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Article: Gothic art
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[[Image:Cenral tympanum Chartres.jpg|thumb|right|The Western (Royal) Portal at [[Chartres Cathedral]] (''ca.'' 1145). These architectural statues are the earliest Gothic sculptures and were a revolution in style and the model for a generation of sculptors.]]
 
[[Image:France Strasbourg Magi.jpg|thumb|right|Later Gothic depiction of the [[Adoration of the Magi]] from [[Strasbourg Cathedral]].]]
 
[[Image:Gothic sculpture 15 century.jpg|thumb|Gothic sculpture, late 15th century, [[Amiens Cathedral]].]]
 
 
'''Gothic art''' was a style of [[Medieval art]] that developed in Northern France out of [[Romanesque art]] in 12th century, led by the concurrent development of [[Gothic architecture]]. It spread to all of Western Europe, never quite effacing more classical styles in Italy. In the late 14th century, the sophisticated court style of [[International Gothic]] developed, which continued to evolve until the late 15th century. In many areas, especially Germany, Late Gothic art continued well into the 16th century, before being subsumed into [[Renaissance art]]. Primary media in the Gothic period included [[sculpture]], [[panel painting]], [[stained glass]], [[fresco]] and [[illuminated manuscript]]s. The easily recognizable shifts in architecture from Romanesque to Gothic, and Gothic to Renaissance styles, are typically used to define the periods in art in all media, although in many ways figurative art developed at a different pace.
 
 
The earliest Gothic art was [[monumental sculpture]], on the walls of Cathedrals and abbeys. Christian art was often [[typology (theology)|typological]] in nature (see [[Medieval allegory]]), showing the stories of the New Testament and the Old Testament side by side. Saints' lives were often depicted. Images of the [[Mary, the mother of Jesus|Virgin Mary]] changed from the Byzantine iconic form to a more human and affectionate mother, cuddling her infant, swaying from her hip, and showing the refined manners of a well-born aristocratic courtly lady.
 
 
[[Secular]] art came into its own during this period with the rise of cities, [[Medieval university|foundation of universities]], increase in trade, the establishment of a money-based economy and the creation of a [[bourgeois]] class who could afford to patronize the arts and commission works resulting in a proliferation of paintings and illuminated manuscripts. Increased literacy and a growing body of [[Medieval literature|secular vernacular literature]] encouraged the representation of secular themes in art. With the growth of cities, trade [[guild]]s were formed and artists were often required to be members of a [[painters' guild]]—as a result, because of better record keeping, more artists are known to us by name in this period than any previous; some artists were even so bold as to sign their names.
 
 
==Origins==
 
[[Image:Torun SS Johns Mary Magdalene.jpg||thumb|[[International Gothic]] [[Mary Magdalene]] in St. John Cathedral in [[Toruń]]]]
 
Gothic art emerged in [[Île-de-France]], France, in the early 12th century at the [[Abbey Church of St Denis]] built by [[Abbot Suger]].<ref name="stokstad 516">Stokstad (2005), 516.</ref> The style rapidly spread beyond its origins in architecture to sculpture, both [[monumental sculpture|monumental]] and personal in size, textile art, and painting, which took a variety of forms, including [[fresco]], [[stained glass]], the [[illuminated manuscript]], and [[panel painting]].<ref name="stokstad 544">Stokstad (2005), 544.</ref> [[Monastic order]]s, especially the [[Cistercian]]s and the [[Carthusian]]s, were important builders who disseminated the style and developed distinctive variants of it across Europe. [[Cathedral architecture of Western Europe|Regional variations]] of architecture remained important, even when, by the late 14th century, a coherent universal style known as [[International Gothic]] had evolved, which continued until the late 15th century, and beyond in many areas.
 
 
Although there was far more secular Gothic art than is often thought today, as generally the survival rate of religious art has been better than for secular equivalents, a large proportion of the art produced in the period was religious, whether commissioned by the church or by the laity.
 
Gothic art was often [[Typology (theology)|typological]] in nature, reflecting a belief that the events of the Old Testament pre-figured those of the New, and that this was indeed their main significance. Old and New Testament scenes were shown side by side in works like the [[Speculum Humanae Salvationis]], and the decoration of churches. The Gothic period coincided with a great resurgence in [[Marian devotion]], in which the visual arts played a major part. Images of the Virgin Mary developed from the Byzantine hieratic types, through the [[Coronation of the Virgin]], to more human and initimate types, and cycles of the ''[[Life of the Virgin]]'' were very popular. Artists like [[Giotto]], [[Fra Angelico]] and [[Pietro Lorenzetti]] in Italy, and [[Early Netherlandish painting]], brought realism and a more natural humanity to art. Western artists, and their patrons, became much more confident in innovative [[iconography]], and much more originality is seen, although copied formulae were still used by most artists.
 
