ClueBot NG Report Interface

// Viewing 1711904


ID: 1711904
Article: Cherokee
(Revert to revision 595739477 dated 2014-02-16 15:36:58 by Vsmith using popups)
Tag: blanking
Line 1: Line 1:
I hate Indians.
{{Other uses}}
{{Use mdy dates|date=December 2011}}
{{Infobox ethnic group
|group = Cherokee<br>ᏣᎳᎩ<br><small>ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯᎢ</small>
|image = [[File:Cherokees.jpg|none|250px]]
|image_caption=From the top, L-R:
[[John Ross (Cherokee chief)|John Ross]]; Colonel [[Elias Cornelius Boudinot]]; Samuel Smith; Lilly Smith; Walini; Marcia Pascal; Lillian Gross; [[William Penn Adair]]; Thomas M. Cook
|poptime = 316,049+ <br/>(Eastern Band: 13,000+,Cherokee Nation: 288,749, United Keetoowah Band: 14,300)<ref name=oia>[ "Pocket Pictorial."] ''Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission.'' 2010: 6 and 37. (retrieved June 11, 2010)</ref>
|popplace = {{flagicon|United States}} United States<br>({{flagicon|North Carolina}} [[North Carolina]], {{flagicon|Oklahoma}} [[Oklahoma]])
|rels = Christianity, [[Keetoowah Nighthawk Society|Kituhwa]], [[Four Mothers Society]],<ref>Sturtevant and Fogelson, 613</ref> [[Native American Church]]<ref>Minges, Patrick, [ "Middle and Valley Towns in Western North Carolina."] ''Cherokee Prayer Initiative Journal.'' 1999 (retrieved June 11, 2010)</ref>
|langs = English, [[Cherokee language|Cherokee]]
|related =
{{Contains Cherokee text}}
The '''Cherokee''' ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|tʃ|ɛr|ə|k|iː}}; {{lang-chr|ᏣᎳᎩ}} {{lang|chr|''Tsalagi''}}) are a [[Native Americans in the United States|Native American]] people historically settled in the Southeastern United States (principally [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]], [[North Carolina]], [[South Carolina]], and [[East Tennessee]]). They speak an [[Iroquoian languages|Iroquoian language]]. In the 19th century, historians and [[ethnographers]] recorded their oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the [[Great Lakes]] region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples were.<ref name="Mooney 1900 393">{{Cite book|last= Mooney |first= James |authorlink= James Mooney |title= Myths of the Cherokee and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees |publisher= Kessinger Publishing |origyear= 1900 |year= 2006 |isbn= 978-1-4286-4864-7 |url= |page= 393}}</ref> They began to have contact with European traders in the 18th century.
In the 19th century, [[european colonization of the Americas|white settlers in the United States]] called the Cherokee one of the "[[Five Civilized Tribes]]" because they had assimilated numerous cultural and technological practices of [[European American]] settlers. The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U.S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States.<ref name=Cherokee_us_citizenship>{{Cite web |url= |title=INDIAN AFFAIRS: LAWS AND TREATIES Vol. II, Treaties |author=Charles Kappler |year=1904 |publisher=Government Printing Office |deadurl=no |accessdate=January 29, 2013}} ''Note:'' Article 8 in the 1817 treaty as quoted, is mostly about certain land use rights (East of the Mississippi [river]), which might be retained by certain "[[Native Americans in the United States|Indians]]" if they met certain conditions -- namely, if they [quote] "wish to become citizens of the United States". However, in so doing, Article 8 ''implies'' that such "[[Native Americans in the United States|Indians]]" (living East of the Mississippi [river]) who "wish to become citizens of the United States", could (would be allowed to) become citizens of the United States. It seems to (be worded so as to) anticipate a future (after 1817) in which lands West of the Mississippi [river] would remain (territories of, or) outside the boundaries of, the United States.</ref> According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the [[Cherokee Nation]] has more than 314,000 members, the largest of the 566 [[Federally recognized tribes|federally recognized Native American tribes]] in the United States.<ref name=Census_2002>{{cite web |title=The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010 |work=Census 2010 Brief |url= |format=PDF |date=February 1, 2002 |deadurl=no |accessdate=January 29, 2013}}</ref> However, several groups claiming Cherokee lineage that are not federally recognized make up some of that 819,000-plus people claiming Cherokee blood.
Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the [[Cherokee Nation]] and the [[United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians]] (UKB) have headquarters in [[Tahlequah, Oklahoma|Tahlequah]], Oklahoma. The UKB are mostly descendants of "Old Settlers," Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817. The Cherokee Nation are related to the people who were [[Cherokee removal|forcibly relocated]] there in the 1830s under the [[Indian Removal Act]]. The [[Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians]] is on the [[Qualla Boundary]] in western [[North Carolina]].
In addition, there are Cherokee bands in the [[Southeastern United States|Southeast]] that are recognized as tribes by [[U.S. state|state]] governments, such as the [[Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama]], but not the [[U.S. federal government]].
The Cherokee refer to themselves as ''Tsalagi'' ({{lang|chr|ᏣᎳᎩ}}) or Aniyunwiya ({{lang|chr|ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ}}), which means "Principal People." The [[Iroquois]], who were based in New York, called the Cherokee ''Oyata’ge'ronoñ'' (inhabitants of the cave country).
Many theories&nbsp;– though none proven&nbsp;– abound about the [[etymology|origin of the word]] Cherokee. It may have originally been derived from the [[Choctaw]] word ''Cha-la-kee'', which means "those who live in the mountains", or Choctaw ''Chi-luk-ik-bi,'' meaning "those who live in the cave country".<ref>[ Cherokee Indian Tribe.] ''Access Genealogy.'' (September 21, 2009)</ref> The earliest Spanish rendering of Cherokee, from 1755, is ''Tchalaquei''.<ref>Charles A. Hanna, ''The Wilderness Trail'', (New York: 1911).</ref> Another theory is that "Cherokee" derives from a [[Muscogee Creek|Lower Creek]] word, ''Ciló-kki'', meaning someone who speaks another language.<ref>Sturtevant and Fogelson, 349</ref> The most common derivation, however, is an [[Anglicisation]] of their [[Endonym|autonym]], or name for themselves: ''Tsalagi'' in their language.
[[File:Smoky Mtn View.jpg|thumb|500px|[[Great Smoky Mountains]]]]
There are two prevailing views about Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an [[Iroquoian]]-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern [[Appalachia]], who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas, the traditional territory of the later ''[[Haudenosaunee]]'' five nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people's migrating south from the [[Great Lakes]] region in ancient times.<ref name="Mooney 1900 393"/> The other theory, which is disputed by academic specialists, is that the Cherokee had been in the Southeast for thousands of years. There is no archeological evidence for this.{{citation needed|date=April 2013}}
Some traditionalists, [[historians]] and [[archaeologists]] believe that the Cherokee did not come to Appalachia until the 15th century or later. They may have migrated from the north and moved south into [[Muscogee Creek]] territory and settled at the sites of [[mound]]s built by the [[Mississippian culture]]. During early research, archeologists had mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites to the Cherokee, including [[Moundville Archaeological Site|Moundville]] and [[Etowah Indian Mounds|Etowah Mounds]]. Late 20th-century studies have shown conclusively{{citation needed|date=April 2013}} instead that the weight of [[archeological]] evidence at the sites shows they are unquestionably related to ancestors of [[Muskogean]] peoples rather than to the Cherokee.
Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the later [[Pisgah Phase]] of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500.<ref>Sturtevant and Fogelson, 132</ref> Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.<ref>Finger, 6–7</ref> During the late [[Archaic period in the Americas|Archaic]] and [[Woodland Period]], Indians in the region began to cultivate plants such as [[marsh elder]], [[Chenopodium berlandieri|lambsquarters]], [[Amaranthus palmeri|pigweed]], [[sunflowers]] and some native [[Squash (plant)|squash]]. People created new art forms such as [[shell gorget]]s, adopted new technologies, and followed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the [[Mississippian Culture]]-period (800 to 1500 CE), local women developed a new variety of maize (corn) called eastern [[flint corn|flint]]. It closely resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms with several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies, especially the [[Green Corn Ceremony]].
