | work = Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; February 2, 1848 | title = Article IX | publisher = Lillian Goldman Law Library}}</ref> However, the Indian raids did not cease for several decades after the treaty, although a cholera epidemic reduced the numbers of the Comanche in 1849.<ref>Hamalainen, 293-341</ref> [[Robert Letcher]], U.S. Minister to Mexico in 1850, was certain "that miserable 11th article" would lead to the financial ruin of the US if it could not be released from its obligations.<ref>{{cite book | last=DeLay |first=Brian | title=War of a thousand deserts: Indian raids and the U.S.-Mexican War | location=New Haven |publisher = Yale University Press | year=2008 |page=302}}</ref> The US was released from all obligations of Article XI five years later by Article II of the [[Gadsden Purchase]] of 1853.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title=Gadsden Purchase Treaty : December 30, 1853 | publisher = Lillian Goldman Law Library}}</ref>
[[File:Mexico nebel.jpg|thumb|250px|American occupation of [[Mexico City]].]]
===Altered territories===
Mexican territory, prior to the secession of Texas, comprised almost {{convert|1700000|sqmi|km2|abbr=on}}, which was reduced to just under 800,000 by 1848. Another 32,000 were sold to the U.S. in the [[Gadsden Purchase]] of 1853, for a total reduction of more than 55%, or 900,000 square miles.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo|publisher=|date=|accessdate=June 27, 2007}}</ref>
The annexed territories, although comparable in size to Western Europe, were sparsely populated. The lands contained about 14,000 people in [[Alta California]] and fewer than 60,000 in [[Santa Fe de Nuevo México|Nuevo México]],<ref>{{citation | title=Table 16. Population: 1790 to 1990 | format=PDF | work = Population and Housing Unit Counts. 1990 Census of Population and Housing. CPH-2-1. | publisher = U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census | pages =26–27 | ISBN=99946-41-25-5 | accessdate=July 3, 2008}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title = California Gold -- Migrating to California: Overland, around the Horn and via Panama | first=Andrea | last=Franzius | url = | accessdate=July 6, 2012}}</ref> as well as large [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native American]] nations such as the [[Navajo people|Navajo]], [[Hopi]], and dozens of others. A few relocated further south in Mexico. The great majority chose to remain in the U.S. and later became U.S. citizens.
The American settlers surging into the newly conquered Southwest were openly contemptuous of Mexican law (a [[Civil law (legal system)|civil law system]] based on the [[law of Spain]]) as alien and inferior and threw it out the window by enacting [[reception statute]]s at the first available opportunity. However, they recognized the value of a few aspects of Mexican law and carried them over into their new legal systems. For example, most of the southwestern states adopted [[community property]] marital property systems.
===The home front===
In much of the U.S., victory and the acquisition of new land brought a surge of patriotism. Victory seemed to fulfill Democrats' belief in their country's [[Manifest Destiny]]. While Whig [[Ralph Waldo Emerson]] rejected war "as a means of achieving America's destiny," he accepted that "most of the great results of history are brought about by discreditable means."<ref>{{cite book|last= Emerson|first=Ralph Waldo|title=The Conduct of Life|year=1860|page=110|isbn=1-4191-5736-1}}</ref> Although the Whigs had opposed the war, they made Zachary Taylor their presidential candidate in the [[U.S. presidential election, 1848|election of 1848]], praising his military performance while muting their criticism of the war.
