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{{About|Husayn ibn Ali (626–680)|the modern political figure (1852–1931)|Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca}}
 
{{Infobox person
 
| name = Husayn ibn test <br> {{small|{{native phrase|ar|حسين بن علي}}}}
 
| honorific_suffix = {{small| [[List of Imams|3rd]] [[Imamah (Shia doctrine)|Imam]] of [[Shia Islam]]}}<sup>a</sup>
 
| image = Kerbela Hussein Moschee.jpg
 
| image_size = 225px
 
| alt =
 
| caption = [[Imam Husayn Shrine]], [[Iraq]]
 
| birth_name =
 
| birth_date = {{Circa}} {{Birth date|626|1|10|df=yes}}[[Common Era|CE]] <br> (5 [[Sha'aban]] 38 [[Hijri year|AH]])<ref>{{cite book |last=Shabbar |first=S.M.R. |year=1997 |title=Story of the Holy Ka’aba |url=http://www.al-islam.org/story-of-the-holy-kaaba-and-its-people-shabbar/third-imam-husayn-ibn-%E2%80%98ali |location= |publisher=Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain |isbn= |accessdate=30 October 2013 }}</ref>
 
| birth_place =
 
| death_date = {{Circa}} {{Death date and age|680|10|13|626|1|10|df=yes}} <br> (10 Muharram 61 AH)
 
| death_place = [[Karbala]] , [[Umayyad Empire]]
 
| death_cause = [[Martyrdom in Islam|Martyred]] and [[Decapitation|beheaded]] at the [[Battle of Karbala]]
 
| resting_place = [[Imam Husayn Shrine]] , [[Iraq]]
 
| resting_place_coordinates = {{Coord|32|36|59|N|44|1|56.29|E|type:landmark|display=inline}}
 
| monuments =
 
| residence =
 
| other_names =
 
| ethnicity = [[Arab people|Arab]] ([[Quraysh tribe|Quraysh]])
 
| years_active =
 
| agent =
 
| known_for =
 
| notable_works =
 
| style =
 
| title = {{Collapsible list|titlestyle=font-weight:normal; background:transparent; text-align:left;|title=||ash-Shahīd<ref name="qarashi58">{{cite book |last=al-Qarashi |first=Baqir Shareef |title=The life of Imam Husain |year=2007 |publisher=Ansariyan Publications |location=Qum |page=58}}</ref><br><small>([[Arabic language|Arabic]] for Father of Freedom)</small><br><small>([[Arabic language|Arabic]] for The Martyr)</small>||as-Sibt<ref name="qarashi58"/><small><br>(Arabic for The Grandson)</small>|Sayyidu Shabābi Ahlil Jannah<ref name="qarashi58"/><ref>Tirmidhi, Vol. II, p. 221 ; تاريخ الخلفاء، ص189</ref><br><small>(Arabic for Leader of the Youth of Paradise)</small>|ar-Rashīd<ref name="qarashi58"/><small><br>(Arabic for The Rightily Guided)</small>|at-Tābi li Mardhātillāh<ref name="qarashi58"/><small><br>(Arabic for The Follower of Gods Will)</small>|al-Mubārak<ref name="qarashi58"/><small><br>(Arabic for The Blessed)</small>|at-Tayyib<ref name="qarashi58"/><br><small>(Arabic for The Pure)</small>|Sayyidush Shuhadā<ref name="history95">{{cite book |title=A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles |year=2004 |publisher=Ansariyan Publications |location=Qum |page=95}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Kitab al-Irshad |page=198}}</ref><small><br>(Arabic for Master of the Martyrs)</small>|al-Wafī<ref name="qarashi58"/><small><br>(Arabic for The Loyal)</small>|Üçüncü Ali <br /> <small>([[Turkish language|Turkish]] for Third Ali)</small>}}
 
| term = 670 – 680 CE
 
| predecessor =
 
| successor =
 
| movement =
 
| opponents =
 
| religion = [[Islam]]
 
| denomination = [[Shia]]
 
| spouse = [[Shahr Banu]] <br> [[Rubab bint Imra al-Qais|Umm Rubāb]] <br> [[Layla bint Abi Murrah al-Thaqafi|Umm Laylā]].
 
| children = {{Collapsible list|titlestyle=font-weight:normal; background:transparent; text-align:left;|title=||[[Ali ibn Husayn|‘Alī ibn al-Ḥussein ibn ‘Alī]] ''([[Zayn al-‘Ābidīn]]),''[[Ali al-Akbar ibn Husayn|Ali Akbar]]|[[Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn|Ali Asghar]]|[[Abu Bakr ibn Husayn|Abu Bakr]]|[[Omer ibn Husayn|Omer]]|[[Abdullah ibn Husayn|Abdullah]]|[[Um Kalthoom]]|[[Sukayna bint Husayn|Sakeenah]]|[[Fatima bint Husayn|Fatima]]|[[Zainab bint Husayn|Zainab]]}}
 
| parents = [[Ali]] <br> [[Fatimah]]
 
| relatives =
 
| module =
 
| website = <!-- {{URL|Example.com}} -->
 
| footnotes = <sup>a</sup> 2nd Imam of [[Nizari Ismaili]] [[Shia]]
 
| box_width =
 
}}
 
{{The Twelve Imams}}
 
 
'''Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib''' (sometimes spelled '''Hussein''') ({{lang-ar| الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب}}) (11 or 13 January 626 CE – 13 October 680 CE) (3rd / 5th [[Sha'aban]] 4 [[Islamic calendar|AH]] – 10th [[Muharram]] 61 AH) was the son of [[Ali|Ali ibn Abi Ṭalib]] (final ''[[Rashidun|Rashidun Caliph]]'' and first [[Imamah (Shia doctrine)|Shia Imam]]) and [[Fatimah|Fatimah Zahra]] (daughter of the [[Prophets in Islam|Islamic prophet]] [[Muhammad]]) and the younger brother of [[Hasan ibn Ali]]. Hussein is an important figure in [[Islam]], as he is a member of the ''[[Ahl al-Bayt]]'' (the household of Muhammad) and ''[[Ahl al-Kisa]]'', as well as being the third Shia Imam.
 
 
Hussein is highly regarded by Shia Muslims because he refused to pledge allegiance to [[Yazid I]],<ref name="Britannica">{{cite encyclopedia | title=al-Hussein ibn 'Ali | encyclopedia=Encyclopædia Britannica Online | accessdate=2007-10-12}}</ref> the []] [[Umayyad Caliphate|Umayyad]] [[caliph]] because he considered the rules of the [[Umayyads]] unjust.<ref name="Britannica"/> As a consequence, he left [[Medina]], his home town, and traveled to Mecca. There, the people of [[Kufa]] sent letters to him, asking his help and pledging their allegiance to him. So he traveled to Kufa.<ref>[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=_ujcpilaYssC&pg=PA174&dq=people+of+kufa+pledged+allegiance+to+hussein&hl=en&sa=X&ei=U_4YUc6vC4qm0AWYnICoDw&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=people%20of%20kufa%20pledged%20allegiance%20to%20hussein&f=false Islamic Unity and Happiness By Tallal Alie Turfe Page 174]</ref> There, his caravan was intercepted by Yazid's army. He was killed and beheaded in the [[Battle of Karbala]] in 680 (61 AH) by [[Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan]], along with most of his family and companions.<ref>Gordon, 2005, pp. 144–146</ref> The annual memorial for him, his family, his children and his As'haab (companions) is called ''[[Day of Ashura|Ashura]]'' (tenth day of Muharram) and is a [[Mourning of Muharram|day of mourning]] for Shia Muslims.
 
 
Anger at Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine and ultimately overthrow the [[Umayyad Caliphate]].
 