==Early cultures==
Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions. The earliest ones of the mid-16th century encountered people of the [[Mississippian culture]], the ancestors to later tribes in the Southeast such as the [[Muscogee (Creek)|Creek]] and [[Catawba (tribe)|Catawba]]. Specifically, in 1540-41, a Spanish expedition led by [[Hernando de Soto]] passed through Cherokee country. De Soto's expedition visited many of the Georgia and Tennessee villages later identified as Cherokee, but recorded them as then ruled by the [[Coosa chiefdom]], while a '''Chalaque''' nation was recorded as living around the [[Keowee River]] where North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia meet.<ref>Mooney</ref> Some of this work was not translated into English and made available to historians until the 20th century. In addition, the dominance of English colonists over the Southeast led to a discounting of Spanish sources for some time.
The American writer [[John Howard Payne]] wrote about pre-19th century Cherokee culture and society. The Payne papers describe the account by Cherokee elders of a traditional two-part societal structure. A "white" organization of elders represented the seven clans. As Payne recounted, this group, which was [[hereditary]] and priestly, was responsible for religious activities, such as healing, purification, and prayer. A second group of younger men, the "red" organization, was responsible for warfare. The Cherokee considered warfare a polluting activity, and warriors required the purification by the priestly class before participants could reintegrate into normal village life. This hierarchy had disappeared long before the 18th century.
Researchers have debated the reasons for the change. Some historians believe the decline in priestly power originated with a revolt by the Cherokee against the abuses of the priestly class known as the ''[[Ani-kutani]]''.<ref name = "Irwina-1992">Irwin 1992.</ref> [[Ethnographer]] [[James Mooney]], who studied the Cherokee in the late 1880s, was the first to trace the decline of the former hierarchy to this revolt.<ref>Mooney, p. 392.</ref> By the time of Mooney, the structure of Cherokee religious practitioners was more informal, based more on individual knowledge and ability than upon heredity.<ref name="Irwina-1992"/>
Another major source of early cultural history comes from materials written in the 19th century by the ''didanvwisgi'' ({{lang|chr|ᏗᏓᏅᏫᏍᎩ}}), Cherokee [[medicine man|medicine men]], after [[Sequoyah]]'s creation of the [[Cherokee syllabary]] in the 1820s. Initially only the ''didanvwisgi'' adopted and used such materials, which were considered extremely powerful in a spiritual sense.<ref name="Irwina-1992"/> Later, the syllabary and writings were widely adopted by the Cherokee people.
Unlike most other Indians in the American Southeast at the start of the historic era, the Cherokee spoke an [[Iroquoian languages|Iroquoian language]]. Since the [[Great Lakes]] region was the core of Iroquoian-language speakers, scholars have theorized that the Cherokee migrated South from that region. This is supported by the Cherokee [[oral history]] tradition. According to the scholars' theory, the [[Tuscarora people|Tuscarora]], another Iroquoian-speaking people who inhabited the Southeast in historic times, and the Cherokee broke off from the major group during its northern migration.
Other historians hold that, judging from linguistic and cultural data, the Tuscarora people migrated South from other Iroquoian-speaking people in the Great Lakes region in ancient times. In the 1700s, the Tuscarora left the Southeast and "returned" to the New York area by 1722 because of warfare in the southern region. The Tuscarora were admitted by the Iroquois as the Sixth Nation of their political confederacy.<ref>[ David Landy, "Tuscarora"], ''Encyclopedia of North American Indians'', Cengage Learning Website, Houghton Mifflin Company, accessed January 12, 2010.</ref>