{{Cquote2|“Has the Mexican War terminated yet, and how? Are we beaten? Do you know of any nation about to besiege South Hadley [Massachusetts]? If so, do inform me of it, for I would be glad of a chance to escape, if we are to be stormed. I suppose [our teacher] Miss [[Mary Lyon|[Mary] Lyon]] would furnish us all with daggers and order us to fight for our lives…” |The sixteen-year-old [[Emily Dickinson]], writing to her older brother, [[William Austin Dickinson|Austin]] in the fall of 1847, shortly after the [[Battle of Chapultepec]]<ref>Linscott, 1959, p. 218-219</ref>}}
=== Political repercussions ===
A month before the end of the war, Polk was criticized in a [[United States House of Representatives]] amendment to a bill praising [[Major General]] [[Zachary Taylor]] for "a war unnecessarily and unconstitutionally begun by the President of the United States." This criticism, in which [[Congressman]] [[Abraham Lincoln]] played an important role with his [[Spot Resolutions]], followed congressional scrutiny of the war's beginnings, including factual challenges to claims made by President Polk.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Congressional Globe, 30th Session (1848) pp. 93–95 | |date= |accessdate=May 28, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url= |title=House Journal, 30th Session (1848) pp. 183–184/ | |date= |accessdate=May 28, 2011}}</ref> The vote followed party lines, with all Whigs supporting the amendment. Lincoln's attack won luke-warm support from fellow Whigs in [[Illinois]] but was harshly counter-attacked by Democrats, who rallied pro-war sentiments in Illinois; Lincoln's Spot resolutions haunted his future campaigns in the heavily Democratic state of Illinois, and were cited by enemies well into his presidency.<ref>{{Cite book | last=Donald | first=David Herbert | title=Lincoln | year=1995 | pages=124, 128, 133}}</ref>
===Effect on the U.S. Civil War===
Many of the military leaders on both sides of the [[American Civil War]] had fought as junior officers in Mexico. This list includes [[Ulysses S. Grant]], [[George B. McClellan]], [[Ambrose Burnside]], [[Stonewall Jackson]], [[James Longstreet]], [[Joseph E. Johnston]], [[William T. Sherman]], [[William Rosecrans]], [[Braxton Bragg]], [[Sterling Price]], [[George Meade]], [[Robert E. Lee]], and the future [[Confederate States of America|Confederate]] President [[Jefferson Davis]].
[[President of the United States|President]] [[Ulysses S. Grant]], who as a young [[United States Army|army]] [[Second Lieutenant (United States)|lieutenant]] had served in Mexico under General Taylor, recalled in his ''[[Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant|Memoirs]]'', published in 1885, that:
{{bquote|Generally, the officers of the army were indifferent whether the annexation was consummated or not; but not so all of them. For myself, I was bitterly opposed to the measure, and to this day regard the war, which resulted, as one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. It was an instance of a republic following the bad example of European monarchies, in not considering justice in their desire to acquire additional territory.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Ulysses S Grant Quotes on the Military Academy and the Mexican War | |date= |accessdate=May 28, 2011}}</ref>}}
Grant also expressed the view that the war against Mexico had brought punishment on the United States in the form of the [[American Civil War]]:
{{bquote|The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war. Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war of modern times.<ref>{{cite web | url = | title = Personal Memoirs of General U. S. Grant&nbsp;— Complete by Ulysses S. Grant | publisher = Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation}}</ref>}}
On the American side, the war was fought by regiments of regulars and various regiments, battalions, and companies of volunteers from the different states of the union and the Americans and some of the Mexicans in the territory of California and New Mexico. On the West Coast, the U.S. Navy fielded a battalion of sailors, in an attempt to recapture [[Los Angeles]].<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=William Hugh Robarts, "Mexican War veterans : a complete roster of the regular and volunteer troops in the war between the United States and Mexico, from 1846 to 1848 ; the volunteers are arranged by states, alphabetically", BRENTANO'S (A. S. WITHERBEE & CO, Proprietors); WASHINGTON, D. C., 1887 | |date=March 10, 2001 |accessdate=May 28, 2011}}</ref>
===United States===
{{Main|List of U.S. Army, Navy and Volunteer units in the Mexican–American War}}
At the beginning of the war, the U.S. Army had eight regiments of infantry (three battalions), four artillery regiments and three mounted regiments (two dragoons, one of mounted rifles). These regiments were supplemented by 10 new regiments (nine of infantry and one of cavalry) raised for one year's service (new regiments raised for one year according to act of Congress Feb 11, 1847).<ref>Robarts, "Mexican War veterans" pp.1–24</ref>
State Volunteers were raised in various sized units and for various periods of time, mostly for one year. Later some were raised for the duration of the war as it became clear it was going to last longer than a year.<ref>Robarts, "Mexican War veterans" pp.39–79</ref>
U.S. soldiers' memoirs describe cases of looting and murder of Mexican civilians, mostly by State Volunteers. One officer's diary records:
{{bquote|We reached Burrita about 5 pm, many of the Louisiana volunteers were there, a lawless drunken rabble. They had driven away the inhabitants, taken possession of their houses, and were emulating each other in making beasts of themselves.<ref>Bronwyn Mills U.S.-Mexican war ISBN 0-8160-4932-7.</ref>}}
[[John L. O'Sullivan]], a vocal proponent of Manifest Destiny, later recollected:
{{bquote|The regulars regarded the volunteers with importance and contempt&nbsp;... [The volunteers] robbed Mexicans of their cattle and corn, stole their fences for firewood, got drunk, and killed several inoffensive inhabitants of the town in the streets.}} Many of the volunteers were unwanted and considered poor soldiers. The expression "Just like Gaines's army" came to refer to something useless, the phrase having originated when a group of untrained and unwilling Louisiana troops were rejected and sent back by Gen. Taylor at the beginning of the war.
