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ID: 1664708
User: 96.4.165.220
Article: Supertaster
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In 1931, Arthur L. Fox, a [[DuPont]] chemist, discovered that some individuals found [[phenylthiocarbamide]] (PTC) to be bitter while others found it tasteless.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Fox |first1=AF |title=Six in ten 'tasteblind' to bitter chemical |journal=Sci News Lett |year=1931 |volume=9 |pages=249}}</ref><ref name="Bartoshuk 2000">{{cite journal |doi=10.1006/appe.1999.0287 |title=Psychophysical advances aid the study of genetic variation in taste |year=2000 |last1=Bartoshuk |first1=LM |journal=Appetite |volume=34 |pages=105 |pmid=10744897 |issue=1}}</ref> At the 1931 meeting of the [[American Association for the Advancement of Science]], Fox collaborated with Albert F. Blakeslee (a geneticist) to have attendees taste PTC: 65% found it bitter, 28% found it tasteless and 6% described other taste qualities. Subsequent work revealed that the ability to taste PTC was genetic in nature. In the 1960s, [[Roland L. Fischer|Roland Fischer]] was the first to link the ability to taste PTC, and the related compound [[propylthiouracil]] (PROP), to food preference and body type. Today, PROP has replaced PTC in taste research due to a faint sulfurous odor and safety concerns with PTC.<ref name="TexleyKwan2004">{{cite book|author1=Juliana Texley|author2=Terry Kwan|author3=John Summers|title=Investigating Safely: A Guide for High School Teachers|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=SJYGmkmnPT8C&pg=PT90|date=1 January 2004|publisher=NSTA Press|isbn=978-0-87355-202-8|pages=90–}}</ref> As described above, Bartoshuk and colleagues discovered that the taster group could be further divided into medium and supertasters. Most estimates suggest 25% of the population are nontasters, 50% are medium tasters, and 25% are supertasters.<ref>{{cite news|last=Roxby|first=Philippa|title=Why taste is all in the senses|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-20640337|newspaper=BBC News Health|date=9 December 2012}}</ref>
 
In 1931, Arthur L. Fox, a [[DuPont]] chemist, discovered that some individuals found [[phenylthiocarbamide]] (PTC) to be bitter while others found it tasteless.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Fox |first1=AF |title=Six in ten 'tasteblind' to bitter chemical |journal=Sci News Lett |year=1931 |volume=9 |pages=249}}</ref><ref name="Bartoshuk 2000">{{cite journal |doi=10.1006/appe.1999.0287 |title=Psychophysical advances aid the study of genetic variation in taste |year=2000 |last1=Bartoshuk |first1=LM |journal=Appetite |volume=34 |pages=105 |pmid=10744897 |issue=1}}</ref> At the 1931 meeting of the [[American Association for the Advancement of Science]], Fox collaborated with Albert F. Blakeslee (a geneticist) to have attendees taste PTC: 65% found it bitter, 28% found it tasteless and 6% described other taste qualities. Subsequent work revealed that the ability to taste PTC was genetic in nature. In the 1960s, [[Roland L. Fischer|Roland Fischer]] was the first to link the ability to taste PTC, and the related compound [[propylthiouracil]] (PROP), to food preference and body type. Today, PROP has replaced PTC in taste research due to a faint sulfurous odor and safety concerns with PTC.<ref name="TexleyKwan2004">{{cite book|author1=Juliana Texley|author2=Terry Kwan|author3=John Summers|title=Investigating Safely: A Guide for High School Teachers|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=SJYGmkmnPT8C&pg=PT90|date=1 January 2004|publisher=NSTA Press|isbn=978-0-87355-202-8|pages=90–}}</ref> As described above, Bartoshuk and colleagues discovered that the taster group could be further divided into medium and supertasters. Most estimates suggest 25% of the population are nontasters, 50% are medium tasters, and 25% are supertasters.<ref>{{cite news|last=Roxby|first=Philippa|title=Why taste is all in the senses|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-20640337|newspaper=BBC News Health|date=9 December 2012}}</ref>
   
