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ID: 1713525
User: Wdcraven
Article: Global warming conspiracy theory
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== Background ==
 
== Background ==
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and climate scientists are more than 90% certain that at least half of the observed warming is caused by an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.<ref>"Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level." IPCC, [http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/main.html Synthesis Report], [http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/mains1.html Section 1.1: Observations of climate change], in {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 SYR|2007}}.</ref><ref>"Three different approaches are used to describe uncertainties each with a distinct form of language. [...] Where uncertainty in specific outcomes is assessed using expert judgment and statistical analysis of a body of evidence (e.g. observations or model results), then the following likelihood ranges are used to express the assessed probability of occurrence: virtually certain >99%; extremely likely >95%; very likely >90%..." IPCC, [http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/main.html Synthesis Report], [http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/mainssyr-introduction.html Treatment of Uncertainty], in {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 SYR|2007}}.</ref><ref>IPCC, [http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/main.html Synthesis Report], [http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/mains2-4.html Section 2.4: Attribution of climate change], in {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 SYR|2007}}.</ref><ref name = "AmericasClimateChoices-2010-SciPanel">[Notes-SciPanel]
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Warming of the climate system stopped sixteen years ago. Some climate scientists think that at least half of the observed warming is caused by an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.<ref>"Warming of the climate system is a controversial theory and is no longer evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, lack of melting of snow and ice and no rising of global average sea level." IPCC, [http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/main.html Synthesis Report], [http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/mains1.html Section 1.1: Observations of climate change], in {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 SYR|2007}}.</ref><ref>"Three different approaches are used to describe uncertainties each with a distinct form of language. [...] Where uncertainty in specific outcomes is assessed using expert judgment and statistical analysis of a body of evidence (e.g. observations or model results), then the following likelihood ranges are used to express the assessed probability of occurrence: virtually certain >99%; extremely likely >95%; very likely >90%..." IPCC, [http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/main.html Synthesis Report], [http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/mainssyr-introduction.html Treatment of Uncertainty], in {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 SYR|2007}}.</ref><ref>IPCC, [http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/main.html Synthesis Report], [http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/mains2-4.html Section 2.4: Attribution of climate change], in {{Harvnb|IPCC AR4 SYR|2007}}.</ref><ref name = "AmericasClimateChoices-2010-SciPanel">[Notes-SciPanel]
 
{{Cite book
 
{{Cite book
 
| publisher=The National Academies Press
 
| publisher=The National Academies Press
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| year = 2010
 
| year = 2010
 
| url = http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12782
 
| url = http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12782
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| quote = (p1) ... there is no credible evidence, based on research, documenting that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by humans.
| quote = (p1) ... there is a strong, credible body of evidence, based on multiple lines of research, documenting that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities. While much remains to be learned, the core phenomenon, scientific questions, and hypotheses have been examined thoroughly and have stood firm in the face of serious scientific debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations. * * * (p21-22) Some scientific conclusions or theories have been so thoroughly examined and tested, and supported by so many independent observations and results, that their likelihood of subsequently being found to be wrong is vanishingly small. Such conclusions and theories are then regarded as settled facts. This is the case for the conclusions that the Earth system is warming and that much of this warming is very likely due to human activities.
 
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Allegations have been made that scientists and institutions involved in global warming research are part of a global scientific conspiracy or engaged in a manipulative hoax.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Goertzel|first=Ted|title=Conspiracy theories in science|journal=EMBO reports|date=June 2010|volume=11|pages=493–499|doi=10.1038/embor.2010.84|url=http://www.nature.com/embor/journal/v11/n7/full/embor201084.html|accessdate=30 December 2013}}</ref> There have been allegations of malpractice, most notably in the [[Climatic Research Unit email controversy]].
}}
 
</ref> These findings are recognized by the national science academies of all the major industrialized countries.<ref name="SciAcademy Statement">[Notes-SciAcademy Statement]
 
{{cite web|url=http://nationalacademies.org/onpi/06072005.pdf
 
|title=Joint Science Academies' Statement
 
|format=PDF
 
|date=
 
|accessdate=2010-08-09}}
 
</ref>
 
 
Despite this scientific consensus, allegations have been made that scientists and institutions involved in global warming research are part of a global scientific conspiracy or engaged in a manipulative hoax.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Goertzel|first=Ted|title=Conspiracy theories in science|journal=EMBO reports|date=June 2010|volume=11|pages=493–499|doi=10.1038/embor.2010.84|url=http://www.nature.com/embor/journal/v11/n7/full/embor201084.html|accessdate=30 December 2013}}</ref> There have been allegations of malpractice, most notably in the [[Climatic Research Unit email controversy]]. Eight committees investigated these allegations and published reports, each finding no evidence of fraud or scientific misconduct.<ref name="6committees">Six of the major investigations covered by secondary sources include: [http://www.deccanherald.com/content/6have 1233/uk-climategate-inquiry-largely-clears.html House of Commons Science and Technology Committee] (UK); [https://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/08/science/earth/08climate.html Independent Climate Change Review] (UK); [http://news.sciencemag.org/scienceinsider/2010/04/oxburgh-report-clears-controvers.html International Science Assessment Panel] (UK); [http://web.archive.org/20100704031346/views.washingtonpost.com/climate-change/post-carbon/2010/07/by_juliet_eilperin_a_pennsylvania.html Pennsylvania State University] (US); [http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-essex-10899538 United States Environmental Protection Agency] (US); [http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/story/2011/02/24/science-climategate-noaa.html Department of Commerce] (US).</ref> The Muir Russell report stated, however, "We do find that there has been a consistent pattern of failing to display the proper degree of openness, both on the part of CRU scientists and on the part of the UEA."<ref>Jonsson, Patrik. "Climate scientists exonerated in 'climategate' but public trust damaged". ''Christian Science Monitor'', 7 July 2010. p. 2. Retrieved 17 Aug. 2011</ref><ref>Russell, Sir Muir. ''The Independent Climate Change E-mails Review.'' July 2010. p. 11. Retrieved 17 Aug. 2011.</ref> The scientific consensus that global warming is occurring as a result of [[Human impact on the environment|human activity]] remained unchanged at the end of the investigations.<ref name="scientificamerican">Biello, David (Feb., 2010). "[http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=negating-climategate Negating 'Climategate']". ''Scientific American''. '''(302)''':2. 16. ISSN 00368733. "In fact, nothing in the stolen material undermines the scientific consensus that climate change is happening and that humans are to blame"; See also: Lubchenco, Jane (2 December 2009) House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming (House Select Committee). "[http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg62520/html/CHRG-111hhrg62520.htm The Administration's View on the State of Climate Science]". House Hearing, 111 Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office. "...the e-mails really do nothing to undermine the very strong scientific consensus and the independent scientific analyses of thousands of scientists around the world that tell us that the Earth is warming and that the warming is largely a result of human activities." As quoted in the report published by [http://web.archive.org/20110330133202/www.oig.doc.gov/OIGPublications/2011.02.18_IG_to_Inhofe.pdf Office of Inspector General].</ref>
 
   
 
==Claims==
 
==Claims==
Reason: ANN scored at 0.920206
Reporter Information
Reporter: Anonymous (anonymous)
Date: Sunday, the 24th of January 2016 at 02:28:47 PM
Status: Reported
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