The [[Last surviving United States war veterans|last surviving U.S. veteran]] of the conflict, [[Owen Thomas Edgar]], died on September 3, 1929, at age 98.
1,563 U.S. soldiers are buried in the [[Mexico City National Cemetery]], which is maintained by the [[American Battle Monuments Commission]].
At the beginning of the war, Mexican forces were divided between the permanent forces (''permanentes'') and the active militiamen (''activos''). The permanent forces consisted of 12 regiments of infantry (of two battalions each), three brigades of artillery, eight regiments of cavalry, one separate squadron and a brigade of dragoons. The militia amounted to nine infantry and six cavalry regiments. In the northern territories of Mexico, presidial companies (''presidiales'') protected the scattered settlements there.<ref>{{cite book|url= |title=René Chartrand, '&#39;Santa Anna's Mexican Army 1821–48'&#39;, Illustrated by Bill Younghusband, Osprey Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-84176-667-4, ISBN 978-1-84176-667-6 | |date= |accessdate=May 28, 2011}}</ref>
One of the contributing factors to loss of the war by Mexico was the inferiority of their weapons. The Mexican army was using British [[musket]]s (e.g. [[Brown Bess]]) from the [[Napoleonic Wars]]. In contrast to the aging Mexican standard-issue infantry weapon, some U.S. troops had the latest U.S.-manufactured [[breech-loading]] [[M1819 Hall rifle|Hall rifles]] and Model 1841 [[percussion rifle]]s. In the later stages of the war, U.S. cavalry and officers were issued [[Colt Walker]] [[revolvers]], of which the U.S. Army had ordered 1,000 in 1846. Throughout the war, the superiority of the U.S. artillery often carried the day.
Political divisions inside Mexico were another factor in the U.S. victory. Inside Mexico, the ''centralistas'' and ''republicanos'' vied for power, and at times these two factions inside Mexico's military fought each other rather than the invading American army. Another faction called the [[monarchists]], whose members wanted to install a [[monarch]] (some even advocated rejoining Spain), further complicated matters. This third faction would rise to predominance in the period of the [[French intervention in Mexico]]. The ease of the American landing at Vera Cruz was in large part due to civil warfare in Mexico City, which made any real defense of the port city impossible. As Gen. Santa Anna said, "However shameful it may be to admit this, we have brought this disgraceful tragedy upon ourselves through our interminable in-fighting."
[[Saint Patrick's Battalion]] (''San Patricios'') was a group of several hundred immigrant soldiers, the majority [[Ireland|Irish]], who deserted the U.S. Army because of ill-treatment or sympathetic leanings to fellow Mexican Catholics. They joined the Mexican army. Most were killed in the [[Battle of Churubusco]]; about 100 were captured by the U.S. and roughly ½ were hanged as deserters. The leader, [[Jon Riley]], was merely branded since he had deserted prior to the start of the war.
==Impact of the war in the U.S.==
[[File:Whig primary 1848c.jpg|thumb|upright|"An Available Candidate: The One Qualification for a Whig President." Political cartoon about the 1848 presidential election which refers to [[Zachary Taylor]] or [[Winfield Scott]], the two leading contenders for the [[Whig Party (United States)|Whig Party]] nomination in the aftermath of the Mexican–American War. Published by [[Nathaniel Currier]] in 1848, digitally restored.]]
Despite initial objections from the Whigs and abolitionists, the war would nevertheless unite the U.S. in a common cause and was fought almost entirely by volunteers. The army swelled from just over 6,000 to more than 115,000. Of these, approximately 1.5% were killed in the fighting and nearly 10% died of disease; another 12% were wounded or discharged because of disease, or both.
