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Article: Swanage
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{{Infobox UK place
 
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.... SAMINAMINAH EH EH
| official_name= Swanage
 
| country= England
 
| region= South West England
 
| static_image_name =Swanage - geograph.org.uk - 6609.jpg
 
| shire_county= [[Dorset]]
 
| shire_district= [[Purbeck (district)|Purbeck]]
 
| constituency_westminster= [[South Dorset (constituency)|South Dorset]]
 
| population = 10,124
 
| population_ref = ([[2001 UK census|2001]])
 
| os_grid_reference= SZ0278
 
| latitude= 50.61
 
| longitude= -1.96
 
| post_town= SWANAGE
 
| postcode_area= BH
 
| postcode_district= BH19
 
| dial_code= 01929
 
}}
 
 
'''Swanage''' ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|s|w|ɒ|n|ɨ|dʒ}} {{respell|SWON|ij}}) is a coastal [[town]] and [[civil parish]] in the south east of [[Dorset]], [[England]]. It is situated at the eastern end of the [[Isle of Purbeck]], approximately 10 [[kilometre|km]] south of [[Poole]] and {{convert|40|km|0|abbr=in}} east of [[Dorchester, Dorset|Dorchester]]. The parish has a population of 9,601 (2011).<ref>[http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.do?a=7&b=11129351&c=swanage&d=16&e=61&g=6418193&i=1001x1003x1032x1004&m=0&r=1&s=1385418799018&enc=1&dsFamilyId=2545 ONS Neighbourhood Statistics]</ref> Nearby are [[Ballard Down]] and [[Old Harry Rocks]], with [[Studland Bay]] and [[Poole Harbour]] to the north. Within the parish are [[Durlston Bay]] and [[Durlston Country Park]] to the south of the town. The parish also includes the areas of [[Herston, Dorset|Herston]], just to the west of the town, and [[Durlston]], just to the south.
 
 
The town, originally a small port and fishing village, flourished in the Victorian era, when it first became a significant quarrying port and later a seaside resort for the rich of the day. Today the town remains a popular tourist resort, this being the town's primary industry, with many thousands of visitors coming to the town during the peak summer season, drawn by the bay's sandy beaches and other attractions.
 
 
During its history the bay was listed variously as Swanawic, Swanwich, Sandwich, and only in more recent history as Swanage.
 
 
The town is located at the eastern end of the [[Jurassic Coast]], a [[World Heritage Site]].
 
 
== History ==
 
 
While fishing is likely the town's oldest industry, quarrying has been important to the town and the local area since at least the 1st century AD.<ref>[[David Lewer|Lewer]]/Smale p.13</ref> During the time of the [[Roman Britain|Roman occupation]] this industry grew, with the distinctive Purbeck marble being used for decorative purposes in buildings as far away as London. When the Romans left Britain, quarrying largely ceased until the 12th century.
 
 
The town is first mentioned in historical texts in the [[Anglo-Saxon Chronicle]] of 877 AD. It is stated as being the scene of a great naval victory by [[Alfred the Great|King Alfred]] over the [[Danes]]: ''"This year came the Danish army into Exeter from Wareham; whilst the navy sailed west about, until they met with a great mist at sea, and there perished one hundred and twenty ships at Swanwich."''<ref name=angloscanchronical>{{cite web | title = The Anglo-Saxon Chronical: Part 2 | url = http://omacl.org/Anglo/part2.html | publisher = The Online Medieval & Classical Library | accessdate = 2012-07-09}}</ref> A hundred Danish ships which had survived the battle were driven by a storm onto [[Peveril Point]], a shallow rocky reef outcropping from the southern end of Swanage bay. A monument topped (historically incorrectly) by cannon balls was built in 1882 by [[John Mowlem]] to celebrate this event and is situated at the southern end of the seafront promenade.<ref>[[David Lewer|Lewer]]/Smale p.16</ref>
 
 
In the 12th century demand for [[Purbeck Marble]] grew once again. While Purbeck marble is not suited to external use, as it does not weather well, it is however strong and suitably decorative for use as internal columns. As such the stone was used in the construction of many large churches and cathedrals being built as the time.<ref>[[David Lewer|Lewer]]/Smale p.37</ref>
 
 
In contrast to the decorative Purbeck marble, Purbeck limestone, or more commonly 'Purbeck stone', has been used in construction locally since the early days of quarrying in Purbeck. Its use is less well documented as it was taken for granted as the default construction materials in the area. However, the arrival of more modern quarrying techniques in the 17th century resulted in an increase in production.<ref>[[David Lewer|Lewer]]/Smale p.43</ref> The [[Great Fire]] of London in 1666 led to a period of large scale reconstruction in the city, and Purbeck stone was extensively used for paving.<ref>[[David Lewer|Lewer]]/Smale p.49</ref> It was in this time that stone first started being loaded upon ships directly from the Swanage seafront; before this time quarried stone had been first transported to Poole for shipping.<ref>[[David Lewer|Lewer]]/Smale p.51</ref>
 
 
The idea that Swanage could become a tourist destination was first encouraged by a local MP William Morton Pitt in the early 19th century, who converted a mansion in the town into a luxury hotel.<ref>[[David Lewer|Lewer]]/Smale p.80</ref> The hotel is noted for having been visited in 1833 by the (then) Princess Victoria, later to become queen.<ref>[[David Lewer|Lewer]]/Smale p.86</ref> The building was later renamed the Royal Victoria Hotel, now the building has been converted into flats and a bar and nightclub in the left and right wings respectively.
 