 
==Early life==
 
[[File:Brooklyn Museum - Battle of Karbala - Abbas Al-Musavi - overall.jpg|thumb|
 
The painting by commemorating the martyrdom of Imam Husayn at the [[Battle of Karbala]], its focus is his half brother [[Abbas ibn Ali]] on a white horse <ref name="BrooklynMuseumKarbala">{{cite web |url = http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/3054/Battle_of_Karbala |title = Brooklyn Museum: Arts of the Islamic World: Battle of Karbala |publisher = Brooklyn Museum |location= Brooklyn, New York |accessdate= 7 July 2013 }}</ref>]]
 
[[File:Imam Husayn.png|thumb|Imam Husayn's Name in Arabic Calligraphy]]
 
 
According to most reports, Husayn was born on 10 January 626 CE (3 / 5 Sha'aban 4 AH).<ref name="Iranica">{{cite encyclopedia|last=Madelung |first=Wilferd | authorlink=Wilferd Madelung | title=HOSAYN B. ALI | encyclopedia=Iranica | accessdate=2008-01-12|url=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v12f5/v12f5036b.html}}</ref>
 
 
Hussain and his brother Hasan were the last descendants of Muhammad living during his lifetime and remaining after his death. There are many accounts of his love for them which refer to them together.<ref name="Iranica"/>
 
 
Muhammad is reported to have said that whoever loves them has loved him and whoever hates them has hated him. A famous narration declares them the "Masters of the Youth of Paradise"; this has been particularly important for the Shia who have used it in support of the right of Muhammad's descendants to succeed him. Other traditions record Muhammad with his grandsons on his knees, on his shoulders, and even on his back during prayer at the moment of prostrating himself, when they were young.<ref name="EoI">L. Veccia Vaglieri, (al-) Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, Encyclopedia of Islam</ref>
 
 
According to [[Wilferd Madelung]], Muhammad loved them and declared them as his Ahl al-Bayt very frequently. The [[Quran]] has also accorded the Ahl al-Bayt an elevated position above the rest of the believers.<ref>Madelung (1997), pp. 14–16</ref>
 
 
===The incident of Mubahala===
 
{{Main|Mubahala|Hadith of Mubahala}}
 
A collection of ''[[Hadith]]'' tells that during the 9th – 10th year after ''[[Hijra (Islam)|Hijra]]'' an [[Arab Christians and Arabic-speaking Christians|Arab Christian]] envoy from [[Najran]] (currently in northern [[Yemen]] and partly in [[Saudi Arabia]]) came to Muhammad to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning Jesus ([[Jesus in Islam|Isa]]).<ref>{{cite quran|3|61|style = ref}}</ref>
 
 
After likening Jesus' miraculous birth to [[Adam]]'s ([[Islamic view of Adam|Adem]]) creation,<ref>{{cite quran|3|59|style = ref}}</ref> -who was born to neither a mother nor a father- Muhammad called them to [[Mubahala]] (the cursing of the lower party) where each party should ask [[God in Islam|God]] to destroy the false party and their families. Muhammad, to prove himself to them as a prophet, brought his daughter Fatimah, son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib and both of his grandsons, Hasan and Husayn and came back to the Christians and said to them "This is my family, the (Ahl al-Bayt)" and covered himself and his family with a cloak.
 
 
According to this story, the Christians then agreed to a peace treaty and told Muhammad that they would not return.<ref>See:* [[Sahih Muslim]], Chapter of virtues of companions, section of virtues of Ali, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1871, the end of tradition No.&nbsp;32
 
* Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p654
 
* Madelung, 1997, pp. 15 and 16
 
</ref>
 
 
==Background==
 
In 639, [[Muawiyah I]] was appointed as the governor of Syria after the previous governor [[Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah]] died in a plague along with 25,000 other people.<ref>The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate By Wilferd Madelung Page 61 [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2QKBUwBUWWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=death+of+Muhammad+and+the+beginning+of+islam&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0JX-UMysC62Y0QWOsICIDQ&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=death%20of%20Muhammad%20and%20the%20beginning%20of%20islam&f=false]</ref>
 
 
The Quran and [[Muhammad]] talked about racial equality and justice as in the [[The Farewell Sermon]].<ref>The Spread of Islam: The Contributing Factors By Abu al-Fazl Izzati, A. Ezzati Page 301</ref><ref>Islam For Dummies By Malcolm Clark Page</ref><ref>Spiritual Clarity By Jackie Wellman Page 51</ref><ref>The Koran For Dummies By Sohaib Sultan Page</ref><ref>Quran: The Surah Al-Nisa, Ch4:v2</ref><ref>Quran: Surat Al-Hujurat [49:13]</ref><ref>Quran: Surat An-Nisa' [4:1]</ref> Tribal and nationalistic differences were discouraged. But after Muhammad's passing, the old tribal differences between the Arabs started to resurface. Following the [[Roman–Persian Wars]] and the [[Byzantine–Sassanid Wars]], deep rooted differences between Iraq, formally under the Persian [[Sassanid Empire]], and Syria, formally under the [[Byzantine]] Empire, also existed. Each wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in their area.<ref>Iraq a Complicated State: Iraq's Freedom War By Karim M. S. Al-Zubaidi Page 32</ref> Previously, the second caliph [[Umar]] was very firm and his spies kept an eye on the governors. If he felt that a governor or the commander was becoming attracted to wealth, he had him removed from his position.<ref>Arab Socialism. [al-Ishtirakiyah Al-?Arabiyah]: A Documentary Survey By Sami A. Hanna, George H. Gardner Page 271 [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=zsoUAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA271&dq=Umar+wealth+and+luxury&hl=en&sa=X&ei=OBQYUcXSOYWM0wWajIHQCg&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Umar%20wealth%20and%20luxury&f=false]</ref>
 
 
In 656, the third caliph [[Uthman ibn al-Affan]] was killed by some Egyptians and [[Ali ibn Abi Talib]] was approached by the people and [[Ali ibn Abi Talib]] was made the fourth caliph. Ali then moved the capital to Kufa in Iraq. [[Muawiyah I]] the governor of Syria, a relative of [[Uthman ibn al-Affan]] wanted the culprits arrested. [[Muawiyah I]] inherited the old Roman Syrian army. The fault lines between Iraq, formally under the Persian [[Sassanid Empire]] and Syria formally under the [[Byzantine]] Roman Empire existed for hundreds of years and the [[Roman–Persian Wars]] and the [[Byzantine–Sassanid Wars]] had ran for hundreds of years. After the defeat of the [[Byzantine]] and the [[Sassanids]], the tax systems, some of the armies, the fault lines and the problems were inherited by the Muslims.
 
 
Ali was assassinated by [[Kharijites]] in 661. Six months later in 661, in the interest of peace, Hasan ibn Ali, highly regarded for his wisdom and as a peacemaker, the fourth [[Rightly Guided Caliphs]] for the Sunnis and the Second Imam for the Shias and the grandson of Muhammad, made a peace treaty with Muawiyah I. In the [[Hasan-Muawiya treaty]], Hasan ibn Ali handed over power to Muawiya on the condition that he be just to the people and keep them safe and secure and that he does not establish a dynasty. Hasan and Hussein then moved to Madina.<ref>The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate By Wilferd Madelung Page 232 [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2QKBUwBUWWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=hasan+ibn+ali+and+muawiya+peace+treaty&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jdsXUfCqLeOx0QXypYDIDg&ved=0CFQQ6AEwBzgK#v=onepage&q&f=false]</ref><ref>[http://www.sahih-bukhari.com/Pages/Bukhari_3_49.php Sahih Al Bukhari Volume 3, Book 49 (Peacemaking), Number 867 ]</ref> Following this, [[Muawiyah I|Mu'awiyah]] broke the conditions of the agreement and began the [[Umayyad dynasty]], with its capital in [[Damascus]].<ref>{{Harvtxt|Holt|1977a|pp=67–72}}</ref> This brought to an end the era of the [[Rightly Guided Caliphs]] for the Sunnis and Hasan ibn Ali was also the last Imam for the Shias to be a Caliph. On his death bed [[Muawiyah I|Mu'awiyah]] appointed his son [[Yazid I]] to succeed him. [[Yazid I]] was oppressive and Hussein felt that it was his duty to confront him because he was oppressive.
 