For years afterward, veterans continued to suffer from the debilitating diseases contracted during the campaigns. The casualty rate was thus easily over 25% for the 17 months of the war; the total casualties may have reached 35–40% if later injury- and disease-related deaths are added. {{Citation needed|date=July 2010}} In this respect, the war was proportionately the most deadly in American military history.
During the war, political quarrels in the U.S. arose regarding the disposition of conquered Mexico. A brief [[All of Mexico Movement|"All-Mexico" movement]] urged annexation of the entire territory. Veterans of the war who had seen Mexico at first hand were unenthusiastic. Anti-slavery elements opposed that position and fought for the exclusion of slavery from any territory absorbed by the U.S.<ref>{{cite book|url= |title=John Douglas Pitts Fuller, '&#39;The Movement for the Acquisition of All Mexico, 1846–1848'&#39; (1936) | |date=June 12, 2008 |accessdate=May 28, 2011}}</ref> In 1847 the House of Representatives passed the [[Wilmot Proviso]], stipulating that none of the territory acquired should be open to slavery. The Senate avoided the issue, and a late attempt to add it to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was defeated.
The [[Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo]] was the result of [[Nicholas Trist]]'s unauthorized negotiations. It was approved by the U.S. Senate on March 10, 1848, and ratified by the Mexican Congress on May 25. Mexico's cession of [[Alta California]] and [[Santa Fe de Nuevo México|Nuevo México]] and its recognition of U.S. sovereignty over all of Texas north of the Rio Grande formalized the addition of 1.2 million square miles (3.1 million km<sup>2</sup>) of territory to the United States. In return the U.S. agreed to pay $15 million and assumed the claims of its citizens against Mexico. A final territorial adjustment between Mexico and the U.S. was made by the [[Gadsden Purchase]] in 1853.
As late as 1880, the "Republican Campaign Textbook" by the [[Republican Congressional Committee]]<ref>[ Mexican–American War description] from the [[Republican Campaign Textbook]].</ref> described the war as "Feculent, reeking Corruption" and "one of the darkest scenes in our history—a war forced upon our and the Mexican people by the high-handed usurpations of Pres't Polk in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement of the slave oligarchy."
The war was one of the most decisive events for the U.S. in the first half of the 19th century. While it marked a significant waypoint for the nation as a growing military power, it also served as a milestone especially within the U.S. narrative of Manifest Destiny. The resultant territorial gains set in motion many of the defining trends in American 19th-century history, particularly for the American West. The war did not resolve the issue of slavery in the U.S. but rather in many ways inflamed it, as potential westward expansion of the institution took an increasingly central and heated theme in national debates preceding the American Civil War. Furthermore, in doing much to extend the nation from coast to coast, the Mexican–American War was one step in the massive migrations to the West of Americans, which culminated in transcontinental railroads and the [[Indian wars]] later in the same century.
In Mexico City's [[Chapultepec Park]], the ''[[Niños Héroes]]'' (Monument to the Heroic Cadets) commemorates the heroic sacrifice of six teenaged military cadets who fought to their deaths rather than surrender to American troops during the [[Battle of Chapultepec]] Castle on September 13, 1847. The monument is an important patriotic site in Mexico. On March 5, 1947, nearly one hundred years after the battle, U.S. President [[Harry S. Truman]] placed a wreath at the monument and stood for a [[moment of silence]].
==See also==
*[[Battles of the Mexican–American War]]
*[[Christopher Werner#Works|Christopher Werner, maker of the "Iron Palmetto"]] commemorating the loss of South Carolinians in the War
*[[Reconquista (Mexico)]]
*[[Republic of Texas – United States relations]]
*[[History of Mexico]]
*[[List of conflicts in the United States]]
*[[List of wars involving Mexico]]
*[[Mexico-United States relations]]
===Reference works===
*{{cite book|author=Crawford, Mark|coauthors=Jeanne T. Heidler; David Stephen Heidler (eds.)|title =Encyclopedia of the Mexican War|year=1999|isbn=1-57607-059-X}}
*Frazier, Donald S. ed. ''The U.S. and Mexico at War'', (1998), 584; an encyclopedia with 600 articles by 200 scholars
*{{cite book|author=Bauer, Karl Jack|title=The Mexican War: 1846–1848|publisher=University of Nebraska Press|year=1992|isbn=0-8032-6107-1}}
*De Voto, Bernard, ''Year of Decision 1846'' (1942), well written popular history
*Greenberg, Amy S. ''A Wicked War: Polk, Clay, Lincoln, and the 1846 U.S. Invasion of Mexico'' (2012). ISBN 9780307592699 and [ Corresponding Author Interview] at the [[Pritzker Military Library]] on December 7, 2012
*Henderson, Timothy J. ''A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States'' (2008)
*Meed, Douglas. ''The Mexican War, 1846–1848'' (2003). A short survey.