 
[[File:Swanage Globus.jpg|thumb|right|Globe at Durlston Country Park]]
 
[[File:2009-04-09 swanage town hall.jpg|thumb|right|Town Hall Main Entrance]]
 
 
=== Mowlem and Burt - The Victorian era ===
 
 
The town's greatest prominence came during the Victorian period. [[John Mowlem]] (1788–1868), a Swanage resident, became a successful builder in London, creating the [[Mowlem]] construction company, which still existed as recently as 2006, when it was acquired by another company.
 
 
John Mowlem made his business in London by importing stone into the city from around the country, including Purbeck limestone. Through this process, many relics and monuments were brought from [[London]] to Swanage in the nineteenth century by Mowlem and his nephew [[George Burt (Britain)|George Burt]] (1816–1894) who took over the business when Mowlem retired. It is said that these items brought from London were used as ballast for the empty vessels which transported the Purbeck stone to London.
 
 
These include the big clock tower near Peveril Point. The clock tower, commemorating the [[Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington|Duke of Wellington]], designed by Arthur Ashpital, was built in 1854 at the southern approach to the old [[London Bridge]]. Within 10 years it became an obstruction to traffic on the busy bridge and had to be removed. It was re-erected 1867-68 on its present site at the southern end of the bay on the sea front. A further item transported from London to Swanage is the 1860 façade of the [[Mercers' Hall]], that was used as the façade of the Swanage Town Hall, which was designed by G.R. Crickmay (1830–1907) of Weymouth, and built during the early 1880s.
 
 
Both John Mowlem and George Burt were highly influential in the development of the town, taking an active interest in their town of birth into retirement. Between them they were responsible for the building of much of the town's infrastructure, including the town's first [[Swanage Pier|pier]], the Mowlem Institute (a reading room), the first gas and water works, and the development of the Durlston estate and [[Durlston Country Park|Country Park]], at the southern end of the town. The [[Great Globe]] which can be found slightly south of [[Durlston Castle]] in the Durlston Country Park was completed by George Burt in 1887. It is made up of 15 sections of stone and joined together with granite dowels. The Great Globe weighs 40 tons and is 10 feet in diameter.
 
 
Swanage Lighthouse was built in 1880, on the clifftop at [[Anvil Point]], not far away from Durlston Castle.
 
 
Railway was introduced to the town in 1885 with the encouragement of George Burt by the London and South Western Railway Company. By this time the town was becoming a popular resort destination for the wealthy, noted for its fine weather and clean air. The town previously had been fairly cut off due to its valley location, but the introduction of the railway made the town much more accessible to visitors, with direct services running from London. However the greatest increase in visitors came with the building of the second 'new' pier in 1895, built primarily for use by pleasure steamers.
 
 
=== The Great War - Present ===
 
 
The town enjoyed several decades quietly being successful as a seaside resort. The First World War left few physical marks on the town, however during the Second World War gun emplacements and pillboxes were built at spots along the shoreline at the southern end of the bay. The town also received bomb damage during the Second World War, with 20 people killed. The town and other nearby villages are noted for playing a part in the development of [[radar]].<ref name=radarhistory>{{cite web | title = Story of Early Radar | url = http://www.purbeckradar.org.uk/story/index.htm | publisher = Purbeck Radar Museum Trust | accessdate = 2012-06-23}}</ref>
 
 
After the Second World War the town, like many other seaside resorts and indeed the country at large, suffered a recession with few people able to spare the money for holidaying. In 1972 the Swanage branch line of the railway was closed by British Rail as part of larger network-wide cutbacks.<ref name=swanrailhist>{{cite web | title = Swanage Railway - History | url = http://www.swanagerailway.co.uk/n-history.htm | publisher = Swanage Railway | accessdate = 2012-06-23}}</ref> Fortunately a group of local enthusiasts formed a charitable organisation with the purpose of restoring and preserving the branch line and steam and diesel locomotives to run along it, forming the [[Swanage Railway]].
 
<ref name=swanrailhist/>
 
 
Through the years Swanage has suffered from flooding, with severe flooding occurring as recently as 1990. In 1993 a large-scale flood alleviation scheme was completed, ending in the banjo-shaped 'new jetty' outletting rainwater.<ref name=rgsflooding>{{cite web | title = Swanage - Flood Alevation | url = http://www.rgs.org/OurWork/Schools/Fieldwork+and+local+learning/Planning+your+fieldtrip/Fieldwork+locations/Jurassic+Coast+of+Dorset+and+East+Devon/Swanage+-+Flood+alleviation.htm | publisher = Royal Geographic Society | accessdate = 2012-06-23}}</ref> This in itself created a new problem, disturbing the natural northward drift of sand up the bay, with a buildup on the southern side and reduction of sand on the northern. This reduction of sand levels exposed the foundations of parts of the seawall threatening to damage it. As a result the beach was improved in 2005–06 by construction of new [[greenheart]] timber [[groynes]] and the placement of 90,000&nbsp;m³ of sand as [[beach nourishment]].<ref name=beachnorishment>{{cite web | title = Swanage Beach | url = http://www.poolebay.net/PhaseI/swanage.htm | publisher = Borough of Poole Leisure Services | accessdate = 2009-08-25}}</ref>
 
 
[[File:Swanage Panorama Crop.jpg|thumb|centre|upright=4|Panorama of Swanage]]
 
 
== Governance ==
 
 
Local governance and service provision is provided by, in order of directness - Swanage Town Council, Purbeck District Council and Dorset County Council. In the National Parliament, Swanage falls within the constituency of [[South Dorset (UK Parliament constituency)|South Dorset]].
 