Linguistic analysis shows a relatively large difference between Cherokee and the northern Iroquoian languages. Scholars posit a split between the groups in the distant past, perhaps 3500–3800 years ago.<ref name="mooney">{{Cite book| last = Mooney | first = James | authorlink = James Mooney | title = Myths of the Cherokee | origyear = 1900 | year = 1995 | publisher = [[Dover Publications]] | isbn = 0-486-28907-9}}</ref> [[Glottochronology]] studies suggest the split occurred between about 1,500 and 1,800 BCE.<ref>Glottochronology from: Lounsbury, Floyd (1961), and Mithun, Marianne (1981), cited in [ Nicholas A. Hopkins, ''The Native Languages of the Southeastern United States''].</ref> The Cherokee have claimed the ancient settlement of ''[[Kituwa]]'' on the [[Tuckasegee River]], formerly next to and now part of [[Qualla Boundary]] (the reservation of the [[Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians]]), as the original Cherokee settlement in the Southeast.<ref name="mooney"/>
{{Main|Cherokee history}}
===17th century: English contact===
In 1657, there was a disturbance in [[Virginia Colony]] as the ''Rechahecrians'' or ''Rickahockans'', as well as the Siouan ''[[Manahoac]]'' and ''[[Nahyssan]]'', broke through the frontier and settled near the Falls of the James, near present-day [[Richmond, Virginia]]. The following year, a combined force of English and [[Pamunkey]] drove the newcomers away. The identity of the ''Rechahecrians'' has been much debated. Historians noted the name closely resembled that recorded for the ''Eriechronon'' or ''Erielhonan'', commonly known as the [[Erie tribe]]. The Iroquoian people had been driven away from the southern shore of [[Lake Erie]] by the powerful [[Iroquois]] Five Nations in 1654. The [[anthropologist]] Martin Smith theorized some remnants of the tribe migrated to Virginia after the wars ([[#refSmith1987|1986:131–32]]). Few historians suggest this tribe was Cherokee.<ref>Conley, ''A Cherokee Encyclopedia'', p. 3</ref>
Virginian traders developed a small-scale trading system with the Cherokee before the end of the 17th century; the earliest recorded Virginia trader to live among the Cherokee was Cornelius Dougherty or Dority, in 1690.<ref>Mooney, ''Myths of the Cherokee'' p. 31.</ref><ref>Lewis Preston Summers, 1903, ''History of Southwest Virginia, 1746–1786'', p. 40</ref> The Cherokee sold the traders [[Slavery among Native Americans in the United States|Indian slaves]] for use as laborers in Virginia and further north.<ref name="gallay">{{Cite book|last= Gallay |first= Alan |title= The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South 1670–1717 |year= 2002 |publisher= Yale University Press |isbn= 0-300-10193-7}}</ref>
===18th century===
{{Further|Cherokee military history}}
The Cherokees gave sanctuary to a band of [[Shawnee]] in the 1660s, but from 1710 to 1715 the Cherokee and Chickasaw, allied with the British, fought Shawnee, who were allied with the French, and forced them to move northward.<ref>Vicki Rozema, ''Footsteps of the Cherokees'' (1995), p. 14.</ref> Cherokees fought with the [[Yamasee]], [[Catawba (tribe)|Catawba]], and British in late 1712 and early 1713 against the [[Tuscarora people|Tuscarora]] in the Second [[Tuscarora War]]. The Tuscarora War marked the beginning of a British-Cherokee relationship that, despite breaking down on occasion, remained strong for much of the 18th century. With the growth of the [[deerskin trade]], the Cherokee were valuable trading partners, since deer-skins from the cooler country of their mountain hunting-grounds were of a better quality than those supplied by neighboring tribes.
In January 1716, Cherokee murdered a delegation of [[Muscogee Creek]] leaders at the town of [[Tugaloo (Cherokee town)|Tugaloo]], marking their entry into the [[Yamasee War]]. It ended in 1717 with peace treaties between [[South Carolina]] and the Creek. Hostility and sporadic raids between the Cherokee and Creek continued for decades.<ref name="oatis">{{cite book |last=Oatis |first=Steven J. |title=A Colonial Complex: South Carolina's Frontiers in the Era of the Yamasee War, 1680–1730 |location=Lincoln |publisher=University of Nebraska Press |year=2004 |isbn=0-8032-3575-5 }}</ref> These raids came to a head at the [[Battle of Taliwa]] in 1755, present-day [[Ball Ground, Georgia]], with the defeat of the Muscogee.