*Merry Robert W. ''A Country of Vast Designs: James K. Polk, the Mexican War and the Conquest of the American Continent'' (2009)
*Smith, Justin Harvey. ''The War with Mexico, Vol 1.'' (2 vol 1919), [ full text online].
**''The War with Mexico, Vol 2.'' (1919). [ full text online].
*Bauer K. Jack. ''Zachary Taylor: Soldier, Planter, Statesman of the Old Southwest''. Louisiana State University Press, 1985.
*Dishman, Christopher, ''A Perfect Gibraltar: The Battle for Monterrey, Mexico," University of Oklahoma Press, 2010 ISBN 0-8061-4140-9.
*Eisenhower, John. ''So Far From God: The U.S. War with Mexico'', Random House (1989).
*[[Damon R. Eubank|Eubank, Damon R.]], ''Response of Kentucky to the Mexican War, 1846–1848''. (Edwin Mellen Press, 2004), ISBN 978-0-7734-6495-7.
*Foos, Paul. ''A Short, Offhand, Killing Affair: Soldiers and Social Conflict during the Mexican-War'' (2002).
*Fowler, Will. ''Santa Anna of Mexico'' (2007) 527pp; a major scholarly study
*Frazier, Donald S. ''The U.S. and Mexico at War'', Macmillan (1998).
*Hamilton, Holman, ''Zachary Taylor: Soldier of the Republic'', (1941).
* Huston, James A. ''The Sinews of War: Army Logistics, 1775-1953'' (1966), U.S. Army; 755pp [ online] pp 125-58
*Lewis, Lloyd. ''Captain Sam Grant'' (1950).
*Johnson, Timothy D. ''Winfield Scott: The Quest for Military Glory'' (1998)
*McCaffrey, James M. ''Army of Manifest Destiny: The American Soldier in the Mexican War, 1846–1848'' (1994)[ excerpt and text search]
*Smith, Justin H. "American Rule in Mexico," ''The American Historical Review'' Vol. 23, No. 2 (Jan. 1918), pp.&nbsp;287–302 [ in JSTOR]
*Smith, Justin Harvey. ''The War with Mexico.'' 2 vol (1919). Pulitzer Prize winner. [ full text online].
*Winders, Richard Price. ''Mr. Polk’s Army: The American Military Experience in the Mexican War'' (1997)
===Political and diplomatic===
*Beveridge; Albert J. ''Abraham Lincoln, 1809–1858''. Volume: 1. 1928.
*Brack, Gene M. ''Mexico Views Manifest Destiny, 1821–1846: An Essay on the Origins of the Mexican War'' (1975).
*Fowler, Will. ''Tornel and Santa Anna: The Writer and the Caudillo, Mexico, 1795–1853'' (2000).
*Fowler, Will. ''Santa Anna of Mexico'' (2007) 527pp; the major scholarly study [ excerpt and text search]
*Gleijeses, Piero. "A Brush with Mexico" ''Diplomatic History'' 2005 29(2): 223–254. Issn: 0145-2096 debates in Washington before war.
*Graebner, Norman A. ''Empire on the Pacific: A Study in American Continental Expansion''. (1955).
*Graebner, Norman A. "Lessons of the Mexican War." ''Pacific Historical Review'' 47 (1978): 325–42. [ in JSTOR].
*Graebner, Norman A. "The Mexican War: A Study in Causation." ''Pacific Historical Review'' 49 (1980): 405–26. [ in JSTOR].
*Henderson, Timothy J. ''A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States'' (2007), survey
*Krauze, Enrique. ''Mexico: Biography of Power'', (1997), textbook.