 
=== Town Council ===
 
 
Swanage Town Council is the Parish Authority based in the historic town hall in the high street. Services provided by the Town Council include - "Sport and recreational faciltiies [sic], Beach, Tourist Information and promotion of tourists, Caravan Parks, Off-street car parks, Public Conveniences, Cemeteries, Allotments".<ref name=tcservices>{{cite web | title = Swanage Council - Services | url = http://www.swanage.gov.uk/fr.asp?section=localservices&topnav=Services&basenav=home | publisher = Swanage Town Council | accessdate = 2009-08-11}}</ref> The Town Council consists of twelve elected Councillors, who appoint a Chairman to act as the Town Mayor. Working Groups and Committees are formed for specific concerns and functions. The council employs up to 100 staff to deliver its services who are managed by the Town Clerk and various sub managers.<ref name=tcdetails>{{cite web | title = The Town Council - an overview | url = http://www.swanage.gov.uk/content_print.asp?pg=147&lt1=council&good=back | publisher = Swanage Town Council | accessdate = 2009-08-12}}</ref>
 
 
== Geography and geology ==
 
 
[[File:SwanageGeology.png|thumb|Simplified geology map of the Swanage area]]
 
 
Swanage is located in Swanage Bay in Dorset on the south coast of England at {{coord|50|36|43|N|1|57|30|W|type:city}} (50.612,&nbsp;&minus;1.958). The bay is east facing and is situated at the eastern end of the [[Isle of Purbeck]], approximately {{convert|40|km|0|abbr=in|lk=in}} south of [[Poole]] and {{convert|40|km|0|abbr=in}} east of [[Dorchester, Dorset|Dorchester]]. The northern headland of the bay is formed of chalk, the southern of Purbeck Limestone, with softer primarily Wealden clays forming the bay and valley in which the town is sited. The Purbeck limestone was extensively quarried with several sites to the south west showing evidence of former quarries, particularly Tilly Whim Caves and [[Dancing Ledge]], a man made rock shelf used for loading ships. Natural erosion has formed stacks along and at the end of the northern headland, in particular the notable [[Old Harry Rocks]]. In part through the process of quarrying, [[fossils]] from the dinosaur age have been discovered in the local rock, and the coastline up to and including Swanage Bay has been included in the [[Jurassic Coast]] [[World Heritage Site]].
 
 
===Climate===
 
 
As with the rest of the [[British Isles]] Swanage experiences a [[maritime climate]] with warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters. Within this climate zone, Swanage's coastal location ensures a smaller range in annual temperature than in places further inland. The [[Met Office]] operates a weather station at the town,<ref>{{Cite web | publisher = [[UKMO]] | url= http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/networks/images/map6.gif | title = Weather Station}}</ref> and temperature extremes recorded range from {{convert|-9.4|C|F}} in January 1963<ref>{{Cite web | publisher = [[KNMI (institute)|KNMI]] | url= http://eca.knmi.nl/utils/monitordetail.php?seasonid=7&year=1963&indexid=TNn&stationid=1813 | title = 1963 temperature}}</ref> up to {{convert|30.2|C|F}} during July 1976.<ref>{{Cite web | publisher = [[KNMI (institute)|KNMI]] | url= http://eca.knmi.nl/utils/monitordetail.php?seasonid=13&year=1976&indexid=TXx&stationid=1813 | title = 1976 temperature}}</ref> Rainfall typically peaks in winter, and is at its lowest during summer. The town's position on an east-facing bay provides it some protection from the prevailing southwesterly winds.
 
 
{{Weather box
 
|location = Swanage, Met Office Averages Table (1981-2010)
 
|metric first = yes
 
|single line = yes
 
|Jan high C = 8.7
 
|Feb high C = 8.4
 
|Mar high C = 10.3
 
|Apr high C = 12.3
 
|May high C = 15.4
 
|Jun high C = 18.2
 
|Jul high C = 20.4
 
|Aug high C = 20.6
 
|Sep high C = 18.5
 
|Oct high C = 15.3
 
|Nov high C = 11.9
 
|Dec high C = 9.4
 
|Jan low C = 3.8
 
|Feb low C = 3.4
 
|Mar low C = 4.6
 
|Apr low C = 5.8
 
|May low C = 8.9
 
|Jun low C = 11.4
 
|Jul low C = 13.5
 
|Aug low C = 13.6
 
|Sep low C = 11.8
 
|Oct low C = 9.5
 
|Nov low C = 6.4
 
|Dec low C = 4.3
 
|Jan precipitation mm = 87
 
|Feb precipitation mm = 65
 
|Mar precipitation mm = 52
 
|Apr precipitation mm = 52
 
|May precipitation mm = 48
 
|Jun precipitation mm = 46
 
|Jul precipitation mm = 47
 
|Aug precipitation mm = 46
 
|Sep precipitation mm = 64
 
|Oct precipitation mm = 106
 
|Nov precipitation mm = 105
 
|Dec precipitation mm = 99
 
|Jan rain days = 13
 
|Feb rain days = 10
 
|Mar rain days = 11
 
|Apr rain days = 9
 
|May rain days = 8
 
|Jun rain days = 7
 
|Jul rain days = 8
 
|Aug rain days = 7
 
|Sep rain days = 9
 
|Oct rain days = 13
 
|Nov rain days = 13
 
|Dec rain days = 13
 
|Jan sun = 65
 
|Feb sun = 86
 
|Mar sun = 127
 
|Apr sun = 187
 
|May sun = 220
 
|Jun sun = 225
 
|Jul sun = 237
 
|Aug sun = 221
 
|Sep sun = 165
 
|Oct sun = 120
 
|Nov sun = 82
 
|Dec sun = 59
 
 
|source 1 = Met Office [http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate/swanage-dorset#?tab=climateTables]}}
 