The bitter taste receptor gene [[TAS2R38]] has been associated with the ability to taste PROP<ref name="Duffy 2004">{{cite journal |doi=10.1097/01.ALC.0000145789.55183.D4 |title=Bitter Receptor Gene (TAS2R38), 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) Bitterness and Alcohol Intake |year=2004 |last1=Duffy |first1=Valerie B. |last2=Davidson |first2=Andrew C. |last3=Kidd |first3=Judith R. |last4=Kidd |first4=Kenneth K. |last5=Speed |first5=William C. |last6=Pakstis |first6=Andrew J. |last7=Reed |first7=Danielle R. |last8=Snyder |first8=Derek J. |last9=Bartoshuk |first9=Linda M. |journal=Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research |volume=28 |issue=11 |pages=1629–37 |pmid=15547448 |pmc=1397913}}</ref> and PTC;<ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1016/j.cub.2005.01.047 |title=The Molecular Basis of Individual Differences in Phenylthiocarbamide and Propylthiouracil Bitterness Perception |year=2005 |last1=Bufe |first1=Bernd |last2=Breslin |first2=Paul A.S. |last3=Kuhn |first3=Christina |last4=Reed |first4=Danielle R. |last5=Tharp |first5=Christopher D. |last6=Slack |first6=Jay P. |last7=Kim |first7=Un-Kyung |last8=Drayna |first8=Dennis |last9=Meyerhof |first9=Wolfgang |journal=Current Biology |volume=15 |issue=4 |pages=322–7 |pmid=15723792 |pmc=1400547}}</ref> however, it cannot completely explain the supertasting phenomenon.<ref name="pmid18209019">{{cite journal |doi=10.1093/chemse/bjm084 |title=Supertasting and PROP Bitterness Depends on More Than the TAS2R38 Gene |year=2008 |last1=Hayes |first1=J. E. |last2=Bartoshuk |first2=L. M. |last3=Kidd |first3=J. R. |last4=Duffy |first4=V. B. |journal=Chemical Senses |volume=33 |issue=3 |pages=255–65 |pmid=18209019}}</ref> Still, the T2R38 genotype has been linked to a preference for sweetness in children,<ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1542/peds.2004-1582 |title=Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Bitter Perception and Sweet Preferences |year=2005 |last1=Mennella |first1=J. A. |journal=Pediatrics |volume=115 |issue=2 |pages=e216–22 |pmid=15687429 |last2=Pepino |first2=MY |last3=Reed |first3=DR |pmc=1397914}}</ref> avoidance of alcohol,<ref name="Duffy 2004"/><ref name="Duffy 2004" /> increased prevalence of colon cancer (via inadequate vegetable consumption)<ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1007/s10620-005-2462-7 |title=Association Between 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) Bitterness and Colonic Neoplasms |year=2005 |last1=Basson |first1=Marc D. |last2=Bartoshuk |first2=Linda M. |last3=Dichello |first3=Susan Z. |last4=Panzini |first4=Lisa |last5=Weiffenbach |first5=James M. |last6=Duffy |first6=Valerie B. |journal=Digestive Diseases and Sciences |volume=50 |issue=3 |pages=483–9 |pmid=15810630}}</ref> and avoidance of cigarette smoking.<ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1080/14622200500330209 |title=Associations between phenylthiocarbamide gene polymorphisms and cigarette smoking |year=2005 |last1=Cannon |first1=Dale |last2=Baker |first2=Timothy |last3=Piper |first3=Megan |last4=Scholand |first4=Mary Beth |last5=Lawrence |first5=Daniel |last6=Drayna |first6=Dennis |last7=McMahon |first7=William |last8=Villegas |first8=G.Martin |last9=Caton |first9=Trace |last10=Coon |first10=Hilary |last11=Leppert |first11=Mark |journal=Nicotine & Tobacco Research |volume=7 |issue=6 |pages=853–8 |pmid=16298720}}</ref>