In 1721, the Cherokee ceded lands in [[South Carolina]]. In 1730, at [[Nikwasi]], a former Mississippian culture site, a Scots adventurer, Sir Alexander Cumming, crowned [[Moytoy of Tellico]] as "Emperor" of the Cherokee. Moytoy agreed to recognize King [[George II of Great Britain]] as the Cherokee protector. Cumming arranged to take seven prominent Cherokee, including ''[[Attakullakulla]]'', to London, England. The Cherokee delegation signed the [[Treaty of Whitehall]] with the British. Moytoy's son, ''Amo-sgasite'' (Dreadful Water) attempted to succeed him as "Emperor" in 1741, but the Cherokees elected their own leader, Cunne Shote ([[Standing Turkey]]) of [[Chota (Cherokee town)|Chota]].<ref name=ecc>Brown, John P. [ "Eastern Cherokee Chiefs"], ''Chronicles of Oklahoma'', Vol. 16, No. 1, March 1938. Retrieved September 21, 2009.</ref>
Political power among the Cherokee remained decentralized and towns acted autonomously. In 1735 the Cherokee were estimated to have sixty-four towns and villages, and 6,000 fighting men. In 1738 and 1739 [[smallpox]] epidemics broke out among the Cherokee, who had no natural immunity. Nearly half their population died within a year. Hundreds of other Cherokee committed suicide due to their losses and disfigurement from the disease.
[[File:Three Cherokee.jpg|thumb|After the [[Anglo-Cherokee War]], bitterness remained between the two groups. In 1765, [[Henry Timberlake]] took three of the former Cherokee adversaries to London to help cement the newly declared friendship.]]
From 1753 to 1755, battles broke out between the Cherokee and Muscogee over disputed hunting grounds in [[North Georgia]]. The Cherokee were victorious in the Battle of Taliwa. British soldiers built forts in Cherokee country to defend against the French in the [[Seven Years War]], called the [[French and Indian War]] in North America. These included [[Fort Loudoun (Tennessee)|Fort Loudoun]] near Chota. In 1756 the Cherokee were allies of the British in the French and Indian War. Serious misunderstandings arose quickly between the two allies, resulting in the 1760 [[Anglo-Cherokee War]]. King George III's [[Royal Proclamation of 1763]] forbade British settlements west of the Appalachian crest, as his government tried to afford some protection from colonial encroachment to the Cherokee and other tribes. The ruling was difficult to enforce.<ref>Rozema, pp. 17–23.</ref>
In 1771–1772, North Carolinian settlers squatted on Cherokee lands in Tennessee, forming the [[Watauga Association]].<ref>[ "Watauga Association"], ''North Carolina History Project.'' . Retrieved September 21, 2009.</ref> [[Daniel Boone]] and his party tried to settle in Kentucky, but the Shawnee, [[Lenape|Delaware]], [[Mingo]], and some Cherokee attacked a scouting and forage party that included Boone’s son. The American Indians used this territory as a hunting ground; it had hardly been inhabited for years. The conflict sparked the beginning of what was known as [[Dunmore's War]] (1773–1774).
In 1776, allied with the Shawnee led by [[Cornstalk]], Cherokee attacked settlers in South Carolina, Georgia, Virginia, and North Carolina in the [[Chickamauga wars#The Second Cherokee War|Second Cherokee War]]. [[Overhill Cherokee]] [[Nancy Ward]], [[Dragging Canoe]]'s cousin, warned settlers of impending attacks. Provincial militias retaliated, destroying over 50 Cherokee towns. North Carolina militia in 1776 and 1780 invaded and destroyed the [[Overhill Cherokee|Overhill towns]]. In 1777 surviving Cherokee town leaders signed treaties with the states.
[[Dragging Canoe]] and his band settled along [[Chickamauga Creek]] near present-day [[Chattanooga, Tennessee]], where they established 11 new towns. [[Chickamauga Town]] was his headquarters and his entire band became known as the [[Chickamauga Cherokee|Chickamauga]]. From here he fought a guerrilla war against settlers, the [[Chickamauga Wars (1776–1794)]]. The first Treaty of [[Tellico Blockhouse]], signed November 7, 1794, ended the Chickamauga Wars. In 1805, the Cherokee ceded their lands between the [[Cumberland River|Cumberland]] and [[Duck River (Tennessee)|Duck]] rivers (i.e. the [[Cumberland Plateau]]) to [[Tennessee]].