*Linscott, Robert N., Editor. 1959. ''Selected Poems and Letters of Emily Dickinson''. Anchor Books, New York. ISBN 0-385-09423-X
*Mayers, David; Fernández Bravo, Sergio A., "La Guerra Con Mexico Y Los Disidentes Estadunidenses, 1846–1848" [The War with Mexico and US Dissenters, 1846–48]. ''Secuencia'' [Mexico] 2004 (59): 32–70. Issn: 0186-0348.
*[ Pinheiro, John C.] ''Manifest Ambition: James K. Polk and Civil-Military Relations during the Mexican War'' (2007).
*Pletcher David M. ''The Diplomacy of Annexation: Texas, Oregon, and the Mexican War''. University of Missouri Press, 1973.
*Price, Glenn W. ''Origins of the War with Mexico: The Polk-Stockton Intrigue''. University of Texas Press, 1967.
*Reeves, Jesse S. "The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo," ''American Historical Review,'' Vol. 10, No. 2 (Jan. 1905), pp.&nbsp;309–324 [ in JSTOR].
*Rives, George Lockhart. ''The United States and Mexico, 1821–1848: a history of the relations between the two countries from the independence of Mexico to the close of the war with the United States'' (1913) [ full text online]
*Rodríguez Díaz, María Del Rosario. "Mexico's Vision of Manifest Destiny During the 1847 War" ''Journal of Popular Culture'' 2001 35(2): 41–50. Issn: 0022-3840.
*[[Ramón Eduardo Ruiz|Ruiz, Ramon Eduardo]]. ''Triumph and Tragedy: A History of the Mexican People'', Norton 1992, textbook
*Schroeder John H. ''Mr. Polk's War: American Opposition and Dissent, 1846–1848.'' University of Wisconsin Press, 1973.
*Sellers Charles G. ''James K. Polk: Continentalist, 1843–1846'' (1966), the standard biography [ vol 1 and 2 are online at ACLS e-books]
*Smith, Justin Harvey. ''The War with Mexico.'' 2 vol (1919). Pulitzer Prize winner. [ full text online].
*Stephenson, Nathaniel Wright. ''Texas and the Mexican War: A Chronicle of Winning the Southwest''. Yale University Press (1921).
*Weinberg Albert K. ''Manifest Destiny: A Study of Nationalist Expansionism in American History'' Johns Hopkins University Press, 1935.
*Yanez, Agustin. ''Santa Anna: Espectro de una sociedad'' (1996).
===Memory and historiography===
*Faulk, Odie B., and Stout, Joseph A., Jr., eds. ''The Mexican War: Changing Interpretations'' (1974)
*Rodriguez, Jaime Javier. ''The Literatures of the U.S.-Mexican War: Narrative, Time, and Identity'' (University of Texas Press; 2010) 306 pages. Covers works by Anglo, Mexican, and Mexican-American writers.
*Benjamin, Thomas. "Recent Historiography of the Origins of the Mexican War," ''New Mexico Historical Review,'' Summer 1979, Vol. 54 Issue 3, pp 169–181
*Vázquez, Josefina Zoraida. "La Historiografia Sobre la Guerra entre Mexico y los Estados Unidos," ["The historiography of the war between Mexico and the United States"] ''Histórica'' (02528894), 1999, Vol. 23 Issue 2, pp 475–485
===Primary sources===
*Calhoun, John C. ''The Papers of John C. Calhoun. Vol. 23: 1846,'' ed. by Clyde N. Wilson and Shirley Bright Cook. (1996). 598 pp
**Calhoun, John C. ''The Papers of John C. Calhoun. Vol. 24: December 7, 1846&nbsp;– December 5, 1847'' ed. by Clyde N. Wilson and Shirley Bright Cook, (1998). 727 pp.