 
The state that [[Muhammad]] established was in accordance with [[Islamic economic jurisprudence]]. As the state expanded, the rights of the different communities, as they existed in the [[Constitution of Medina]] still applied. The [[Constitution of Medina]] instituted a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and pagan communities of Medina, bringing them within the fold of one community — the [[Ummah]].<ref>Ibid, Serjeant, page 4.</ref><ref>Watt. ''Muhammad at Medina''. pp. 227-228 Watt argues that the initial agreement was shortly after the hijra and the document was amended at a later date specifically after the battle of Badr (AH [anno hijra] 2, = AD 624). Serjeant argues that the constitution is in fact 8 different treaties which can be dated according to events as they transpired in Medina with the first treaty being written shortly after Muhammad's arrival. R. B. Serjeant. "The Sunnah Jâmi'ah, Pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the Tahrîm of Yathrib: Analysis and Translation of the Documents Comprised in the so called 'Constitution of Medina'." in ''The Life of Muhammad: The Formation of the Classical Islamic World'': Volume iv. Ed. Uri Rubin. Brookfield: Ashgate, 1998, p. 151 and see same article in BSOAS 41 (1978): 18 ff. See also Caetani. ''Annali dell’Islam, Volume I''. Milano: Hoepli, 1905, p. 393. Julius Wellhausen. ''Skizzen und Vorabeiten'', IV, Berlin: Reimer, 1889, p 82f who argue that the document is a single treaty agreed upon shortly after the hijra. Wellhausen argues that it belongs to the first year of Muhammad’s residence in Medina, before the battle of Badr in 2/624. Even Moshe Gil a skeptic of Islamic history argues that it was written within 5 months of Muhammad's arrival in Medina. Moshe Gil. "The Constitution of Medina: A Reconsideration." ''Israel Oriental Studies'' 4 (1974): p. 45.</ref> The Constitution established: the security of the community, religious freedoms, the role of Medina as a sacred place (barring all violence and weapons), the security of women, stable tribal relations within Medina, a tax system for supporting the community in time of conflict, parameters for exogenous political alliances, a system for granting protection of individuals, and a judicial system for resolving disputes where non-Muslims could also use their own laws. All the tribes signed the agreement to defend Madina from all external threats and to live in harmony amongst themselves. The same rights were later applied to for all the communities, as the state expanded outside Madina. The Quran also gave rights to the citizens of the state and these rights were also applied. In the past Ali, Hassan and Hussein had given allegiance to the first three caliphs when they abided by these conditions. But here [[Yazid I]] as oppressive and Husseins felt that it was his religious duty to confront him and send a message to the future generations that oppressive rulers who take away the rights of people should not be given allegiance. Sunnis and Shias may disagree on the details but they all accept Hussein and hold him in high regard. [[Marwan I]] was well known to be a trouble causer and well known for making everyone fight amongst each other and later became the ruler.
 
 
Sahih Al Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 352 : Narrated by Yusuf bin Mahak <ref>[http://www.sahih-bukhari.com/Pages/Bukhari_6_60.php]</ref>
 
 
"Marwan had been appointed as the governor of Medina by Muawiya.<ref>Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi, The Major Classes, vol. 5, p. 38{{verify credibility|date=March 2013}}</ref> He delivered a sermon and mentioned Yazid bin Muawiya so that the people might take the oath of allegiance to him as the successor of his father (Muawiya). Then 'Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr told him something whereupon marwan ordered that he be arrested. But 'Abdur-Rahman entered 'Aisha's house and they could not arrest him. marwan said, "It is he ('AbdurRahman) about whom Allah revealed this Verse: 'And the one who says to his parents: 'Fie on you! Do you hold out the promise to me..?'" On that, 'Aisha said from behind a screen, "Allah did not reveal anything from the Qur'an about us except what was connected with the declaration of my innocence (of the slander)."
 
 
Many of Husseins friends in Mecca [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] the grand son of the first caliph [[Abu Bakr]], [[Abdullah ibn Umar]] the son of the second caliph [[Umar]] and [[Abdullah ibn Abbas]] advised [[Husayn bin Ali]] to make Mecca his base and fight against [[Yazid I]] from Mecca. Hussein had a lot of support in Mecca and Madina and they advised him not to go to Kufa in Iraq.
 
 
==Husayn and caliphate==
 
According to the Shia, Hasan was supposed to be the successor to Ali after Muhammad. [[Muawiyah I|Muawiyah]] had fought with Ali during his time and after his death, as Hasan was supposed to take Ali's place in successorship, he was another threat to Muawiyah in which he prepared to fight with him again.
 
 
Muawiyah began fighting Hasan and it led to inconclusive skirmishes between the armies of Hasan and Muawiyah. Thus, to avoid the agonies of another civil war, he signed the [[Hasan–Muawiya treaty]] with Muawiyah. Hasan's only condition in the treaty was that Muawiyah wouldn't name a successor during his reign and let the Islamic world choose their successor after the latter. After establishing his power, Muawiyah poisoned Hasan in 50 AH. And after Hasan's death, he then named his son Yazid as his successor.
 
 
=== Husayn and Rashidun ===
 
 
During Ali's caliphate Hasan, Husayn, [[Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah]] and [[Abdullah ibn Ja'far]] appear as his closest assistants within his household.<ref name="Iranica"/>
 
 
==Muawiyah's era==
 
{{See also|Muawiyah I|Umayyad}}
 
When Hasan ibn Ali agreed to make a peace treaty with Muawiyah I, the first Umayyad caliph, he left [[Kufa]] and went to Medina with his brother Husayn.<ref>Madelung (1997), p0. 324 and 325</ref>
 
 
According to the Shia belief, he lived under the most difficult outward conditions of suppression and persecution. This was due in part to the fact that religious laws and regulations had lost much of their weight and credit, and the edicts of the Umayyad government had gained complete authority and power. Another reason was that Muawiyah and his aides made use of every possible means to put aside past disputes and remove the Household of Muhammad and the followers of Ali and his sons, and thus obliterate the name of Ali and his family.<ref name=autogenerated1>Tabatabaei, (1979), p.196</ref>
 
 
Muawiyah I ordered for public curses of Ali and his major supporters including Hasan and Husayn.<ref name="Iranica"/>
 
 
According to the Shia, Husayn had gained the third Imam for a period of ten years after the death of his brother Hassan in 669. All of this time but the last six months coinciding with the caliphate of Muawiyah.<ref name=autogenerated1 />
 
N
 
 
==Yazid's rule==
 
One of the important points of the treaty made between Hasan and Muawiyah was that Muawiyah will not designate anyone as his successor after his death and the decision will be left to the ''[[Ummah]]'' (the Nation). But after the death of Hasan, he, thinking that no one will be courageous enough to object his decision as the Caliph, designated his son, Yazid I, as his successor in 680 CE, breaking the treaty.<ref name=autogenerated3>Halm (2004), p.13</ref>
 
 
=== Uprising ===
 
[[File:Kerbela Hussein Moschee.jpg|250px|thumbnail|right|[[Imam Husayn Shrine]] in Karbala, Iraq]]
 
Husayn left Medina with his sisters, daughters, sons, brothers, and the sons of Hasan. He took a side road to [[Mecca]] to avoid being pursued, and once in Mecca Husayn stayed in the house of [[‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib]] and remained there for four months.<ref name="Iranica"/>
 
 
While in Mecca [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]], [[Abdullah ibn Umar]] and [[Abdullah ibn Abbas]] advised [[Husayn bin Ali]] to make Mecca his base and fight against Yazid from Mecca.<ref>Balyuzi, H. M.: ''Muhammad and the course of Islam''. George Ronald, Oxford (U.K.), 1976, p.193</ref>
 
 
Husayn opposed Yazid I and declared that Umayyad rule was not only oppressive, but also religiously misguided. In his view the integrity and survival of the Islamic community depended on the re-establishment of the correct guidance.<ref name=autogenerated2>Dakake (2007), pp.81 and 82</ref> Husayn also believed that the succession of Yazid I was an attempt to establish an illegitimate hereditary dynasty.
 
 
The religious attitudes of the Umayyad also inspired the people of Kufa to believe that leadership of the Muslim community belonged to the descendants of Muhammad, so they urged Husayn to join them and come to Kufa to establish his caliphate<ref name="autogenerated3"/> since they had no [[imam]]. They told him that they did not attend the [[Jumu'ah|Friday prayer]] with the governor of Kufa, [[No'man ibn Bashir]], and would drive him out of the town as soon as Husayn agreed to come to them.
 