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The bitter taste receptor gene [[TAS2R38]] has been associated with the ability to taste PROP<ref name="Duffy 2004">{{cite journal |doi=10.1097/01.ALC.0000145789.55183.D4 |title=Bitter Receptor Gene (TAS2R38), 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) Bitterness and Alcohol Intake |year=2004 |last1=Duffy |first1=Valerie B. |last2=Davidson |first2=Andrew C. |last3=Kidd |first3=Judith R. |last4=Kidd |first4=Kenneth K. |last5=Speed |first5=William C. |last6=Pakstis |first6=Andrew J. |last7=Reed |first7=Danielle R. |last8=Snyder |first8=Derek J. |last9=Bartoshuk |first9=Linda M. |journal=Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research |volume=28 |issue=11 |pages=1629–37 |pmid=15547448 |pmc=1397913}}</ref> and PTC;<ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1016/j.cub.2005.01.047 |title=The Molecular Basis of Individual Differences in Phenylthiocarbamide and oh yeaaaa Propylthiouracil Bitterness Perception |year=2005 |last1=Bufe |first1=Bernd |last2=Breslin |first2=Paul A.S. |last3=Kuhn |first3=Christina |last4=Reed |first4=Danielle R. |last5=Tharp |first5=Christopher D. |last6=Slack |first6=Jay P. |last7=Kim |first7=Un-Kyung |last8=Drayna |first8=Dennis |last9=Meyerhof |first9=Wolfgang |journal=Current Biology |volume=15 |issue=4 |pages=322–7 |pmid=15723792 |pmc=1400547}}</ref> however, it cannot completely explain the supertasting phenomenon.<ref name="pmid18209019">{{cite journal |doi=10.1093/chemse/bjm084 |title=Supertasting and PROP Bitterness Depends on More Than the TAS2R38 Gene |year=2008 |last1=Hayes |first1=J. E. |last2=Bartoshuk |first2=L. M. |last3=Kidd |first3=J. R. |last4=Duffy |first4=V. B. |journal=Chemical Senses |volume=33 |issue=3 |pages=255–65 |pmid=18209019}}</ref> Still, the T2R38 genotype has been linked to a preference for sweetness in children,<ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1542/peds.2004-1582 |title=Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Bitter Perception and Sweet Preferences |year=2005 |last1=Mennella |first1=J. A. |journal=Pediatrics |volume=115 |issue=2 |pages=e216–22 |pmid=15687429 |last2=Pepino |first2=MY |last3=Reed |first3=DR |pmc=1397914}}</ref> avoidance of alcohol,<ref name="Duffy 2004"/><ref name="Duffy 2004" /> increased prevalence of colon cancer (via inadequate vegetable consumption)<ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1007/s10620-005-2462-7 |title=Association Between 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) Bitterness and Colonic Neoplasms |year=2005 |last1=Basson |first1=Marc D. |last2=Bartoshuk |first2=Linda M. |last3=Dichello |first3=Susan Z. |last4=Panzini |first4=Lisa |last5=Weiffenbach |first5=James M. |last6=Duffy |first6=Valerie B. |journal=Digestive Diseases and Sciences |volume=50 |issue=3 |pages=483–9 |pmid=15810630}}</ref> and avoidance of cigarette smoking.<ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.1080/14622200500330209 |title=Associations between phenylthiocarbamide gene polymorphisms and cigarette smoking |year=2005 |last1=Cannon |first1=Dale |last2=Baker |first2=Timothy |last3=Piper |first3=Megan |last4=Scholand |first4=Mary Beth |last5=Lawrence |first5=Daniel |last6=Drayna |first6=Dennis |last7=McMahon |first7=William |last8=Villegas |first8=G.Martin |last9=Caton |first9=Trace |last10=Coon |first10=Hilary |last11=Leppert |first11=Mark |journal=Nicotine & Tobacco Research |volume=7 |issue=6 |pages=853–8 |pmid=16298720}}</ref>
   
 
==Identifying a supertaster==
 
==Identifying a supertaster==
Reason: ANN scored at 0.962444
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 05:15:28 PM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 05:15:28 PM #101620
Bradley (anonymous)

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