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ID: 1625535
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Article: B vitamins
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[[File:B vitamin supplement tablets.jpg|thumb|B [[vitamin supplement]] tablets]]
 
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'''B vitamins''' are a group of water-soluble [[vitamin]]s that play important roles in [[Cell (biology)|cell]] [[metabolism]]. The B vitamins were once thought to be a single vitamin, referred to simply as '''vitamin B'''. Later research showed that they are [[chemical]]ly distinct vitamins that often coexist in the same foods. In general, supplements containing all eight are referred to as a '''vitamin B complex'''. Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific name of each vitamin (e.g., B<sub>1</sub>, B<sub>2</sub>, B<sub>3</sub> etc.).
 
 
== List of B vitamins ==
 
 
* '''Vitamin B<sub>1</sub>''' ([[thiamine]])
 
* '''Vitamin B<sub>2</sub>''' ([[riboflavin]])
 
* '''Vitamin B<sub>3</sub>''' ([[niacin]] or [[niacinamide]])
 
* '''Vitamin B<sub>5</sub>''' ([[pantothenic acid]])
 
* '''Vitamin B<sub>6</sub>''' ([[pyridoxine]], [[pyridoxal]], or [[pyridoxamine]], or [[pyridoxine hydrochloride]])
 
* '''Vitamin B<sub>7</sub>''' ([[biotin]])(vitamin H)
 
* '''Vitamin B<sub>9</sub>''' ([[folic acid]])
 
* '''Vitamin B<sub>12</sub>''' (various [[cobalamin]]s; commonly [[cyanocobalamin]] in vitamin supplements)
 
 
== B vitamin molecular functions ==
 
 
 
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| '''Vitamin B<sub>5</sub>''' || [[Pantothenic acid]] || [[File:Pantothenic acid.svg|110px]] || Pantothenic acid is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates. Coenzyme A, which can be synthesised from pantothenic acid, is involved in the synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, [[ketones]], [[cholesterol]],<ref>{{cite web|title=Pantothenic Acid|url=http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/schnepp/pantothenic.html|accessdate=16 September 2012|author=University of Bristol|year=2002}}</ref> phospholipids, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters (such as [[acetylcholine]]), and [[antibodies]].<ref>{{cite book|title=Advanced nutrition and human metabolism|year=2009|publisher=Cengage Learning|location=Belmont, CA|author=Gropper, S|coauthors=Smith, J}}</ref>
 
| '''Vitamin B<sub>5</sub>''' || [[Pantothenic acid]] || [[File:Pantothenic acid.svg|110px]] || Pantothenic acid is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates. Coenzyme A, which can be synthesised from pantothenic acid, is involved in the synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, [[ketones]], [[cholesterol]],<ref>{{cite web|title=Pantothenic Acid|url=http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/schnepp/pantothenic.html|accessdate=16 September 2012|author=University of Bristol|year=2002}}</ref> phospholipids, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters (such as [[acetylcholine]]), and [[antibodies]].<ref>{{cite book|title=Advanced nutrition and human metabolism|year=2009|publisher=Cengage Learning|location=Belmont, CA|author=Gropper, S|coauthors=Smith, J}}</ref>
 
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| '''Vitamin B<sub>6</sub>''' || [[Pyridoxine]] || [[File:Pyridoxal-phosphate.svg|110px]] || Pyridoxine is usually stored in the body as [[pyridoxal 5'-phosphate]] (PLP), which is the co-enzyme form of vitamin B<sub>6</sub>. Pyridoxine is involved in the metabolism of [[amino acids]] and lipids; in the synthesis of [[neurotransmitters]] <ref>{{cite web|title=Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)|url=http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/vitamin-b6-000337.htm|accessdate=16 September 2012|author=University of Maryland Medical Center|year=2012}}</ref> and [[hemoglobin]], as well as in the production of nicotinic acid (vitamin B<sub>3</sub>).<ref>{{cite web|title=Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)|url=http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/schnepp/vitaminb6.html|accessdate=15 September 2012|author=University of Bristol|year=2002}}</ref> Pyridoxine also plays an important role in gluconeogenesis
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| '''Vitamin B<sub>6</sub>''' || [[Pyridoxine]] || [[File:Pyridoxal-phosphate.svg|110px]] || Pyridoxine is usually stored in the body as [[pyridoxal 5'-phosphate]] (PLP), which is the co-enzyme form of vitamin B<sub>6</sub>. Pyridoxine is involved in the metabolism of [[amino acids]] and lipids; in the synthesis of [[neurotransmitters]] <ref>{{cite web|title=Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)|url=http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/vitamin-b6-000337.htm|accessdate=16 September 2012|author=University of Maryland Medical Center|year=2012}}</ref> and [[hemoglobin]], as well as in the production of nicotinic acid (vitamin B<sub>3</sub>).<ref>{{cite web|title=Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)|url=http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/schnepp/vitaminb6.html|accessdate=15 September 2012|author=University of Bristol|year=2002}}</ref> Pyridoxine also plays an important role in gluconeogenesis gggjngjgjgjrgreigipjbjjvkldsjdsjvhbkop[dbfkjl
 
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| '''Vitamin B<sub>7</sub>''' || [[Biotin]] || [[File:Biotin structure JA.png|110px]] || Biotin plays a key role in the metabolism of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. It is a critical co-enzyme of four carboxylases: acetyl CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids from acetate; propionyl CoA carboxylase, involved in gluconeogenesis; β-methylcrotonyl Coa carboxylase, involved in the metabolism of leucin; and pyruvate CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the metabolism of energy, amino acids and cholesterol.<ref>{{cite web|title=Biotin|url=http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/schnepp/biotin.html|accessdate=17 September 2012|author=University of Bristol|year=2012}}</ref>
 
| '''Vitamin B<sub>7</sub>''' || [[Biotin]] || [[File:Biotin structure JA.png|110px]] || Biotin plays a key role in the metabolism of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. It is a critical co-enzyme of four carboxylases: acetyl CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids from acetate; propionyl CoA carboxylase, involved in gluconeogenesis; β-methylcrotonyl Coa carboxylase, involved in the metabolism of leucin; and pyruvate CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the metabolism of energy, amino acids and cholesterol.<ref>{{cite web|title=Biotin|url=http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2002/schnepp/biotin.html|accessdate=17 September 2012|author=University of Bristol|year=2012}}</ref>
Reason: ANN scored at 0.956437
Reporter Information
Reporter: Wallace (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 05:10:21 AM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:06:13 PM #100403
Bradley (anonymous)

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Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 05:10:21 AM #100762
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