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Article: Extraterrestrial life
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==Background==
 
==Background==
Alien life, such as bacteria, has been hypothesized to exist in the [[Solar System]] and throughout the universe. This hypothesis relies on the [[Size of the universe|vast size]] and consistent [[physical law]]s of the [[observable universe]]. According to this argument, made by scientists such as [[Carl Sagan]] and [[Stephen Hawking]], it would be improbable for life ''not'' to exist somewhere other than Earth.<ref>{{cite book | page=3 | title=Other Worlds, Other Universes | editors=Brad Steiger, John White | publisher=Health Research Books | year=1986 | isbn=0-7873-1291-6 | url=http://books.google.com/books?id=vgQj5D524PYC&pg=PA3 }}</ref><ref>{{cite book | first1=David | last1=Filkin | first2=Stephen W. | last2=Hawking | title=Stephen Hawking's universe: the cosmos explained | page=194 | series=Art of Mentoring Series | publisher=Basic Books | year=1998 | isbn=0-465-08198-3 | url=http://books.google.com/books?id=95Kog5v4ZxkC&pg=PA194 }}</ref> This argument is embodied in the [[Copernican principle]], which states that the Earth does not occupy a unique position in the Universe, and the [[mediocrity principle]], which holds that there is nothing special about life on Earth.<ref>{{Cite book | first=Horst | last=Rauchfuss | year=2008 | title=Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life | publisher=Springer | isbn=3-540-78822-0 | url=http://books.google.com/books?id=aRkvNoDYtvEC&pg=PA300 | others=T. N. Mitchell | postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}} }}</ref> Life may have emerged independently at many places throughout the [[Universe]]. Alternatively life may form less frequently, then spread between [[habitable planet]]s through [[panspermia]] or exogenesis.<ref>{{cite book | first1=Guillermo | last1=Gonzalez | first2=Jay Wesley | last2=Richards | title=The privileged planet: how our place in the cosmos is designed for discovery | pages=343–345 | publisher=Regnery Publishing | year=2004 | isbn=0-89526-065-4 | url=http://books.google.com/books?id=KFdu4CyQ1k0C&pg=PA343 }}</ref> In any case, [[organic compound|complex organic molecules]] necessary for life may have formed in the [[protoplanetary disk]] of [[cosmic dust|dust grains]] surrounding the [[Sun]] before the formation of the Earth based on [[computer simulation|computer model studies]].<ref name="Space-20120329">{{cite web |last=Moskowitz |first=Clara |title=Life's Building Blocks May Have Formed in Dust Around Young Sun |url=http://www.space.com/15089-life-building-blocks-young-sun-dust.html |date=29 March 2012 |publisher=[[Space.com]] |accessdate=30 March 2012 }}</ref> According to these studies, this same process may also occur around other [[stars]] that acquire [[planets]].<ref name="Space-20120329" /> (Also see [[Abiogenesis#Extraterrestrial organic molecules|Extraterrestrial organic molecules]].)
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Alien life, such as bacteria, has been hypothesized to exist in the [[Solar System]] and throughout the universe. This hypothesis relies on the [[Size of the universe|vast size]] and consistent [[physical law]]s of the [[observable universe]]. According to this argument, made by scientists such as [[Carl Sagan]] and [[Stephen Hawking]], it would be improbable for life ''not'' to exist somewhere other than Earth.<ref>{{cite book | page=3 | title=Other Worlds, Other Universes | editors=Brad Steiger, John White | publisher=Health Research Books | year=1986 | isbn=0-7873-1291-6 | url=http://books.google.com/books?id=vgQj5D524PYC&pg=PA3 }}</ref><ref>{{cite book | first1=David | last1=Filkin | first2=Stephen W. | last2=Hawking | title=Stephen Hawking's universe: the cosmos explained | page=194 | series=Art of Mentoring Series | publisher=Basic Books | year=1998 | isbn=0-465-08198-3 | url=http://books.google.com/books?id=95Kog5v4ZxkC&pg=PA194 }}</ref> This argument is embodied in the [[Copernican principle]], which states that the Earth does not occupy a unique position in the Universe, and the [[mediocrity principle]], which holds that there is nothing special about life on Earth.<ref>{{Cite book | first=Horst | last=Rauchfuss | year=2008 | title=Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life | publisher=Springer | isbn=3-540-78822-0 | url=http://books.google.com/books?id=aRkvNoDYtvEC&pg=PA300 | others=T. N. Mitchell | postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite ASS to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}} }}</ref> Life may have emerged independently at many places throughout the [[Universe]]. Alternatively life may form less frequently, then spread between [[habitable planet]]s through [[panspermia]] or exogenesis.<ref>{{cite book | first1=Guillermo | last1=Gonzalez | first2=Jay Wesley | last2=Richards | title=The privileged planet: how our place in the cosmos is designed for discovery | pages=343–345 | publisher=Regnery Publishing | year=2004 | isbn=0-89526-065-4 | url=http://books.google.com/books?id=KFdu4CyQ1k0C&pg=PA343 }}</ref> In any case, [[organic compound|complex organic molecules]] necessary for life may have formed in the [[protoplanetary disk]] of [[cosmic dust|dust grains]] surrounding the [[Sun]] before the formation of the Earth based on [[computer simulation|computer model studies]].<ref name="Space-20120329">{{cite web |last=Moskowitz |first=Clara |title=Life's Building Blocks May Have Formed in Dust Around Young Sun |url=http://www.space.com/15089-life-building-blocks-young-sun-dust.html |date=29 March 2012 |publisher=[[Space.com]] |accessdate=30 March 2012 }}</ref> According to these studies, this same process may also occur around other [[stars]] that acquire [[planets]].<ref name="Space-20120329" /> (Also see [[Abiogenesis#Extraterrestrial organic molecules|Extraterrestrial organic molecules]].)
 