 
To convince Husayn to come they sent him seven messengers with bags of letters of support by Kufan warriors and tribal leaders. As he prepared for the journey to Kufa, [[Abdullah ibn Umar]] and [[Abdullah ibn Abbas]] argued against his plan and, if he was determined to proceed to Kufa, asked him to leave the women and children in Mecca. Husayn wrote the Kufans and told them that he understood from their letters that they had no imam and they wished him to come to unite them by the correct guidance. He informed them that he was sending his cousin [[Muslim ibn Aqeel]] to report to him on the situation. If he found them united as their letters indicated he would quickly join them, for it was the duty of the imam to act in accordance with the Qur'an and to uphold justice, proclaim the truth, and to dedicate himself to the cause of God. The mission of ibn Aqeel was initially successful. The Kufans visited him freely, and 18,000 men are said to have enlisted with him in support of Husayn as their saviour and Caliph. He wrote to Husayn, encouraging him to come quickly to Kufa.<ref name="Iranica"/>
 
 
According to Shia scholars, Husayn was also visited by a supporter with two of his sons from Basra, where Shia sentiment was limited. He then sent identical letters to the chiefs of the five divisions into which the Basran tribes were divided. He wrote them that Muhammad's family were his family and were the rightful heirs of his position, and that others had illegitimately claimed the right which belonged exclusively to Muhammad's family. The family had initially consented to the actions of the first caliphs for the sake of the unity of the Ummah. He said that the caliphs who had seized the right of Muhammads's family had done many good things, and had sought the truth. The letter closely reflected the guidelines set by Ali, who had strongly upheld the sole right of the family of Muhammad, who were the descendants of Fatima (Muhammad's daughter), to leadership of the Muslim community. The Sunnis, who compose the vast majority of the Muslims, believe that Husayn did not oppose [[Yazid I]] because he wanted to be a ruler but because he felt that it was his duty to oppose an oppressive ruler. [[Yazid I]] is regarded as an oppressive ruler by Sunnis too. While most of the recipients of the letter kept it secret, one of them suspected that it was a ploy of the governor [[Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad]] to test their loyalty and turned it over to him. Ubayd-Allah seized and beheaded Husayn's messenger and addressed a stern warning to the people of Basra.<ref name="Iranica"/>
 
 
In Kufa the situation changed radically when Yazid replaced Noman ibn Bashir with Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, ordering the latter to disperse the crowd supporting Muslim ibn Aqeel but without killing either Muslim ibn Aqeel or Al-Husayn. Ubayd-Allah succeeded in intimidating the tribal chiefs, and a revolt collapsed when the rebels failed to capture the governor's palace. ibn Aqeel was found and delivered to Ubayd-Allah, and after agreeing with Muslim bin Aqeel to send a message to Al-Husayn with the following: "return with your family, and don't be deceived by the people of Kufa. They have misled you and me", Ubayd-Allah bin Ziyad killed Muslim bin Aqeel. However, the message was not received by Al-Husayn when he decided to leave Mecca against the advice of a few of Muhammad's companions, including [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]].<ref name="The Story of Al-Husayn Death">{{cite news|title=The Story of Al-Husayn Death|url=http://islamicweb.com/arabic/shia/husain.htm}}</ref>
 
 
== Battle of Karbala ==
 
{{Husayn}}
 
{{Main|Battle of Karbala}}
 
{{See also|Maqtal al-Husayn}}
 
 
===Shia view===
 
Husayn in his path toward Kufa encountered the army of Ubaydllah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, led by [[Hurr|Hurr ibn Yazid ''Riyahi'']], a top commander in the Umayyad army who later changed sides. It is said that when Hurr and his one thousand men army initially encountered Husayn on the day of 4th Muharram, Hurr and his army were thirsty as they had been on rounds to capture Husayn for many days. Husayn offered his storage of water to Hurr, his army, and the horses of his army. It is said that if Husayn had not offered the water to Hurr and his army, the water in Husayn's camp would have lasted until 19th day of Muharram. Hurr did not arrest Husayn, but told him to set a camp in [[Karbala]] and stop his journey to Kufa. Husayn and his family were also not allowed to set up tents close to the bank of the [[Euphrates]]. On the 7th day of Muharram, the water storage in Husayn's camp was finished. Husayn requested ibn Ziyad's army to allow him and his family members access to water, but his request was denied. Husayn sent his brother [[Al-Abbas ibn Ali]] to the river bank to bring water, but Ziyad's army fought with Abbas, cut off both his arms, and killed him. Husayn also went to ibn Ziyad's army and asked them to allow water for his six month old son, but the army launched arrows toward Husayn's son, one of which killed the little Ali Asghar.
 
 
At the Battle of Karbala it is recorded that seventy two people were killed.<ref>[http://www.al-islam.org/short/sorrows/names.htm Names of Martyrs at Karbala<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 
 
When Husayn clashed with Yazid's army, he said:<ref>الا ترون الی الحق لا یعمل به و الی الباطل لا یتناهی عنه؟ لیرغب المومن فی لقاء ربه محقا. فانی لا اری الموت الا سعادة و الحیوة مع الظالمین الا برما Lohouf, Sayyid ibn Tawoos, Tradition No.99</ref>
 
{{Quote|... Don't you see that the truth is not put into action and the false is not prohibited? The believer should desire to meet his Lord while he is right. Thus I do not see death but as happiness, and living with tyrants but as sorrow.|Husayn ibn Ali}}
 
 
On 13 October 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH), he and his small group of his followers and family members, who were between 72 or more,<ref>[http://www.porsojoo.com/en/node/70869 ]</ref><ref>[http://www.velaiat.com/shshow.asp?rsabs=43&id=kash فهرست اسامي شهداي كربلا]</ref> fought with a large army under the command of [[Umar ibn Sa'ad]], son of [[Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas]]. Husayn and all of his men were killed and beheaded. The bodies were left for forty days without burial and survivors from Husain's family were taken as prisoners to [[Greater Syria|al-Sham]] ([[Syria]] and [[Lebanon]] today) to Yazid.<ref name="Battle of Karbala">[http://www.al-islam.org/history/history/marsiyya.html Battle of Karbala]</ref>
 
 
Part of his speech on Ashura{{Citation needed|date=January 2008}}:
 
{{Quote|Behold; the illegitimate, son of the illegitimate [by birth], has settled between two, between unsheathing [the sword] and humiliation, and how impossible is humiliation from us! [[Allah]] refuses that for us, and his messenger, and the believers, and laps chastified and purified, and zealous noses [expression: heads that do not bow in humility], and repudiating souls [who repudiate/refuse oppression], that we desire obedience to the mean ones, than the killings of the honourable [martyrdom]. Behold that I move slowly with this family, despite the little number and deserting of helpers.}}
 
 
Today, the death of Husayn ibn Ali is commemorated during every Muharram by Shia Muslims, with the most important of these days being its tenth day, Ashura. However, Ashura is commemorated by Sunni Muslims for reasons of martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali and also involving [[Moses]] as mentioned in the hadiths.
 
 
===Sunni view===
 
On his way to Kufa, Al-Hussain encountered a small army led by [[Umar ibn Sa'ad]], Shamar bin Thi Al-Joshan, and Hussain bin Tamim. Al-Hussain asked them to grant them one of three: Afterwards, Al-Hurr rode his horse towards Al-Hussain and his group who thought he came to fight them. But Al-Hurr changed his direction and went towards the army where he fought them and killed two men before getting killed.
 
 
Al-Hussain's followers were killed around him until he was left alone fighting. Soldiers on the other side were hesitant to kill Al-Hussain until Shamar bin Thi Al-Joshan throw his spear at Al-Hussain. It is said that Shamar bin Thi Al-Joshan was the one who beheaded Al-Hussain.<ref>The Story of Al-Hussain Death</ref>
 
 
==Aftermath==
 
The impact of the tragedy of Karbalāʾ on the religious conscience of Muslims has ever been deep and goes beyond its consecration of the passion and penitence motives in Shiʿism. The motivation of the major actors in it have often been debated. It is evident that Ḥosayn cannot be viewed as simply a reckless rebel risking his and his family’s lives for his personal ambition. He refused to break his oath of allegiance to Moʿāwia despite his severe reproval of his conduct. He did not pledge allegiance to Yazid, who had been appointed successor by Moʿāwia in violation of his treaty with Ḥasan, and most likely never agreed to do so. Yet he also did not actively seek martyrdom. He offered to leave Iraq as soon as it became clear that he no longer had any support in Kufa. It was ʿObayd-Allāh who vainly sought to provoke him to start the fighting. His initial determination to follow the invitation of the Kufan Shiʿites in spite of the numerous warnings he received and his visions of the Prophet reflect a religious conviction of a mission that left him no choice, whatever the outcome. Like his father he was firmly convinced that the family of the Prophet was divinely chosen to lead the community founded by Moḥammad, as the latter had been chosen, and had both an inalienable right and an obligation to seek this leadership.<ref>[http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/hosayn-b-ali-i Encyclopedia Iranica]</ref>
 