 
{{Weather box
 
|location = Swanage 20m asl, 1971-2000, Extremes 1960-
 
|metric first = Yes
 
|single line = Yes
 
|Jan record high C = 14.8
 
|Feb record high C = 14.8
 
|Mar record high C = 17.7
 
|Apr record high C = 23.2
 
|May record high C = 25.6
 
|Jun record high C = 29.3
 
|Jul record high C = 30.2
 
|Aug record high C = 29.0
 
|Sep record high C = 24.0
 
|Oct record high C = 21.7
 
|Nov record high C = 17.2
 
|Dec record high C = 15.0
 
|year record high C = 30.2
 
|Jan high C = 8.4
 
|Feb high C = 8.2
 
|Mar high C = 10.1
 
|Apr high C = 11.9
 
|May high C = 15.0
 
|Jun high C = 17.8
 
|Jul high C = 20.1
 
|Aug high C = 20.1
 
|Sep high C = 17.9
 
|Oct high C = 14.7
 
|Nov high C = 11.4
 
|Dec high C = 9.5
 
|year high C =
 
|Jan low C = 3.6
 
|Feb low C = 3.4
 
|Mar low C = 4.4
 
|Apr low C = 5.5
 
|May low C = 8.6
 
|Jun low C = 11.2
 
|Jul low C = 13.3
 
|Aug low C = 13.5
 
|Sep low C = 11.7
 
|Oct low C = 9.1
 
|Nov low C = 5.8
 
|Dec low C = 4.5
 
|year low C =
 
|Jan record low C = -9.4
 
|Feb record low C = −6.3
 
|Mar record low C = −6.7
 
|Apr record low C = −2.6
 
|May record low C = 0.6
 
|Jun record low C = 3.4
 
|Jul record low C = 7.2
 
|Aug record low C = 5.6
 
|Sep record low C = 3.4
 
|Oct record low C = -0.8
 
|Nov record low C = −4.5
 
|Dec record low C = −6.0
 
|year record low C = −9.4
 
|Jan precipitation mm = 88.15
 
|Feb precipitation mm = 65.34
 
|Mar precipitation mm = 65.99
 
|Apr precipitation mm = 48.59
 
|May precipitation mm = 45.93
 
|Jun precipitation mm = 51.51
 
|Jul precipitation mm = 39.57
 
|Aug precipitation mm = 49.25
 
|Sep precipitation mm = 69.72
 
|Oct precipitation mm = 91.66
 
|Nov precipitation mm = 92.46
 
|Dec precipitation mm = 99.79
 
|year precipitation mm =
 
 
|source 1 = [[Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute/KNMI]]<ref>{{cite web
 
| url =http://eca.knmi.nl/utils/mapserver/climatology.php?indexcat=**&indexid=TN&periodidselect=1971-2000&seasonid=18&scalelogidselect=no&minx=-586785.714286&miny=-4894523.809525&maxx=279880.952382&maxy=-4244523.809524&MapSize=560%2C420&imagewidth=560&imageheight=420&mainmap.x=275&mainmap.y=215&CMD=QUERY_POINT&CMD=QUERY_POINT#bottom | title = Swanage Climate | accessdate = 10 November 2011 | publisher = [[KNMI (institute)|KNMI]]}}</ref>
 
|date=Nov 2011
 
}}
 
 
== Economy ==
 
 
Swanage's primary industry is tourism, employing a large number of the working population,<ref name=serviceind>{{cite web | title = ONS Neighbourhood Statistics | url = http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.do?a=7&b=794033&c=Swanage&d=16&e=15&g=438837&i=1001x1003x1004&m=0&r=1&s=1250055639282&enc=1&dsFamilyId=783 | publisher = Office for National Statistics | accessdate = 2009-08-12}}</ref> However, as with most tourism, the demand level is highly seasonal, and as such people looking for permanent work may have to commute to nearby towns such as [[Poole]] and [[Bournemouth]].
 
[[File:Swanage coast.JPG|160px|right|thumb|The Wellington clock tower in Swanage]]
 
 
The town centre has a small number of medium sized outlets for major retailers, a collection of local retailers, a number of cafes, bars, restaurants and pubs. The seafront has two [[amusement arcades]], several ice cream outlets, fish restaurants and cafes. The town also has a number of successful small-scale cottage industries.
 
 
There is a [[brickworks]] on the outskirts of the town<ref name=ibstock>{{cite web | title = IBSTOCK Ancestry | url = http://www.ibstockancestry.co.uk/swanage.htm | publisher = IBSTOCK Bricks Ltd | accessdate = 2009-08-24}}</ref> that uses the Wealden Clay found in the valley for producing bricks, and quarrying still continues to the south.<ref name=suttle>{{cite web | title = Suttle Natural Stone | url = http://www.stone.uk.com/ | publisher = J. Suttle Swanage Quarries Ltd | accessdate = 2009-08-25}}</ref>
 
 
=== Tourism ===
 
During the peak summer season many people are drawn by the town's beautiful setting, the beach and other attractions. The town has a large number of hotels and guest rooms though the number (particularly of hotels) has reduced slightly in recent years. Swanage has a gently sloping white sand beach which is sheltered and generally calm. The beach is well served by local businesses providing refreshments and services. For hire are [[deck chair]]s, boats, [[pedalo]]s and general watersports equipment. There are amusement arcades and parks.
 
