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ID: 1693574
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Article: Cognitive flexibility
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'''Cognitive flexibility''' has been described as the mental ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously.<ref name="Scott">{{cite journal|last=Scott|first=W A|title=Cognitive complexity and cognitive flexibility|journal=American Sociological Association|year=1962|volume=25|pages=405–414|doi=10.2307/2785779}}</ref> Despite some disagreement in the literature about how to operationally define the term, one commonality is that cognitive flexibility is a component of executive functioning.<ref name="Cooper-Kahn">{{cite web|title=What is executive functioning?|url=http://www.ldonline.org/article/29122/}}</ref> Research has primarily been conducted with children at the school age; however, individual differences in cognitive flexibility are apparent across the lifespan.<ref name="Chelune">{{cite journal|last=Chelune|first=G J|coauthors=Baer, R A|title=Developmental norms for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test|journal=Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology|year=1986|volume=8|pages=219–228|doi=10.1080/01688638608401314}}</ref> Measures for cognitive flexibility include the [[A-not-B task]], [[Dimensional Change Card Sorting Task]], [[Multiple Classification Card Sorting Task]], [[Wisconsin Card Sorting Task]], and the [[Stroop Test]]. [[Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging]] (fMRI) research has shown that specific brain regions are activated when a person engages in cognitive flexibility tasks. These regions include the [[prefrontal cortex]] (PFC), [[basal ganglia]], [[anterior cingulate cortex]] (ACC), and [[posterior parietal cortex]] (PPC).<ref name="Leber 13592–7">{{cite journal|last=Leber|first=A B|coauthors=Turk-Browne N B, Chun M M|title=Neural predictors of moment-to-moment fluctuations in cognitive flexibility|journal=Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A|date=9 September 2008|month=August|volume=105|issue=36|pages=13592–7|pmid=18757744|doi=10.1073/pnas.0805423105|pmc=2527350}}</ref> Studies conducted with people of various ages and with particular deficits have further informed how cognitive flexibility develops and changes within the brain. Cognitive flexibility also has implications both inside and outside of the classroom. A person’s ability to switch between modes of thought and to simultaneously think about multiple concepts has been shown to be a vital component of learning.<ref name="Boger-Mehall">{{cite web|last=Boger-Mehall|first=S R|title=Cognitive Flexibility Theory: Implications for Teaching and Teacher Education|url=http://202.116.74.5/pract//snapshot.php?id=577284&engine=others|accessdate=November 18, 2012|year=2007}}</ref>
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'''Cognitive flexibility''' has been described as the mental ability to switch between thinking hi my name is awesomeness about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously.<ref name="Scott">{{cite journal|last=Scott|first=W A|title=Cognitive complexity and cognitive flexibility|journal=American Sociological Association|year=1962|volume=25|pages=405–414|doi=10.2307/2785779}}</ref> Despite some disagreement in the literature about how to operationally define the term, one commonality is that cognitive flexibility is a component of executive functioning.<ref name="Cooper-Kahn">{{cite web|title=What is executive functioning?|url=http://www.ldonline.org/article/29122/}}</ref> Research has primarily been conducted with children at the school age; however, individual differences in cognitive flexibility are apparent across the lifespan.<ref name="Chelune">{{cite journal|last=Chelune|first=G J|coauthors=Baer, R A|title=Developmental norms for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test|journal=Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology|year=1986|volume=8|pages=219–228|doi=10.1080/01688638608401314}}</ref> Measures for cognitive flexibility include the [[A-not-B task]], [[Dimensional Change Card Sorting Task]], [[Multiple Classification Card Sorting Task]], [[Wisconsin Card Sorting Task]], and the [[Stroop Test]]. [[Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging]] (fMRI) research has shown that specific brain regions are activated when a person engages in cognitive flexibility tasks. These regions include the [[prefrontal cortex]] (PFC), [[basal ganglia]], [[anterior cingulate cortex]] (ACC), and [[posterior parietal cortex]] (PPC).<ref name="Leber 13592–7">{{cite journal|last=Leber|first=A B|coauthors=Turk-Browne N B, Chun M M|title=Neural predictors of moment-to-moment fluctuations in cognitive flexibility|journal=Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A|date=9 September 2008|month=August|volume=105|issue=36|pages=13592–7|pmid=18757744|doi=10.1073/pnas.0805423105|pmc=2527350}}</ref> Studies conducted with people of various ages and with particular deficits have further informed how cognitive flexibility develops and changes within the brain. Cognitive flexibility also has implications both inside and outside of the classroom. A person’s ability to switch between modes of thought and to simultaneously think about multiple concepts has been shown to be a vital component of learning.<ref name="Boger-Mehall">{{cite web|last=Boger-Mehall|first=S R|title=Cognitive Flexibility Theory: Implications for Teaching and Teacher Education|url=http://202.116.74.5/pract//snapshot.php?id=577284&engine=others|accessdate=November 18, 2012|year=2007}}</ref>
   
 
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Reason: ANN scored at 0.907859
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bobber (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 02:31:12 AM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:02:06 PM #100322
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