 
When Husayn was killed in Karbala, Husayns friend, [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] the grandson of [[Abu Bakr]] and the cousin of [[Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr]] collected the people of Mecca and made the following speech:
 
 
"O people! No other people are worse than Iraqis and among the Iraqis, the people of Kufa are the worst. They repeatedly wrote letters and called Imam Husayn to them and took bay'at (allegiance) for his caliphate. But when [[Ibn Ziyad|Ibn Zeyad]] arived in Kufa, they rallied around him and killed Imam Husayn who was pious, observed the fast, read the Quran and deserved the caliphate in all respects" <ref name="Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah 2001 pp. 110">Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah (2001). The History of Islam V.2. Riyadh: Darussalam. pp. 110. ISBN 9960892883.</ref>
 
 
After his speech, the people of Mecca also joined [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] to take on Yazid. When he heard about this, Yazid had a silver chain made and sent to Mecca with the intention of having Walid ibn Utbah arrest Ibn al-Zubair with it<ref name="Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah 2001 pp. 110"/>
 
 
Eventually [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] consolidated his power by sending a governor to [[Kufa]]. Soon, [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] established his power in [[Iraq]], southern [[Arabia]] and in the greater part of [[Syria]], and parts of [[Egypt]]. Yazid tried to end [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]]'s rebellion by invading the [[Hejaz]], and took [[Medina]] after the bloody [[Battle of al-Harrah]] followed by the siege of [[Makkah]] but his sudden death ended the campaign and threw the [[Umayyad]]s into disarray with civil war eventually breaking out.
 
 
This essentially split the Islamic empire into two spheres with two different caliphs, but soon the Umayyad civil war was ended, and [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] lost Egypt and whatever he had of Syria to [[Marwan I]]. This coupled with the [[Kharijite]] rebellions in Iraq reduced his domain to only the [[Hejaz]].
 
 
In Mecca and Madina Husayns family had a strong support base the people were willing to stand up for them. Husayns remaining family moved back to Madina.
 
 
[[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] was the grandson of [[Abu Bakr]] and the cousin of [[Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr]]. Both [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] and [[Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr]] were [[Aisha]] nephews. [[Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr]] was also the grandfather of [[Imam Jafar al-Sadiq]].
 
 
[[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] was finally defeated by [[Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan]], who sent [[Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf]]. Hajjaj defeated and killed [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] on the battlefield in 692, beheading him and crucifying his body, reestablishing [[Umayyad]] control over the Empire.
 
 
On his last hour he asked his mother [[Asmā' bint Abu Bakr]] what he should do. [[Asmā' bint Abu Bakr]] replied to her son, she said:<ref>[http://www.ummah.com/forum/showthread.php?347728-The-Advice-of-Asmaa-bint-Abu-Bakr-(ra)-to-her-son-Abdullah-Ibn-Zubair-(ra)]</ref>
 
 
"You know better in your own self that if you are upon the truth and you are calling towards the truth go forth for people more honourable than you were killed and have been killed and if you are not upon the truth, then what an evil son you are, you have destroyed yourself and those who are with you. If you say what you say, that if you are upon the truth and you will be killed at the hands of others then you will not truly be free, for this is not the statement of someone who is free".
 
 
Then [[Asmā' bint Abu Bakr]] said to her son, this is the statement of the mother to her son,
 
 
"how long will you live in this world, death is more beloved to me than this state you are on/ this state of weakness."
 
 
Then this conversation between [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] and his mother continued.
 
 
Then [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] said to his mother after she had told him to go forth and fight.
 
 
He said, "I am afraid I will be mutilated by the people of Sham, I am afraid that they will cut up my body after they have killed me"
 
 
So she said to her son,"after someone has died it won't make any difference what they do to you if you have been killed."
 
 
[[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] then said to his mother,"I did not come to you except to increase myself in knowledge."
 
 
He said to her, "I did not come to you except to increase me in knowledge, look and pay attention to this day for verily I am a dead man, your son never drank wine, nor was he fornicator, nor did he wrong any Muslim or Non Muslim, nor was he unjust, I am not saying this to you to show off or show how pure I am but rather as an honour to you."
 
 
So then [[Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr]] left by himself on his horse to take on Hajjaj and he was killed by the Army of Hajjaj.
 
 
Then Hajjaj crucified him and said," No one must put down his body except Asmaa (radiallaahu anha ), she must come to me and ask permission of me and only then will his body be put down".
 
 
Asmaa refused to go and ask permission to put down her sons body and it was said to her,
 
 
if you don't go his body will remain like that. So she said let it be then.
 
 
Until eventually, Hajjaj came to her and said,
 
 
"what do you say about this matter " and she said,
 
 
" Verily you have destroyed him you have ruined his life and with that you have ruined your hereafter."
 
 
A few years later the people of Kufa called [[Zayd ibn Ali]] the grandson of Husayns over to Kufa. [[Zaidiyyah|Zaydis]] believe that on the last hour of [[Zayd ibn Ali]], [[Zayd ibn Ali]] was also betrayed by the people in Kufa who said to him: "May God have mercy on you! What do you have to say on the matter of [[Abu Bakr]] and [[Umar ibn al-Khattab]]?" [[Zayd ibn Ali]] said, "I have not heard anyone in my family renouncing them both nor saying anything but good about them...when they were entrusted with government they behaved justly with the people and acted according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah"<ref>Islam re-defined: an intelligent man's guide towards understanding Islam - Page 54 [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2HpIAAAAMAAJ&q=zayd+ibn+ali+betrayed&dq=zayd+ibn+ali+betrayed&hl=en&sa=X&ei=CRsEUZrEIvOM0wXfrICQBw&ved=0CDQQ6AEwATgK]</ref><ref>[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=JhvPnC5NnzMC&pg=PA72&dq=abu+hanifa+Zayd+ibn+Ali++prison&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Or79ULqxGYTG0QXEvoHgDA&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=abu%20hanifa%20Zayd%20ibn%20Ali%20%20prison&f=false Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law By Khaled Abou El Fadl page 72]</ref><ref>The waning of the Umayyad caliphate by Tabarī, Carole Hillenbrand, 1989, p37, p38</ref><ref>The Encyclopedia of Religion Vol.16, Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams, Macmillan, 1987, p243. ''"They were called "Rafida by the followers of Zayd"''</ref>
 
 
== Hussein ibn Ali's burial site ==
 
 
=== Shia view ===
 
 
Husayn's body is buried in Karbala, near the site of his death. His head is said to have been returned from [[Damascus]] and interred with his body.<ref>Halm (2004), pp. 15 and 16</ref> Shia/[[Fatimid Caliphate|Fatimid]] believe that Husain's head was first buried in the courtyard of yezid mahal ([[Umayyad Mosque]]) than transferred from Damascus to [[Ashkelon]] to [[Cairo]].
 
 
Husayn's grave became the most visited place of [[Ziyarat]] for Shias. The [[Imam Husayn Shrine]] was later built over his grave. In 850 [[Abbasid Caliphate|Abbasid]] caliph, [[al-Mutawakkil]], destroyed his shrine in order to stop Shia pilgrimages. However, pilgrimages continued.<ref>Halm (2004), p. 15</ref>
 
 
===Return of the head of Husayn to his body===
 
Several Shia and Sunni sources confirm the return of Husayn's head to his body in Karbala. According to [[Shaykh Saduq]], Husayn's son, [[Ali ibn Husayn]], took it back from Shaam and returned it to Karbala.<ref>Amali of Shaykh Sadouq, Majlis 31, p. 232</ref> Fetal Neyshabouri and [[Muhammad Baqir Majlisi|Majlesi]] have confirmed this in their books, Rouzato-Waisin and [[Bihar al-Anwar]] respectively.<ref>Rouzato-Waisin, Fetal Neyshabouri, p 192</ref><ref>[[Bihar al-Anwar]], [[Muhammad Baqir Majlisi]] vol. 45, p 140</ref> [[Sharif al-Murtaza]] also mentions this in his book Rasaael.<ref>Rasaael, [[Sharif al-Murtaza]], vol. 3, p. 130</ref> [[Ibn shahrashub]] verrifies [[Sharif al-Murtaza]] stating the same thing about head of Husayn. He also narrates [[Shaykh Tusi]] that this event, i.e. returning the head to the body, happened forty days after [[Ashura]] and it is for this reason, there are specific rituals for this day.<ref>Manaqib Al Abi-Taleb, [[Ibn shahrashub]], vol. 4, p. 85</ref> This day is recognized by Shias and is known as [[Arba'een]]. Similar statements are documented by famous Shia scholars e.g. [[Ahmad ibn Tawoos]]<ref>Lohouf, [[Ahmad ibn Tawoos]] p. 114</ref> and
 
