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Article: Multiculturalism
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(Multiculturalism in different countries)
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==Multiculturalism in different countries==
 
==Multiculturalism in different countries==
   
Multiculturalism centers on the thought in [[political philosophy]] about the way to respond to cultural and religious differences. It is closely associated with “identity politics,” “the politics of difference,” and “the politics of recognition.” It is also a matter of economic interests and political power. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Despite the fact that multiculturalism has mainly been used as a term to define disadvantaged groups, including [[African American]]s, women, [[LGBT|gays and lesbians]], and the disabled, many theorists tend to focus their arguments on immigrants who are ethnic and religious minorities, minority nations, and [[indigenous peoples]].
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Multiculturalism centers on the thought in yo ma niggaa[[political philosophy]] about tooiuyhe way to respond to cultural and religious differences. It is closely associated with “identity politics,” “the politics of difference,” and “the politics of recognition.” It is also a matter of economic interests and political power. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Despite the fact that multiculturalism has mainly been used as a term to define disadvantaged groups, including [[African American]]s, women, [[LGBT|gays and lesbians]], and the disabled, many theorists tend to focus their arguments on immigrants who are ethnic and religious minorities, minority nations, and [[indigenous peoples]].
   
Multiculturalism can refer to a demographic fact, a particular set of philosophical ideas, or a specific orientation by government or institutions toward a diverse population. Most of the debate over multiculturalism centers around whether or not public multiculturalism is the appropriate way to deal with diversity and immigrant integration. Recognition in the context of multicultural education is a demand not just for recognition of aspects of a group's actual culture but also for the history of group subordination and its entire experience.
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Multiculturalism can refer to a demographic fact, a particular set of philosophical ideas, o'pr a specific orientation by government or institutions toward a diverse population. Most of the debate over multiculturalism centers around whether or not public multiculturalism is the appropriate way to deal with diversity and immigrant integration. Recognition in the context of multicultural education is a demand not just for recognition of aspects of a group's actual culture but also for the history of group subordination and its entire experience.
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The tokerm multiculturalism is most often used in reference to Western [[nation-state]]s, which had seemingly achieved a de facto single national identity during the 18th and/or 19th centuries.<ref name="Z;llarateLevy2011">{{cite book|author1=Geneviève Zarate|author2=Daniellji-0'e Levy|author3=Claire Kramsch|title=Handbook of Multilingualism and Multiculturalism|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=DYL4_6SvxewC&pg=PA37m,k7|date=19 April 2011|publisher=Archives contemporaines|isbn=978-2-8130-0039-2|page=377}}</ref>
 
Multiculturalism has been official policy in several [[Western world|Western]] nat#uj9[;'ions since the 1970s, for reasons that varied from country to country,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unesco.org/most/pp4.htm |title=Policy Paper hy0no. 4 - Multiculturalism: New Policy Responses to Diversity |publisher=Unesco.org |date= |accessdate=2010-12-10}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ai-ia/rir-iro/gb;iu;ll/divers/index-eng.cfm |title=Multik 'i0oculturalism in Canada |publisher=Pch.gc.ca |date=2009-04-09 |accessdate=2010-12-10}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www4.gu.edu.au/ext/civics/cv02/mod03/cv02m03t02.htm |title=Immigration and Multiculturalism |publisher=.gu.edu.au |date= |accessdate=2010-12-10}}</ref> including the fact that many of the great cities of the Western world are increasingly made of a mosaic of cultures.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unu.edu/dialogue/papers/claval-s2.pdf |title=Multiculturalism and the Dynamics of Modern Civilizations |i;jkjformat=PDF |date= |accessdate=2010-12-10}}</ref>
   