 
Besides the beach, there are other local attractions including the restored Swanage [[Swanage Railway|steam railway]] and the [[Victorian era|Victorian]] [[Swanage Pier|pier]]. The town may also be used a base from which to visit other nearby areas of interest, such as [[Corfe Castle]].
 
 
== Culture ==
 
 
As a small town there are no large cultural institutions based in the town, though there are a number of small clubs and groups, including the Swanage Town Band formed in the late 19th century.<ref>[[David Lewer|Lewer]]/Smale p.158</ref> The largest facility in the town is the Mowlem Theatre, on the site of the former Mowlem Institute, opened in 1967.<ref>[[David Lewer|Lewer]]/Smale p.165</ref> Performing a dual role as a 400-seat theatre and cinema, the complex also hosts a bar and restaurant and a small collection of shops. Typically there are around 200 film showings and 60-100 nights of live theatre.<ref name=mowlem>{{cite web | title = The Mowlem Theatre | url = http://www.mowlemtheatre.co.uk | publisher = Mowlem Theatre | accessdate = 2009-08-28}}</ref>
 
 
=== Festivals and events ===
 
 
The town hosts a number of annual festivals and events. In the summer months there is a [[carnival]] week which includes a procession of floats and dancers and several firework displays, and many other attractions and small events including live music from various bands from all over Southern England, races and a [[regatta]].
 
 
The railway used to have special [[Thomas The Tank Engine]] themed events, until the cost of running these became prohibitive, and other special services.
 
 
The town also hosts successful festivals, which attract more than a purely local audience. These include a Jazz Festival, a Folk Festival, a Blues Festival, and there are plans for a Food Festival in the future.
 
 
New Year's Eve has traditionally been a big event for Swanage, with the town drawing more people from surrounding areas, and people travelling considerable distances to attend.<ref>[[David Lewer|Lewer]]/Smale p.174</ref> In part this has been due to attendance by employees of the nearby Wytch Farm oil processing facility. While the popularity of the event has waned somewhat from its peak in the early 1990s, with fewer oil employees in the area, there is still a large gathering each year, spilling out into the square and High Street at midnight. It is a long standing tradition in Swanage for people to dress up for New Year's Eve to add to the atmosphere. There is no specific fancy dress "theme", but costumes tend to be humorous.
 
 
== Churches ==
 
 
There are several Churches in Swanage, many of which meet in sites of historic interest. St Mary's Anglican Church was built from 1860<ref name=geocatching>{{cite web | title = Geocatching | url = http://www.geocaching.com/seek/cache_details.aspx?wp=GC262Z3 | publisher = Geocatching | accessdate = 2010-05-15}}</ref> and Swanage Methodist Church was built in 1886.<ref name=swanagemethodist>{{cite web | title = Swanage Methodist Church | url = http://www.swanagemethodist.org.uk/ | publisher = Swanage Methodist Church | accessdate = 2010-05-15}}</ref> There are also three more Anglican Churches, Emmanuel Baptist Church, a Quakers' meeting, Roman Catholic, Salvation Army and United Reformed Church. All the above Churches are a part of the ecumenical group, known as "Churches Together in Swanage and District" which also extends to Churches within Langton Matravers, Kingston and Worth Matravers.
 
 
Swanage has a centre called "The Old Stable" which is a Christian led Community Centre in the Centre of Town.<ref name=oldstable>{{cite web | title = The Old Stable | url = http://www.swanagechristiancentre.org.uk/ | publisher = The Old Stable | accessdate = 2010-05-15}}</ref>
 
 
== Transport ==
 
 
[[File:Dorset swanage station.jpg|thumb|Swanage station, the terminus of the Swanage heritage railway.]]
 
 
Swanage is accessible from the [[M27 motorway]] and the [[A31 road|A31]] and [[A35 road|A35]] roads.
 
 
The main bus services are provided by [[Wilts & Dorset]]. Numbers 40 and 44 which run between Swanage and Poole, and the number 50 which runs between Swanage and [[Bournemouth]] via the [[Sandbanks Ferry|chain ferry]] between [[Studland]] and [[Sandbanks]]. [[Double-decker bus|Double-deck]] open top buses are used on the [[Poole]]/Bournemouth to Swanage routes in the summer months. The buses on these routes are branded as Purbeck Breezers.<ref name=breezers>{{cite web | title = £2.4M NEW BUS INVESTMENT FOR SWANAGE SERVICES | url = http://www.wdbus.co.uk/promotions/index.asp | publisher = Wilts & Dorset | accessdate = 2009-08-04}}</ref>
 
 
Swanage has a heritage restored [[Swanage Railway|steam railway]] which operates for most of the year, though at the moment this only goes as far as [[Norden railway station (Dorset)|Norden]]. Recent developments on the railway have seen the physical connection between the Swanage Railway and the mainline restored. The first passenger service in more than 40 years from [[London Victoria]] and returning to [[London Waterloo]] took place on 1 April 2009. It is hoped that regular passenger services connecting to the mainline will commence in the future. Limited ferry services also run between [[Poole#Quay|Poole Quay]] and [[Swanage Pier]]. These are used by Swanage residents for shopping trips to Poole's large shopping centre, and also by tourists in Poole for day trips into Swanage. In February 2013 the [[Swanage Railway]] obtained a government grant of £1.47 million to re-introduce regular services to the main line at [[Wareham railway station|Wareham]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bournemouthecho.co.uk/news/10219321.Swanage_Railway_claim___1_47_million_grant/|title=Swanage Railway claim £1.47 million grant|publisher=Bournemouth Echo|date=11 February 2013|accessdate=11 February 2013}}</ref>
 
 
The nearest mainline railway station to Swanage is [[Wareham railway station|Wareham]], where connections can be made for [[South West Trains]] services westward to [[Dorchester South railway station|Dorchester South]] and [[Weymouth railway station|Weymouth]]. Services also travel eastwards towards [[Poole railway station|Poole]], [[Bournemouth railway station|Bournemouth]], [[Southampton Central railway station|Southampton Central]] and London Waterloo. Services to and from Weymouth and London Waterloo can be either fast or stopping services.
 