[[Muhaqeq Helli]].<ref>Mathir al ahzan, Ibn Nama Helli, p. 85</ref>
 
Among Sunni scholors, [[Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī]] in his famous work [[The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries]] has stated that Husayn's head was returned to his body and was buried altogether on 20th of the lunar month of Safar ([[Arba'een]]).<ref>[[The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries]], [[Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī]] p. 331</ref> Similar statement is mentioned by Sunni scholar [[Zakariya al-Qazwini]], in his book [[ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt]].<ref>[[ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt]], [[Zakariya al-Qazwini]] p 45</ref> [[Qurtobi]] narrates from Shias on the return of the head to the body on [[Arba'een]].<ref>Tazkerah fi omour al-mawta wa omour al-akherah, Qurtobi vo. 2 p. 668</ref>
 
 
===Transfer of the head of Husayn in Fatimid belief===
 
<ref>Brief History of Transfer of the Sacred Head of Hussain ibn Ali, From Damascus to Ashkelon to Qahera By:
 
Qazi Dr. Shaikh Abbas Borhany PhD (USA), NDI, Shahadat al A'alamiyyah (Najaf, Iraq), M.A., LLM (Shariah) Member, Ulama Council of Pakistan. Published in ''Daily News'', Karachi, Pakistan on 3 January 2009.</ref>
 
 
[[File:Zarih of Husain,Karbala.jpg|thumb|The Zarih of Husayn in [[Imam Husayn Shrine]] Karbala]]
 
[[File:head husain sham.JPG|The Shrine of Husayn's head in [[Umayyad Mosque]], Damascus|thumb]]
 
[[File:place of head Imam Husain Yezid mosque,Damascus.JPG|The place where Husayn's head is kept, [[Umayyad Mosque]], Damascus|thumb]]
 
[[File:Sey'd Hussein Shrine1b.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Muslim pilgrims to the Shrine of Seyid Hussein, [[Ashkelon]], April 1943.]]
 
[[File:Cave of Patriarchs mimbar.jpg|thumb|The Mimbar of Imam Husain mashhad of Ashkelon now placed at the [[Cave of the Patriarchs|Ibrahimi Mosque]], [[Hebron|Al Khalil(Hebron)]]]]
 
[[File:Inscription on mimbar Ibrahimi mosque.JPG|thumb|An Inscription on the Mimbar [[Cave of the Patriarchs|Ibrahimi Mosque]] at [[Hebron|Al Khalil(Hebron)]]]]
 
[[File:Raous-us-Husain,Cairo .jpg|The Zarih of Husayn's head in [[Al-Hussein Mosque]], Cairo|thumb]]
 
 
[[File:The burial place of Husayn's head in Askelan,Israel.JPG|thumb|Believed by the Fatemids to be the burial place of Husayn's head in [[Ashkelon]], Israel]]
 
 
On the second day after the battle of Karbala, the forces of Yazid I raised the head of Husayn on a lance. They took it to Kufa to present it to Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, leaving behind the mutilated body of Husayn. The headless body was thus buried there by the tribe of [[Bani Assad]], who were living in the vicinity of Karbala. After the exhibition and display of the head of Husayn, ibn Ziyad dispatched it to Damascus to be presented to Yazid as a trophy.
 
 
Yazid celebrated the occasion with great pomp and show by displaying the head of Husayn in his crowded and decorated court. The head was then buried in a niche of one of the internal walls of Jame-Masjid, Damascus, Syria. Afterwards, the head of Husayn remained confiscated and confined in Damascus by the order of the Umayyad monarch, [[Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik]] (d.86/705), in this condition for about two hundred twenty years.
 
 
When the Abbasids took power from the Umayyads, in the garb of taking revenge of Ahl al-Bayt, they also confiscated the head Husayn and proved to be worse enemies than the Umayyads. It was the Abbasid emperor [[Al-Muqtadir]] (d. 295/908), an enemy of the Ahl al-Bayt He attempted many times to stop the pilgrimage to the head, but in vain. He thus tried to completely eliminate the sign of the sacred place of Ziyarat; he transferred the head of Husayn to [[Ashkelon]] (located {{convert|10|km|abbr=on}} from the [[Gaza Strip]] and {{convert|58|km|abbr=on}} south of [[Tel Aviv]], [[Israel]]) in secrecy, so that the pilgrims could not find the place.
 
 
It was the 15th [[Fatimid]]/[[Ismailism|Ismaili]]/[[Dawoodi Bohra]] Imam [[Abu Mansoor Nizar al-Aziz Billah]] (d.386 AH/996) who traced the site of the head of his great-grandfather through the office of his contemporary in [[Baghdad]], in 985. In the city of [[Ashkelon]], Israel, it remained buried at "Baab al Faradis", for a long time (about 250 years up to 1153).
 
 
Commander of the Fatimid forces Dai Badrul’jamali (d. 487/1095) conquered [[Palestine]], during the period of 18th Fatimid Imam [[Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah]] (d. 487/1094). The Fatimid Imam assigned him to discover the head of Husayn ibn Ali. The Dai, in 448 (A.H) discovered the place of Raas al Imam al Husayn.
 
 
Under the instructions of the Fatimid Imam [[Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah]], [[Badr al-Jamali]] constructed a mosque and donated several huge properties to meet the expenditure of the 'Trust', so as to maintain the affairs of the ''Mashhad'' the place of burial. He also prepared a wooden [[minbar]] (pulpit) and placed it in the mosque, where Raas al Imam al Husayn was buried. This minbar bears the historical account which is engraved in Arabi Fatemi [[Kufic]] script about the Raas al Imam al Husayn.
 
 
The following part of text is a translation of the Arabic inscriptions, which is still preserved on the Fatimid minbar:
 
 
".. among the miracles, a major glory with the wishes of Allah, is the recovery of the Head .. Imam.. Husain .. which was at the place of [[Ashkelon]], .. hidden by the tyrants... .. Allah has promised to reveal.. wishes to hide it from the enemies..to show it to [[Wali|Awliya]] ... to relieve the heart of ‘Devotees’ of Imam Husain, as Allah knew their pure heartedness in [[Walayah|Walayat]] and [[Dīn|Deen]].
 
 
... May Allah keep for long our Moula .. Al Mustansir’billah.. .The .. Commander of the forces.. the Helper of Imam.. the leader of Do’at .. Badr al Mustansari has discovered Raas al Imam al Husain in Imam Mustansir’s period, and has taken it out from its hidden place. He specially built a Minbar for the Mashhad, at the place where this sacred Head lay buried. ..
 
 
He (..Badrul’jamali) constructed this building ..the revenue from which is to be spent only on this Mashhad ... ."<ref>Williams, Caroline. 1983. "The Cult of 'Alid Saints in the Fatimid Monuments of Cairo. Part I: The Mosque of al-Aqmar". In Muqarnas I: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Oleg Grabar (ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press, 37-52. p.41, Wiet,"notes," pp.217ff.; RCEA,7:260-63</ref>
 
 
The shrine was described as the most magnificent building in Ashkelon.<ref>Moshe Gil, ''A History of Palestine, 634–1099'' (1997) p 193–194.</ref> In the British Mandate period it was a "large ''maqam'' on top of a hill" with no tomb but a fragment of a pillar showing the place where the head had been buried.<ref name="Canaan">{{cite book | author = Tewfik Canaan | title = Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine | publisher = Ariel Publishing House | location = Jerusalem | year = 1927 | page = 151}}</ref>
 
 
After the 21st Fatimid Imam [[At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim]] went into seclusion, his uncle, Abd al Majid occupied the throne of the Fatimid Empire. Fearing disrespect and the atrocities of the traitors and enemies, the Majidi-monarch, [[Al-Zafir]], ordered the transfer of the head to Qahera. The W’ali of the city of Ashkelon, Al Amir Sayf al Mamlaka Tamim along with the custodian of the Mashhad, Qazi Mohammad bin Miskin, took out the buried casket of Raas al Imam al Husayn from the Mashhad, and with due respect and great reverence, on Sunday 8 [[Jumada al-Thani]], 548 (31 August 1153) carried the head from the city of Ashkelon to Qahera, Egypt. Syedi Hasan bin Asad (Hir’az, Yemen) discussed this event in his ''Risalah'' manuscript as follows: "When the Raas (head) al Imam al Husain was taken out of the casket, in Ashkelon, drops of the fresh blood were visible on the Raas al Imam al Husain and the fragrance of Musk spread all over."
 