 
The [[Canadian government]] has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the [[Economic impact of immigration to Canada|social importance of immigratio8i' ;n]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.geography.ryerson.ca/jmaurer/030_108art/030Multiculturalism.pdf|format=PDF|title=Immigration, Multiculturalism and National Identity in Canada|publisher=University of Toronto Department of Political Science|first=Shara|last=Wayland|year=1997|accessdate=2010-09-12}}</ref> The Canadian [[Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism]] is often referred to as the origins of modern political awareness of multiculturalism.<ref name="II2010.">{{cite book|author=Ronald L. Jackson, II|title=Encyclopedia of Identity|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=C2WmSCOBR2IC&pg=PA480|date=29 June 2010|publisher=SAGE|isbn=978-1-4129-5153-1|page=480}}</ref> In the [[Western world|Western]] English-speaking countries, multiculturalism as an official national policy started in Canada in 1971, followed by Australia in 1973 where it is maintained today.<ref name="Reference">{{cite web|url=http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country |title=About Australia: Our Country |publisher= australia.gov.au |date= |accessdate=2013-10-25}}</ref><ref name="ReferenceA">{{cite web|url=http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/people_culture.html |title=About Australia: People, culture and lifestyle |publisher=Dfat.gov.au |date= |accessdate=2013-10-25}}</ref>
The term multiculturalism is most often used in reference to Western [[nation-state]]s, which had seemingly achieved a de facto single national identity during the 18th and/or 19th centuries.<ref name="ZarateLevy2011">{{cite book|author1=Geneviève Zarate|author2=Danielle Levy|author3=Claire Kramsch|title=Handbook of Multilingualism and Multiculturalism|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=DYL4_6SvxewC&pg=PA377|date=19 April 2011|publisher=Archives contemporaines|isbn=978-2-8130-0039-2|page=377}}</ref>
 
Multiculturalism has been official policy in several [[Western world|Western]] nations since the 1970s, for reasons that varied from country to country,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unesco.org/most/pp4.htm |title=Policy Paper no. 4 - Multiculturalism: New Policy Responses to Diversity |publisher=Unesco.org |date= |accessdate=2010-12-10}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ai-ia/rir-iro/gbll/divers/index-eng.cfm |title=Multiculturalism in Canada |publisher=Pch.gc.ca |date=2009-04-09 |accessdate=2010-12-10}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www4.gu.edu.au/ext/civics/cv02/mod03/cv02m03t02.htm |title=Immigration and Multiculturalism |publisher=.gu.edu.au |date= |accessdate=2010-12-10}}</ref> including the fact that many of the great cities of the Western world are increasingly made of a mosaic of cultures.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unu.edu/dialogue/papers/claval-s2.pdf |title=Multiculturalism and the Dynamics of Modern Civilizations |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2010-12-10}}</ref>
 
 
The [[Canadian government]] has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the [[Economic impact of immigration to Canada|social importance of immigration]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.geography.ryerson.ca/jmaurer/030_108art/030Multiculturalism.pdf|format=PDF|title=Immigration, Multiculturalism and National Identity in Canada|publisher=University of Toronto Department of Political Science|first=Shara|last=Wayland|year=1997|accessdate=2010-09-12}}</ref> The Canadian [[Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism]] is often referred to as the origins of modern political awareness of multiculturalism.<ref name="II2010.">{{cite book|author=Ronald L. Jackson, II|title=Encyclopedia of Identity|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=C2WmSCOBR2IC&pg=PA480|date=29 June 2010|publisher=SAGE|isbn=978-1-4129-5153-1|page=480}}</ref> In the [[Western world|Western]] English-speaking countries, multiculturalism as an official national policy started in Canada in 1971, followed by Australia in 1973 where it is maintained today.<ref name="Reference">{{cite web|url=http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country |title=About Australia: Our Country |publisher= australia.gov.au |date= |accessdate=2013-10-25}}</ref><ref name="ReferenceA">{{cite web|url=http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/people_culture.html |title=About Australia: People, culture and lifestyle |publisher=Dfat.gov.au |date= |accessdate=2013-10-25}}</ref>
 