 
== Education ==
 
 
Schools in Purbeck currently operate as part of a three-tier comprehensive pyramid system. Under this system, the [[The Purbeck School|Purbeck]] [[Secondary School]] in Wareham is fed by the various [[middle school]]s in the Purbeck district. In Swanage there are several [[primary school]]s which feed into Swanage Middle School on the edge of the town at Herston. However, in November 2010<ref name=twotierbbcnews>{{cite news | title = BBC News - Purbeck school system overhaul agreed | url = http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-dorset-11870023 | publisher = BBC News | accessdate = 2011-12-12 | date=2010-11-29}}</ref> a move to change to a two-tier system was approved after Dorset County Council voted to make the change in May of that year. This change will be implemented by September 2013 and will result in the closure of Swanage Middle School among others.
 
 
Concern from parents and teachers following this news prompted the formation of the Education Swanage group, who put together a proposal to form a [[Free School]] in the town to provide Secondary education. Having successfully completed several rounds of reviews with the [[Department for Education]], Education Swanage's proposal was finally accepted in October 2011.<ref name=swanagefreeschoolacceptance>{{cite web | title = The Swanage School - Good News! | url = http://www.educationswanage.co.uk/NewsArticle.aspx?id=73 | publisher = Education Swanage | accessdate = 2011-12-12}}</ref> "The Swanage School" opened in September 2013 and is currently housed in Harrow House until the new building is ready Easter 2014.<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-dorset-23962576 BBC News - Swanage opens first secondary free school<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 
 
A large language school in the town, Harrow House, caters for foreign students. The school has a large white pressurised dome which serves as a sports hall, which is visible from some distance.
 
 
Next door to Harrow House is a special needs boarding school, Purbeck View School, owned by Cambian Education.
 
 
The town has a library in the town centre which is housed in a distinctive 1960s octagonal glass and Purbeck Stone building.
 
 
At the square on the seafront there is a small town museum with artifacts and displays recounting the town and surrounding area's history. There was until a recently a second museum housed in the historical [[Tithe Barn]] building, however the roof of the building was becoming unsafe, and the artefacts were moved out into safe storage. These may or may not be redisplayed in the future, but for the time being a small number are on display in the museum at the square.
 
 
== Public services ==
 
 
The town is served by a small [[fire station]] provided by [[Dorset Fire and Rescue Service]] and located centrally within the town. Swanage [[Police Station]], originally opened in 1899 and operated by [[Dorset Police]], closed in November 2012.<ref>{{cite news|title=Swanage Police Station Closes Its Doors|url=http://www.purbeckgazette.co.uk/news/info.aspx?f=1232|accessdate=20 September 2013|newspaper=The Purbeck Gazette|date=22 November 2012}}</ref>
 
 
Swanage Hospital is a small [[Cottage Hospital]] provided by [[National Health Service|NHS]] Dorset with an accompanying Ambulance Station provided by the [[South Western Ambulance Service]]. The hospital has a Minor Injuries Unit, providing basic 24 emergency care, [[inpatient]] and [[outpatient]] departments, an [[operating theatre]], [[radiography]], [[physiotherapy]] and [[occupational therapy]] departments.<ref name=swanhospital>{{cite web | title = Swanage Hospital | url = http://www.dorset-pct.nhs.uk/health_services/community_hospitals/swanage/ | publisher = Dorset Primary Care Trust | accessdate = 2009-08-12}}</ref> Swanage Medical Practice provides [[General Practitioner|GP]] services.<ref name=swangp>{{cite web | title = Swanage Medical Practice | url = http://www.swanagemedical.org.uk/default.asp | publisher = Swanage Medical Practice | accessdate = 2009-08-12}}</ref>
 
 
Given the coastal location, the town is also served by an [[RNLI]] lifeboat station<ref name=swanlifeboat>{{cite web | title = Swanage Lifeboats Online | url = http://www.swanagelifeboat.org.uk/ | publisher = Swanage Lifeboats | accessdate = 2009-08-31}}</ref> and a [[Her Majesty's Coastguard|HM Coastguard]] post.<ref name=swancoastg>{{cite web | title = Swanage Coastguard Online | url = http://www.swanagecoastguard.org.uk/ | publisher = Swanage Coastguard | accessdate = 2009-08-31}}</ref>
 
 
==Sport and recreation==
 
 
Swanage is represented in a number of sports including football, rugby, cricket, croquet, hockey, sailing and rowing.
 