Suggested locations at which life might have developed include the planets [[Venus]]<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3746583.stm|title=Venus clouds 'might harbour life'|publisher=BBC News|accessdate=2007-12-05|date=2004-05-25 | first=Martin | last=Redfern}}</ref> and [[Mars]], [[Jupiter]]'s moon [[Europa (moon)|Europa]],<ref name = "EuropaPlanetary"/> and [[Saturn]]'s moons [[Titan (moon)|Titan]] and [[Enceladus (moon)|Enceladus]].<ref>{{cite journal | display-authors=1 | title=TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission | last1=Coustenis | first1=A. | last2=Atreya | first2=S. K. | last3=Balint | first3=T. | last4=Brown | first4=R. H. | last5=Dougherty | first5=M. K. | last6=Ferri | first6=F. | last7=Fulchignoni | first7=M. | last8=Gautier | first8=D. | last9=Gowen | first9=R. A. | journal=Experimental Astronomy | volume=23 | issue=3 | pages=893–946 | month=March | year=2009 | doi=10.1007/s10686-008-9103-z | bibcode=2009ExA....23..893C }}</ref> In May 2011, NASA scientists reported that Enceladus "is emerging as the most habitable spot beyond Earth in the Solar System for life as we know it".<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Lovett |first1=Richard A. |title=Enceladus named sweetest spot for alien life |url=http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110531/full/news.2011.337.html |date=31 May 2011 |publisher=[[Nature (journal)|Nature]] |doi=10.1038/news.2011.337 |accessdate=2011-06-03 |journal=Nature }}</ref>
 
Suggested locations at which life might have developed include the planets [[Venus]]<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3746583.stm|title=Venus clouds 'might harbour life'|publisher=BBC News|accessdate=2007-12-05|date=2004-05-25 | first=Martin | last=Redfern}}</ref> and [[Mars]], [[Jupiter]]'s moon [[Europa (moon)|Europa]],<ref name = "EuropaPlanetary"/> and [[Saturn]]'s moons [[Titan (moon)|Titan]] and [[Enceladus (moon)|Enceladus]].<ref>{{cite journal | display-authors=1 | title=TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission | last1=Coustenis | first1=A. | last2=Atreya | first2=S. K. | last3=Balint | first3=T. | last4=Brown | first4=R. H. | last5=Dougherty | first5=M. K. | last6=Ferri | first6=F. | last7=Fulchignoni | first7=M. | last8=Gautier | first8=D. | last9=Gowen | first9=R. A. | journal=Experimental Astronomy | volume=23 | issue=3 | pages=893–946 | month=March | year=2009 | doi=10.1007/s10686-008-9103-z | bibcode=2009ExA....23..893C }}</ref> In May 2011, NASA scientists reported that Enceladus "is emerging as the most habitable spot beyond Earth in the Solar System for life as we know it".<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Lovett |first1=Richard A. |title=Enceladus named sweetest spot for alien life |url=http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110531/full/news.2011.337.html |date=31 May 2011 |publisher=[[Nature (journal)|Nature]] |doi=10.1038/news.2011.337 |accessdate=2011-06-03 |journal=Nature }}</ref>
   
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Reporter: JimmiXzS (anonymous)
Date: Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:37:53 PM
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Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:37:53 PM #106404
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