====Scots (and other Europeans) among the Cherokee in the 18th century====
The traders and British government agents dealing with the Southern tribes in general and the Cherokee in particular were nearly all of Scottish extraction, especially from the [[Scottish Highlands|Highlands]], though a few were Scots-Irish, English, French, even German (see [[Scottish Indian trade]]). Many of these married women from their host people and remained after the fighting had ended, some fathering children who would later become significant leaders.<ref>Mooney, James. History, Myths, and Scared Formulas of the Cherokee, p. 83. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900).</ref>
Notable traders, agents, and refugee Tories among the Cherokee included [[John Stuart (loyalist)|John Stuart]], Henry Stuart, Alexander Cameron, John McDonald, John Joseph Vann (father of [[James Vann]]), Daniel Ross (father of [[John Ross (Cherokee chief)|John Ross]]), John Walker Sr., John McLemore (father of Bob), William Buchanan, John Watts (father of [[John Watts (Cherokee chief)|John Watts Jr.]]), [[Chisholm Tavern (Knoxville)|John D. Chisholm]], John Benge (father of Bob Benge), Thomas Brown, [[John Rogers (Cherokee chief)|John Rogers]] (Welsh), John Gunter (German, founder of Gunter's Landing), James Adair (Irish), William Thorpe (English), and Peter Hildebrand (German), among many others, several attaining the status of minor chiefs and/or members of significant delegations.
In contrast, a large portion of the settlers encroaching on their territories and against whom the Cherokee (and other Indians) took most of their actions were [[Scotch-Irish American|Scots-Irish]], Irish from [[Ulster]] of Scottish descent, a group which also provided the backbone for the forces of the Revolution (a famous example of a Scots-Irishman doing the reverse is [[Simon Girty]]). It is a historical irony that those from a group seen as rebels or "Whigs" back home in the Isles became Tories in the Americas while those from a group now considered one of the most "Tory" in regard to the United Kingdom became [[Patriot (American Revolution)|Whigs]] in the Americas.
===19th century===
The Cherokee lands between the [[Tennessee River|Tennessee]] and [[Chattahoochee River|Chattahoochee]] rivers were remote enough from white settlers to remain independent after the [[Chickamauga Wars]]. The [[deerskin trade]] was no longer feasible on their greatly reduced lands, and over the next several decades, the people of the fledgling [[Cherokee Nation (19th century)|Cherokee Nation]] began to build a new society modeled on the white Southern United States.
[[File:Major ridge.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Portrait of Major Ridge in 1834, from [[History of the Indian Tribes of North America]].]]
[[George Washington]] sought to 'civilize' Southeastern American Indians, through programs overseen by the [[Indian Agent]] [[Benjamin Hawkins]]. He encouraged the Cherokee to abandon their communal land-tenure and settle on individual farmsteads, facilitated by the destruction of many American Indian towns during the [[American Revolutionary War]]. The [[deerskin trade]] brought [[white-tailed deer]] to the brink of extinction, and as pigs and cattle were introduced, they became the principal sources of meat. The government supplied the tribes with [[spinning wheel]]s and cotton-seed, and men were taught to fence and plow the land, in contrast to their traditional division in which crop cultivation was woman's labor. Americans instructed the women in weaving. Eventually Hawkins helped them set up blacksmiths, gristmills and cotton plantations.
[[George Washington]] sought to 'civilize' Southeastern American Indians, through programs overseen by the [[Indian Agent]] [[Benjamin Hawkins]]. He encouraged the Cherokee to abandon their communal land-tenure and settle on individual farmsteads, facilitated by the destruction of many American Indian towns during the [[American Revolutionary War]]. The [[deerskin trade]] brought [[white-tailed deer]] to the brink of extinction, and as pigs and cattle were introduced, they became the principal sources of meat. The government supplied the tribes with [[spinning wheel]]s and cotton-seed, and men were taught to fence and plow the land, in contrast to their traditional division in which crop cultivation was woman's labor. Americans instructed the women in weaving. Eventually Hawkins helped them set up blacksmiths, gristmills and cotton plantations.
Reason: ANN scored at 0.961909
Reporter Information
Reporter: 2012 (anonymous)
Date: Monday, the 8th of August 2016 at 12:02:22 AM
Status: Reported
Monday, the 8th of August 2016 at 12:02:22 AM #105404
2012 (anonymous)

CNb5pq <a href="">tfmvdiqnkojf</a>, [url=]wwlbnhvpmkdg[/url], [link=]lvwnhlnjvbno[/link],