 
[[Swanage Town and Herston F.C.|Swanage Town and Herston]] Football Club, who play in the [[Dorset Premier League]]
 
<ref name=stfcleague>{{cite web | title = Magna Dorset Premier League | url = http://full-time.thefa.com/Index.do?league=6392495 | publisher = The FA | accessdate = 2012-06-22}}</ref> have a dedicated football ground with limited covered seating and associated social club. Swanage & Wareham Rugby Club, who play in the South West 1 East League<ref name=swrcleague>{{cite web | title = Swanage & Wareham RFC | url = http://www.pitchero.com/clubs/swanagewareham/ | publisher = Pitchero | accessdate = 2012-06-22}}</ref> are based in neighbouring Wareham. Swanage and Wareham Hockey club have Ladies, Mens and Mixed teams. The Ladies play in the Channel 1 and 2 West Leagues, the Men in the Hampshire League Division 4 and the Mixed team in the Mixed Division 5. Swanage Cricket Club has teams in both the Dorset Saturday and Sunday leagues each in Division 1.<ref name=sccleague>{{cite web | title = Dorset League Tables | url = http://www.dorsetcricketboard.co.uk/node/310 | publisher = Dorset Cricket Board | accessdate = 2012-06-22}}</ref> The town's Croquet Club is also based at the Cricket Club.<ref>[https://www.croquet.org.uk/clubs/clubs.asp?Action=List&ClubID=319&pup=y Swanage Croquet Club]</ref>
 
 
The sea cliffs and quarries to the west of Swanage provide excellent venues for rock climbing.<ref name=climbing>{{cite web | title = Rock Climbing England | url = http://www.climb-europe.com/RockClimbingEngland.htm | publisher = Climb Europe | accessdate = 2009-08-12}}</ref><ref name=climbing2>{{cite web | title = Outdoor Activities Purbeck | url = http://www.dorsetadventure.co.uk/outdoor_activities_purbeck.shtml#climbing | publisher = Poole and Dorset Adventure Centre | accessdate = 2009-04-20}} {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref>
 
 
The surrounding areas make for excellent [[hiking|walking]]<ref name=walking>{{cite web | title = Walking in Purbeck | url = http://www.dorsetforyou.com/walking/purbeck | publisher = Dorset County Council | accessdate = 2012-06-22}}</ref> and as such the town is a popular destination for hikers who use the town as base. Many beauty spots are in walkable distance, while never being too far from refreshment.
 
 
===Parks===
 
 
Swanage has a [[King George's Field]] near the centre of town in memorial to [[George V of the United Kingdom|King George V]], which includes large playing fields, as well as skate park facilities and a hi-tech play area, both funded by community groups.<ref name=kgvfield>{{cite web | title = King George's Field | url = http://www.swanage.gov.uk/King_Georges_Field.aspx | publisher = Swanage Town Council | accessdate = 2012-06-22}}</ref>
 
There are plans also for the building of a new sports pavilion at the park, to replace the previous building which had been demolished due to safety concerns.
 
 
Towards the eastern end of town is Days Park, which includes a playing field, play area and gardens.<ref name=daysfield>{{cite web | title = Days Field | url = http://www.swanage.gov.uk/DaysPark.aspx | publisher = Swanage Town Council | accessdate = 2012-06-22}}</ref>
 
 
===Water Sport===
 
 
Swanage bay provides a well sheltered environment for a range of watersports, including [[Swimming (sport)|swimming]], [[kayaking]], [[canoeing]], [[sailing]], [[windsurfing]] and [[jetski]]ing.
 
 
[[Scuba diving]] takes place under the piers and at nearby coastal wrecks. Swanage is considered by many to be the home of British scuba diving.<ref name=swdivingreview1>{{cite web | title = Swanage Pier | url = http://www.jlunderwater.co.uk/old_site/photoix/swanage/ | publisher = John Liddiard | accessdate = 2009-08-12}}</ref> It is one of the most popular sea water training sites for dive schools and clubs to take trainee divers due to the sheltered conditions within the bay.<ref name=bsac>{{cite web | title = Dive Locations - Swanage | url = http://www.bsac.com/divelocations.asp?section=1251&sectionTitle=UK&itemid=1925 | publisher = British Sub-Aqua Club (BSAC) | accessdate = 2012-06-22}}</ref> The dive school situated on the pier was the first dive school in Great Britain.<ref name=dive>{{cite web | title = Divers Down Website | url = http://www.diversdownswanage.co.uk | publisher = Divers Down Dive School | accessdate = 2008-06-18}}</ref>
 
 
Swanage [[Sailing club|Sailing Club]] was established in 1935 and is located to the immediate south of the pier.<ref name=swanagesailing>{{cite web | title = About Us | url = http://www.swanagesailingclub.org.uk/clubhouse/aboutus/aboutus.htm | publisher = Swanage Sailing Club | accessdate = 2009-08-27}}</ref>
 
 
Swanage Sea Rowing Club, formed in 2001 has been highly successful and currently has over 100 members and four [[Cornish pilot gig]]s of its own
 
,<ref name=ssrc>{{cite web | title = About The Club | url = http://www.ssrc.org.uk/default.aspx?p=about | publisher = Swanage Sea Rowing Club | accessdate = 2012-06-22}}</ref> funded through donations. Competitions take place at [[regatta]]s of which the club attends several per year, including the [[World Pilot Gig Championships]] held on the [[Isles of Scilly]].
 
 
There are two public swimming pools, one at the Swanage Bay View campsite<ref name=swimming1>{{cite web | title = Swimming Pool | url = http://www.swanagebayview.co.uk/facilities/swimming-pool | publisher = Swanage Bay View| accessdate = 2012-06-22}}</ref>
 
, and another at Ulwell Caravan Park.<ref name=swimming2>{{cite web | title = Facilities | url = http://www.ulwellcottagepark.co.uk/facilities.htm | publisher = Ulwell Cottage Caravan Park | accessdate = 2012-06-22}}</ref> Both offer swimming lessons and aqua aerobic sessions.
 