 
Historians, [[Al-Maqrizi]], [[Ahmad al-Qalqashandi]], and Ibn Muyassar (d.1278) have mentioned that the casket reached Qahera on Tuesday 10 Jumada al-Thani (2 September 1153). Ust’ad Maknun accompanied it in one of the service boats which landed at the Kafuri (Garden). Buried there in the place known "Qubbat al Daylam" or "Turbat al Zafr’an" (currently known as "Al Mashhad al Husain", wherein lie buried underground thirteen Fatimid Imams from 9th [[Muhammad at-Taqi (Ahmed ibn Abadullah)|Muhammad at-Taqi]] to 20th [[Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah]]). This place is also known as "B’ab Makhallif’at al Rasul" and located in [[Al-Hussein Mosque]].
 
 
During the golden era of the Fatimid Caliphate, on the day of Ashurah, every year the people of Egypt from far and near used to gather and offer sacrifices of camels, cows, goats in the name of Allah, recite Marsiyah-elegies and pronounced ''[[Curses in Islam|L’anat]]'' (curse) loudly on Yazid, Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan, ibn Ziyad and other murderers of Husayn, the Ahl al Bait and the Ans’ar of Husayn. During the tenure of [[Saladin]], all ''Marasim al Az’a'' or mourning commemorations for Husayn were declared officially banned as they were considered ''[[Bid‘ah]]''.
 
 
The famous [[Mamluk]] historian of Egypt, Mohiyuddin Abd al Zahir (d. 1292) wrote: <blockquote>"When Salahuddin came to power he seized all the Palaces of the Aimmat Fatemiyeen and looted their properties and treasures. He destroyed the valuable and rare collection of the hundred thousands books, available in libraries, in the river [[Nile]]. When he learnt through his intelligence.. that one of the.. custodians of Raas al Imam al Husain.. was highly respected by the people of ..Qahera, he surmised that perhaps he .. be aware of ..treasures of the Aimmat Fatemiyeen. Salahuddin issued orders to present him in his court. He inquired of him ..of the Fatemi..treasures. The nobleman flatly denied ..about the treasures. Salahuddin was angered, and ordered his intelligence .. to ask him through ‘third-degree-torture’, but the nobleman bore ..torture and repeated ..statement. .. Salahuddin ordered his soldiers to put a cap containing Centipedes on the head of the nobleman. ..such type of punishment was so severe and unbearable..none could survive even for a few minutes.
 
 
Prior to putting the Cap of Centipedes on the head, his hair was shaved, to make it easy for the Centipedes to suck blood, which in turn made holes in skull. But! In spite of that punishment the noble custodian of Husain’s Head..felt no pain at all. Salahuddin ordered for more Centipedes to be put on .. but it could not kill or pain him. Finally Salahuddin Ayyubi ordered for a tight cap full of Centipedes .. to accomplish the result. Even this method could not torture or kill him. The Ayyubid brutes were greatly astounded further when they saw, on removing the cap, the Centipedes were dead. Salahuddin asked the nobleman to reveal the secret of this miracle. The nobleman revealed as follow: “When Raas al Imam al Husain was brought to Qasar, Al Moizziyat al Qahera, he had carried the casket on his head. ‘O Salahuddin! This is the secret of my safety."</blockquote>
 
 
The burial place is now also known as Raous (head)-us-Husain, A silver ''Zarih'' (''[[Maqsurah]]'') is made on the place by Dawoodi Bohra Dai, and the place is visited regularly by all Shia. The presentation of the Maqsurah is also unique in the history of loyalty and faithfulness. The Maqsurah of Raas al Imam al Husain was originally constructed for the [[Al Abbas Mosque]] at Karbala, Iraq. When this Maqsurah reached the mosque of Al-Abbas ibn Ali it would not fit on the place. The size of the Maqsurah and the site of the fitting place differed at the time of fitting, although every technical aspects and measurements of the site were taken into account very precisely. The engineers were astonished, as what had happened, although every minute detail was handled very professionally. The loyalty of Al-Abbas ibn Ali was also witnessed on that day too, as it had been witnessed on the day of Aashurah. There a divine guidance came to the effect by way of intuition that a sincere, faithful, loyal and devoted brother could not tolerate, that the head of Muhammad's grandson, Husayn, buried in Al Qahera, Egypt, should be without a Maqsurah, thus how could he accept this gift for himself. Hence even after Shahadat, Al-Abbas ibn Ali paid his tribute to Husayn and presented his own Maqsurah for Raas (head) al Imam al Husain. When this above-mentioned Maqsurah was brought from Karbala, Iraq to Al Moizziyat al Qahera, Egypt, it fitted upon the original position of the grave known as Mashhad of Raas al Imam al Husain in such a manner, as if it had been fabricated for Raas al Imam al Husain itself.
 
 
During the period of Saladin, and by his order, the minbar made by Dai Badr-ul Jamali was transferred from Ashkelon to the Masjid Khalil al Rahman ([[Cave of the Patriarchs|Ibrahimi Mosque]]), [[Hebron|Al Khalil(Hebron)]], Palestine/Israel. Saladin did not know that this minbar contained an inscription showing the history of Husayn. The 51st al Dai al Fatemi/Dawoodi Bohra, [[Taher Saifuddin]] (d.1385/1965) got the honour to visit Masjid Khalil al Rahman, and he discovered the Fatamid minbar, one thousand years after the seclusion of the Fatamid Imams.
 
 
The Masjid of the [[Ashkelon]] known as "Masjid Al Mashhad al Husain" was blown up deliberately as part of a broader operation of defence force in 1950 at the instructions of [[Moshe Dayan]], but the devotees of Ahl al Bait did not forgotten it.<ref>Meron Rapoport, ''History Erased'', [[Haaretz]], 5 July 2007. [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/878851.html]</ref>
 
 
A few years ago, the 52nd Fatamid/Ismaili/Mustali/Dawoodi Bohra Dai [[Mohammed Burhanuddin]], built a marble platform, as per traditional Fatamid architectural design, at the site, on the ground behind the [[Barzilai Medical Center|Barzilai Hospital]], Ashkelon and since then thousands of devotees have come from across the world, year round to pay tribute to Husayn.<ref>[http://articles.latimes.com/2008/may/21/world/fg-mosque21 Sacred Surprise behind Israel Hospital], by; Batsheva Sobelmn, special Los Angeles Times</ref>
 
 
==Family==
 
{{Main|Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali}}
 
Husayn ibn Ali was the son of Ali, Muhammad's cousin, and his wife Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad and his first wife [[Khadijah bint Khuwaylid]]. Husayn ibn Ali and his brother Hasan ibn Ali were regarded by Muhammad as his own sons due to his love for them and as they were the sons of his daughter Fatima and he regarded her children and descendants as his own children and descendants, and he said "Every mothers children are associated with their father except for the children of Fatima for I am their father and lineage" Thus only the descendants of Fatima are the descendants and progeny of the Prophet and his Ahlul Bayt.
 
 
==Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali==
 
{{Main|Mourning of Muharram|day of Ashura}}
 
{{See also|Arba'een|Hussainia}}
 
 
===Shia===
 
The Day of Ashura is commemorated by the Shia society as a day of mourning for the death of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala. The commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a national holiday and all ethnic and religious communities participate in it.
 