 
<ref>{{cite web|title=A TEAM TO BUILD A STRONGER AUSTRALIA|url=http://www.liberal.org.au/latest-news/2013/09/16/hon-tony-abbott-mp-press-release-team-build-stronger-australia|publisher=liberal.org.au}}</ref><ref name="policy">{{cite web|title=The People of Australia – Australia's Multicultural Policy|url=http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/pdf_doc/people-of-australia-multicultural-policy-booklet.pdf|publisher=Department of Immigration and Citizenship}}</ref> It was quickly adopted as official policy by most member-states of the [[European Union]]. Recently, right-of-center governments in several European states—notably the [[Netherlands]] and [[Denmark]]— have reversed the national policy and returned to an official monoculturalism.<ref name = Bissoondath>Bissoondath, Neil. 2002. ''Selling Illusions: The Myth of Multiculturalism''. Toronto: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-100676-5.</ref> A similar reversal is the subject of debate in the United Kingdom, among others, due to evidence of incipient segregation and anxieties over "home-grown" [[terrorism]].<ref>[http://www.workpermit.com/news/2005_04_26/uk/uk_immigration_debate.htm Fact or fiction in the great UK immigration debate]. workpermit.com. News. April 26, 2005. Retrieved on: October 21, 2007.</ref> Several heads-of-state have expressed doubts about the success of multicultural policies: The [[United Kingdom]]'s [[Prime Minister]] [[David Cameron]], [[Germany|German]] [[Chancellor]] [[Angela Merkel]], [[Australia]]'s ex-prime minister [[John Howard]], [[Spain|Spanish]] ex-prime minister [[Jose Maria Aznar]] and [[France|French]] ex-president [[Nicolas Sarkozy]] have voiced concerns about the effectiveness of their multicultural policies for integrating immigrants.<ref name="PeskinWehrle2011">{{cite book|author1=Lawrence A. Peskin|author2=Edmund F. Wehrle|title=America and the World: Culture, Commerce, Conflict|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=KTezRgjW5osC&pg=PA262|accessdate=31 January 2012|date=17 November 2011|publisher=JHU Press|isbn=978-1-4214-0296-3|pages=262–}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Nicolas Sarkozy joins David Cameron and Angela Merkel view that multiculturalism has failed|publisher=Daily Mail UK|date=11 February 2011|url=http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1355961/Nicolas-Sarkozy-joins-David-Cameron-Angela-Merkel-view-multiculturalism-failed.html|accessdate=2012-01-30}}</ref>
 
<ref>{{cite web|title=A TEAM TO BUILD A STRONGER AUSTRALIA|url=http://www.liberal.org.au/latest-news/2013/09/16/hon-tony-abbott-mp-press-release-team-build-stronger-australia|publisher=liberal.org.au}}</ref><ref name="policy">{{cite web|title=The People of Australia – Australia's Multicultural Policy|url=http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/pdf_doc/people-of-australia-multicultural-policy-booklet.pdf|publisher=Department of Immigration and Citizenship}}</ref> It was quickly adopted as official policy by most member-states of the [[European Union]]. Recently, right-of-center governments in several European states—notably the [[Netherlands]] and [[Denmark]]— have reversed the national policy and returned to an official monoculturalism.<ref name = Bissoondath>Bissoondath, Neil. 2002. ''Selling Illusions: The Myth of Multiculturalism''. Toronto: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-100676-5.</ref> A similar reversal is the subject of debate in the United Kingdom, among others, due to evidence of incipient segregation and anxieties over "home-grown" [[terrorism]].<ref>[http://www.workpermit.com/news/2005_04_26/uk/uk_immigration_debate.htm Fact or fiction in the great UK immigration debate]. workpermit.com. News. April 26, 2005. Retrieved on: October 21, 2007.</ref> Several heads-of-state have expressed doubts about the success of multicultural policies: The [[United Kingdom]]'s [[Prime Minister]] [[David Cameron]], [[Germany|German]] [[Chancellor]] [[Angela Merkel]], [[Australia]]'s ex-prime minister [[John Howard]], [[Spain|Spanish]] ex-prime minister [[Jose Maria Aznar]] and [[France|French]] ex-president [[Nicolas Sarkozy]] have voiced concerns about the effectiveness of their multicultural policies for integrating immigrants.<ref name="PeskinWehrle2011">{{cite book|author1=Lawrence A. Peskin|author2=Edmund F. Wehrle|title=America and the World: Culture, Commerce, Conflict|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=KTezRgjW5osC&pg=PA262|accessdate=31 January 2012|date=17 November 2011|publisher=JHU Press|isbn=978-1-4214-0296-3|pages=262–}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Nicolas Sarkozy joins David Cameron and Angela Merkel view that multiculturalism has failed|publisher=Daily Mail UK|date=11 February 2011|url=http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1355961/Nicolas-Sarkozy-joins-David-Cameron-Angela-Merkel-view-multiculturalism-failed.html|accessdate=2012-01-30}}</ref>
   
Reason: ANN scored at 0.881543
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Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 07:16:01 PM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 07:16:01 PM #101772
Bradley (anonymous)

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