*Conway, Christopher, ed. ''The U.S.-Mexican War: A Binational Reader'' (2010)
*{{cite book|last=Grant|first=Ulysses S.|url=|title= Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant|publisher= Charles L. Webster & Co|year=1885|location=New York|isbn=}}
*{{cite book|last=Kendall|first=George Wilkins|editor=Lawrence Dilbert Cress|title=Dispatches from the Mexican War|publisher=University of Oklahoma Press|year=1999| location= Norman, Oklahoma|isbn=}}
*{{cite book|last=Polk|first=James, K.|editor=Milo Milton Quaife|url=|title= The Diary of James K. Polk: During his Presidency, 1845–1849|publisher=A. C. McClurg & Co|year=1910|location=Chicago|isbn=}}
*Robinson, Cecil, ''The View From Chapultepec: Mexican Writers on the Mexican War,'' University of Arizona Press (Tucson, 1989).
*{{cite book|last=Smith|first=Franklin|editor=Joseph E. Chance|title=The Mexican War Journal of Captain Franklin Smith|publisher=University Press of Mississippi| year=1991|location=Jackson, Mississippi|isbn=}}
*{{cite book|editor=George Winston and Charles Judah|title= Chronicles of the Gringos: The U.S. Army in the Mexican War, 1846–1848, Accounts of Eyewitnesses and Combatants|publisher=The University of New Mexico Press|year=1968|location= Albuquerque, New Mexico|isbn=}}
*{{cite book|last=Webster|first=Daniel|editor=Charles M. Wiltse|title=The Papers of Daniel Webster, Correspondence|publisher=The University Press of New England|volume=6| year=1984|location=Hanover, New Hampshire|isbn=}}
*{{cite web|title=Treaty of Guadalope Hidalgo|work=|publisher= Internet Sourcebook Project|date=|url=| accessdate=November 26, 2008}}
*{{cite web|title=28th Congress, 2nd session|work=|publisher= United States House Journal|date=|url=|accessdate=November 26, 2008}}
*{{cite web|title=29th Congress, 1st session|work=|publisher= United States House Journal|date=|url=|accessdate=November 26, 2008}}
*{{cite web|title=28th Congress, 2nd session|work=|publisher= United States Senate Journal|date=|url=|accessdate=November 26, 2008}}
*{{cite web|title=29th Congress, 1st session|work=|publisher= United States Senate Journal|date=|url=|accessdate =November 26, 2008}}
*[ William Hugh Robarts, "Mexican War veterans: a complete roster of the regular and volunteer troops in the war between the United States and Mexico, from 1846 to 1848; the volunteers are arranged by states, alphabetically", BRENTANO'S (A. S. WITHERBEE & CO, Proprietors); WASHINGTON, D. C., 1887.]
==External links==
{{Commons category|Mexican-American War}}
===Guides, bibliographies and collections===
*[ Library of Congress Guide to the Mexican War]
*[ ''The Handbook of Texas Online:'' Mexican War]
*[ Reading List] compiled by the [[United States Army Center of Military History]]
*[ Mexican War Resources]
*[ The Mexican–American War, Illinois Historical Digitization Projects at Northern Illinois University Libraries]
===Media and primary sources===
*[ A Continent Divided: The U.S. - Mexico War]
*[ Robert E. Lee Mexican War Maps in the VMI Archives]
*[ ''The Mexican War and the Media, 1845–1848'']
*[ Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and related resources at the U.S. Library of Congress]
*[ Letters of Winfield Scott including official reports from the front sent to the Secretary of War]
*[ Franklin Pierce's Journal on the March from Vera Cruz]
*[ Mexican–American War Time line]
*[ Animated History of the Mexican–American War]
*[ PBS site of US-Mexican war program]
*[ Battle of Monterrey Web Site] – Complete Info on the battle
*[ Manifest Destiny and the U.S.-Mexican War: Then and Now]
*[ ''The Mexican War'']
*[ Smithsonian teaching aids for "Establishing Borders: The Expansion of the United States, 1846–48"]
*[ A History by the Descendants of Mexican War Veterans]
*[ Mexican–American War]
*[ Invisible Men: Blacks and the U.S. Army in the Mexican War by Robert E. May]
* [ Milton Meltzer, "Bound for the Rio Grande: Traitors--Or Martyrs"], Reading, video, and lesson for high school students, 1974, Zinn Education Project/Rethinking Schools.
{{California history}}
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{{United States intervention in Latin America}}
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Reason: ANN scored at 0.952255
Reporter Information
Reporter: JimmiXzS (anonymous)
Date: Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:40:02 PM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:28:52 PM #100450
Bradley (anonymous)


Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:40:02 PM #106426
JimmiXzS (anonymous)