 
==Twin towns==
 
{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in the United Kingdom}}
 
Swanage is [[Twin towns and sister cities|twinned]] with:
 
*{{flagicon|GER}} [[Rüdesheim am Rhein]] in Germany.<ref>[http://www.swanagetowntwinning.co.uk Swanage Twinning Association website]</ref><ref name="Dorset twinnings">{{cite web|url=http://www.twinning.org.uk/main.htm|title=Dorset Twinning Association List|accessdate=2013-08-01|work=The Dorset Twinning Association|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20120621101744/http://www.twinning.org.uk/main.htm|archivedate=2013-06-21}}</ref>
 
 
==Cultural references==
 
 
Swanage is stated as the hometown of [[John Cleese]]'s character [[Basil Fawlty]] in the sitcom ''[[Fawlty Towers]]''.<ref name=basil>{{cite web | title = FawltySite.net | url = http://www.fawltysite.net/basil_cv.htm | publisher = FawltySite.net | accessdate = 2009-04-20}} {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref>
 
 
[[James Blunt]]'s video "Carry You Home" was filmed in Swanage.
 
 
The first episode of the second series of British comedy, ''[[The Inbetweeners]]'', is set mainly in Swanage. The episode is titled "The Field Trip", although this episode was filmed in [[Littlehampton]], not actually Swanage.<ref name=inbetweeners>{{cite web | title = The Field Trip | url = http://www.e4.com/inbetweeners/series2-episode1.html?resource=urn:article:9ee0d6a6c2129bad69dfafb3342b5dad&commentSize=smallComment&pageTitle=The+Field+Trip&comments-range=1-5&anchor=comment | publisher = Channel 4 | accessdate = 2009-08-27}}</ref>
 
 
In 1997, a {{convert|18.7|km|0|abbr=on}} diameter crater on Mars was named after Swanage.<ref>[http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Feature/5785 Planetary Names: Crater, craters: Swanage on Mars]</ref>
 
 
=== In literature ===
 
 
Swanage is called Knollsea in [[Thomas Hardy]]’s novels. In ''[[The Hand of Ethelberta]]'' it is described as “…a seaside village lying snug within two headlands as between a finger and thumb”.<ref name=ethelberta1>{{cite web | title = Dorset Guide | url = http://www.dorsets.co.uk/Swanage/ | publisher = Dorset Guide | accessdate = 2009-04-20}}</ref><ref name=ethelberta2>{{cite web | title = The Victorian Web | url = http://victorian.lang.nagoya-u.ac.jp/victorianweb/photos/hardy/31.html | publisher = The Victorian Web | accessdate = 2009-04-20}}</ref>
 
 
In [[E.M. Forster]]'s ''[[Howards End]]'', Margaret and Mr. Wilcox first kiss there at the end of an evening's stroll, and the town is mentioned frequently throughout the book.<ref name=howard>{{cite web | title = Howard's End | url = http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~rac101/concord/texts/howards_end/howards_end.cgi?word=Swanage | publisher = Imperial College London | accessdate = 2009-04-20}}</ref>
 
 
"The Lady Margaret", one of the linked short stories in [[Keith Roberts]]', ''[[Pavane (novel)|Pavane]]'' has Swanage as the place where Jesse Strange meets an old school friend and fails to establish a relationship with his childhood sweetheart Margaret.
 
 
International artist and writer, [[Philip Sugden]] was born and raised in Swanage. He is known for his drawings and paintings of India and Tibet, and his books entitled, ''Visions From The Fields of Merit'' (Floating Temple Press) and ''White Lotus'' (Snow Lion Publishers).<ref name=sugden>{{cite web | title = Philip Sugden, Artist | url = http://philipsugden.com/pages.php?content=resume.php&navGallID=Resume | publisher = Philip Sugden | accessdate = 2009-04-20}}</ref>
 
 
== See also ==
 
* [[List of places on the Jurassic Coast]]
 
* [[Swanage railway station|Swanage rail and bus station]]
 
* [[List of Dorset beaches]]
 
 
Local villages:
 
* [[Corfe Castle, Dorset|Corfe Castle]]
 
* [[Harman's Cross]]
 
* [[Kingston, Purbeck, Dorset]]
 
* [[Langton Matravers]]
 
* [[Worth Matravers]]
 
 
==Notes==
 
 
{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}
 
 
==References==
 
 
*[[David Lewer|Lewer, David]] & Smale, Dennis. (2004) Swanage Past. Chichester: Phillimore & Co Ltd
 
*Cooper, Ilay. (2004). Purbeck Revealed. Bath: James Pembroke Publishing.
 
*Hardy, Thomas. (1876) The Hand of Ethelberta. (online). The Literature Network. Available from: http://www.online-literature.com/hardy/hand_ethelberta/31/.
 
*Ward Lock’s (no date). Swanage and South Dorset: Illustrated Guide Books. (Twelfth edition). London: Ward, Locke and Co. Ltd.
 
 
==External links==
 
{{Commons category|Swanage}}
 
{{Wikivoyage|Swanage}}
 
* [http://www.swanage.gov.uk Town Council website]
 
*[http://www.dorsetforyou.com Purbeck District Council]
 
 
{{Dorset}}
 
 
[[Category:Swanage| ]]
 
[[Category:Isle of Purbeck]]
 
[[Category:Towns in Dorset]]
 
[[Category:Beaches of Dorset]]
 
[[Category:Populated coastal places in Dorset]]
 
[[Category:Jurassic Coast]]
 
[[Category:Seaside resorts in England]]
 
[[Category:Post towns in the BH postcode area]]
 
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Date: Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:40:07 PM
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Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:40:07 PM #106427
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