 
Some say that a pilgrimage to Karbala and Husayn's shrine therein has the merit of a thousand pilgrimages to Mecca, of a thousand martyrdoms, and of a thousand days fasting.<ref>Braswell, ''Islam: Its Prophet, Peoples, Politics and Power'',1996, p.28.</ref>
 
 
===Other===
 
[[Edward Gibbon]] said that "In a distant age and climate, the tragic scene of the death of Husein will awaken the sympathy of the coldest reader."<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=VvXSAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA218&dq=Edward+Gibbon+Hosein&hl=en&sa=X&ei=4eogT_7ZEZToiALbpIGBCA&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=hosein&f=false The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 2, p. 218]</ref>
 
 
[[Charles Dickens]] wrote that "If Husain fought to quench his worldly desires, (as alleged by certain Christian critics) then I do not understand why his sisters, wives and children accompanied him. It stands to reason therefore that he sacrificed purely for Islam."<ref>"If Husain fought to quench his worldly desires, (as alleged by certain Christian critics) then I do not understand why his sisters, wives and children accompanied him. It stands to reason therefore that he sacrificed purely for Islam." Charles Dickens, Islam as preached by the Prophet and his holy descendants, p. 86 Hashimali Haji Shariff, 1981</ref>
 
 
== Shia view of Husayn ==
 
 
[[File:Ashura in Bahrain 59.JPG|thumb|Al Emam Al Hussain Avenue in [[Manama]], [[Bahrain]]]]
 
 
The Shia regard Husayn as an Imam (which is considered a spiritual leader ) and a [[martyr]]. He is believed to be the third of the Imams from the Ahl al-Bayt which are supposed to succeed Muhammad and that he set out on his path in order to save the religion of Islam and the Islamic nation from annihilation at the hands of Yazid.
 
 
The traditional narration "Every day is Ashura and every land is Karbala!" is used by the Shia to live their lives as Husayn did on Ashura with complete sacrifice for God and others. The saying also signifies what happened in Ashura on Karbala must always be remembered for there is suffering everywhere.
 
 
==Timeline==
 
{{S-start|noclear=y}}
 
{{a-hou|[[Banu Hashim]]|3rd [[Sha'aban|Sha‘bān]] [[Islamic calendar|4 AH]]|[[Approximation|≈]] 11 January 626 [[Common Era|CE]]|10th [[Muharram]] [[Islamic calendar|61 AH]]|[[Approximation|≈]] 13 October 680 [[Common Era|CE]]|[[Quraysh (tribe)|Banu Quraish]]}}
 
{{S-rel|sh}}
 
{{S-bef|rows=2|before = [[Hasan ibn Ali]]<br>{{small|Disputed by [[Nizari]]}}}}
 
{{S-ttl|rows=2|title = 3rd [[Imamah (Shia doctrine)|Imam]] of [[Shia Islam]]|years = 669–680}}
 
{{S-aft|after = [[Zayn al-Abidin|‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn]]}}
 
{{S-break}}
 
{{S-aft|after = [[Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah]]<br />{{small|[[Kaysanites Shia|Kaysanites]] successor}}}}
 
{{s-end}}
 
 
==See also==
 
{{Wikiquote-inline|Imam Husayn}}
 
* [[Sayyid]]
 
* [[Arba'een]]
 
* [[Zulfiqar]]
 
* [[Zuljanah]]
 
* [[Holiest sites in Islam (Shia)]]
 
* [[Shi'a view of the Sahaba]]
 
* [[Sunni view of the Sahaba]]
 
 
==Notes==
 
{{Reflist|colwidth=20em}}
 
 
==References==
 
{{Ibid|date=February 2013}}
 
;Books
 
* {{Cite book | last=Al-Bukhari |first=Muhammad Ibn Ismail | authorlink =Muhammad al-Bukhari| title=[[Sahih Bukhari|The English Translation of Sahih Al Bukhari With the Arabic Text]], translated by Muhammad Muhsin Khan| year= 1996| publisher=Al-Saadawi Publications |isbn=1-881963-59-4}}
 
* {{Cite book | last = Dakake | first = Maria Massi | title = The Charismatic Community: Shi'ite Identity in Early Islam | publisher=SUNY Press | year = 2007 | isbn = 0-7914-7033-4}}
 
* {{Cite book | last=Gordon |first=Matthew | title=The Rise Of Islam | year=2005 | publisher=Greenwood Press |isbn=0-313-32522-7}}
 
* {{Cite book | last = Halm | first = Heinz | coauthors = Janet Watson and Marian Hill | title = Shi'Ism | publisher=Edinburgh University Press | year = 2004 | isbn = 0-7486-1888-0}}
 
* {{Cite book | last = Madelung | first = Wilferd | authorlink = Wilferd Madelung | title = The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate | publisher=Cambridge University Press | year = 1997 | isbn = 0-521-64696-0}}
 
* {{Cite book | last = Tabatabae | first = Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn | coauthors = [[Seyyed Hossein Nasr]] (translator) | authorlink = Allameh Tabatabaei | title = Shi'ite Islam | publisher=Suny press| year = 1979 | isbn = 0-87395-272-3}}
 
 
;Encyclopedia
 
* {{Cite encyclopedia | encyclopedia=[[Encyclopædia Britannica Online]] | publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.}}
 
* {{Cite encyclopedia | encyclopedia = [[Encyclopædia Iranica]] | publisher=Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University| isbn = 1-56859-050-4}}
 
* {{Cite encyclopedia | encyclopedia = [[Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an]] | publisher=Brill Publishers, Leiden| isbn = 90-04-14743-8}}
 
* {{Cite encyclopedia | encyclopedia = [[Encyclopaedia of Islam]] | ISBN = }}
 
; Blog
 
* [http://articles.latimes.com/2008/may/21/world/fg-mosque21 ''Sacred Surprise behind Israel Hospital''], by Batsheva Sobelmn, special [[Los Angeles Times]]
 
 
==External links==
 
{{Sister project links | wikt=no | commons=Category:Hussein ibn Ali| b=no | n=no |s=no | v=no | voy=no | species=no |d=Q112128| display=Hussein ibn Ali}}
 
{{NIE Poster|year=1905|Hasan and Hosein}}
 
*[http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9041622 Hussein ibn 'Ali] an article of Encyclopædia Britannica.
 
*{{youtube|33el2YX3-_Y|Biography of Imam Husayn}}
 
*[http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/hosayn-b-ali-i Hussein ibn 'Ali] by Wilferd Madelung, an article of Encyclopædia Iranica.
 
*[http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/hosayn-b-ali-ii Hussein ibn 'Ali in popular Shiism] by Jean Calmard, an article of Encyclopædia Iranica.
 
*[http://www.al-islam.org/nutshell/files/husaynviews.pdf Imam Hussein in the eyes of non-Muslims]
 
*[http://www.al-islam.org/kaaba14/6.htm The Third Imam]
 
*[http://www.al-islam.org/short/sorrows/names.htm Martyr Of Karbala]
 
*[http://www.islamfrominside.com/Pages/Articles/Ashura.html An account of the martyrdom of the third Imam]
 
*[http://www.happy-books.co.uk/muhammad-ibn-abdullah-lineage-and-family-tree/family-tree-diagram-of-lineage-and-relatives-of-prophets-and-companions-in-muslim-history.php?id=112 Interactive Family Tree by Happy Books]
 
*[http://www.wilayatmission.com/EngBooks.html Story of Karbala: ''Maqtal e Abi Mukhnaf'']
 
 
{{Shia Imams}}
 
{{Sahaba}}
 
{{Martyrs of Karbala}}
 
{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2011}}
 
 
{{Persondata
 
| NAME =Husayn Ibn Ali
 
| ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
 
| SHORT DESCRIPTION =
 
| DATE OF BIRTH = 626
 
| PLACE OF BIRTH =[[Madinah|Madīnah]]
 
| DATE OF DEATH = 680
 
| PLACE OF DEATH = [[Karbala]] , [[Umayyad Empire]]
 
}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Husayn Ibn Ali}}
 
[[Category:Arab people]]
 
[[Category:History of Islam]]
 
[[Category:Shia imams]]
 
[[Category:626 births]]
 
[[Category:680 deaths]]
 
[[Category:Assassinated Shia imams]]
 
[[Category:Ismailism]]
 
[[Category:People killed at the Battle of Karbala]]
 
[[Category:Muslim martyrs]]
 
[[Category:Family of Muhammad]]
 
[[Category:7th-century caliphs]]
 
[[Category:Twelver imams]]
 
[[Category:Zaidi imams]]
 
[[Category:Hussein ibn Ali| ]]
 
Reason: ANN scored at 0.95854
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