 
Iconography was affected by changes in theology, with depictions of the [[Assumption of Mary]] gaining ground on the older [[Death of the Virgin]], and in devotional practices such as the [[Devotio Moderna]], which produced new treatments of Christ in subjects such as the [[Man of Sorrows]], [[Pensive Christ]] and [[Pietà]], which emphasized his human suffering and vulnerability, in a parallel movement to that in depictions of the Virgin. Even in ''Last Judgements'' Christ was now usually shown exposing his chest to show the wounds of his [[Passion of Christ|Passion]]. Saints were shown more frequently, and [[altarpiece]]s showed saints relevant to the particular church or donor in attendance on a [[Crucifixion]] or enthroned [[Virgin and Child]], or occupying the central space themselves (this usually for works designed for side-chapels). Over the period many ancient iconographical features that originated in [[New Testament apocrypha]] were gradually eliminated under clerical pressure, like the [[Nativity of Jesus in art#Byzantine image|midwives at the Nativity]], though others were too well-established, and considered harmless.<ref>[[Émile Mâle]], The Gothic Image, Religious Art in France of the Thirteenth Century, p 165-8, English trans of 3rd edn, 1913, Collins, London (and many other editions) is a classic work on French Gothic church art</ref>
 
 
==Etymology==
 
The word "[[Gothic (disambiguation)|Gothic]]" for art was initially used as a synonym for "[[Barbaric]]", and was therefore used pejoratively. Its critics saw this type of Medieval art as unrefined and too remote from the aesthetic proportions and shapes of [[Classical art]].<ref name="books.google.com">[http://books.google.com/books?id=dBIfYTsM3rAC&pg=PA275 ''History of Architecture'' Fiske Kimball, George Harold Edgell p. 275]</ref> [[Renaissance]] authors believed that the [[Sack of Rome (410)|Sack of Rome]] by the [[Goths|Gothic tribes]] in 410 had triggered the demise of the Classical world and all the values they held dear. In the 15th century, various Italian architects and writers complained that the new 'barbarian' styles filtering down from north of the Alps posed a similar threat to the classical revival promoted by the early Renaissance.<ref>E. S. de Beer, ''Gothic: Origin and Diffusion of the Term; The Idea of Style in Architecture'' in ''Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes'', Vol.11, 1948, pp. 143-62</ref> The "Gothic" qualifier for this art was first used in [[Raphael]]'s letter to [[Pope Leo X]] c. 1518 and was subsequently popularised by the Italian artist and writer [[Giorgio Vasari]],<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=SMoC-XOUWewC&pg=PA135 ''Vasari on technique'' p.135]</ref> who used it as early as 1530, calling Gothic art a "monstrous and barbarous" "disorder".<ref>''The art of the sublime: principles of Christian art and architecture'' by Roger Homan p. 70 [http://books.google.com/books?id=K-UZMVXHU_QC&pg=PA70]</ref> Raphael claimed that the pointed arches of northern architecture were an echo of the primitive huts the Germanic forest dwellers formed by bending trees together - a myth which would resurface much later in a more positive sense in the writings of the German [[Romanticism|Romantic]] movement.
 
"Gothic art" was strongly criticized by French authors such as [[Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux|Boileau]], [[Jean de La Bruyère|La Bruyère]], [[Rousseau]], before becoming a recognized form of art, and the wording becoming fixed.<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=dBIfYTsM3rAC&pg=PA275 ''History of Architecture'' Fiske Kimball, George Harold Edgell p.275]</ref> [[Molière]] would famously comment on Gothic:
 
 
{{quote|The besotted taste of Gothic monuments,<br />These odious monsters of ignorant centuries,<br />Which the torrents of barbary spewed forth.|[[Molière]].<ref name="books.google.com"/>}}
 
 
In its beginning, Gothic art was initially called "French work" (''Opus Francigenum''), thus attesting the priority of France in the creation of this style.<ref name="books.google.com"/>
 
 
==Painting==
 
[[Image:Simone Martini 072.jpg|thumb|right|[[Simone Martini]] (1285–1344)]]
 
[[File:Venanson - Chapelle Sainte-Claire - Fresque -3.jpg|thumb|French late Gothic frescos]]
 
Painting in a style that can be called Gothic did not appear until about 1200, or nearly 50 years after the origins of Gothic architecture and sculpture. The transition from Romanesque to Gothic is very imprecise and not at all a clear break, and Gothic ornamental detailing is often introduced before much change is seen in the style of figures or compositions themselves. Then figures become more animated in pose and facial expression, tend to be smaller in relation to the background of scenes, and are arranged more freely in the pictorial space, where there is room. This transition occurs first in England and France around 1200, in Germany around 1220 and Italy around 1300. Painting during the Gothic period was practiced in four primary media: [[fresco]]s, [[panel painting]]s, [[manuscript illumination]] and [[stained glass]].
 
 
===Frescoes===
 
Frescoes continued to be used as the main pictorial narrative craft on church walls in southern Europe as a continuation of early Christian and Romanesque traditions. An accident of survival [[Church frescos in Denmark|has given Denmark]] and [[Church frescos in Sweden|Sweden]] the largest groups of surviving church wall paintings in the [[Biblia pauperum]] style, usually extending up to recently constructed [[cross vault]]s. In both Denmark and Sweden, they were almost all covered with limewash after the [[Reformation in Denmark|Reformation]] which has preserved them, but some have also remained untouched since their creation. Among the finest examples from Denmark are those of the [[Elmelunde Master]] from the Danish island of [[Møn]] who decorated the churches of [[Fanefjord Church|Fanefjord]], [[Keldby Church|Keldby]] and [[Elmelunde Church|Elmelunde]].<ref>[http://www.natmus.dk/cons/walls/chrchpnt.htm Kirsten Trampedach: Introduction to Danish Wall Paintings - Conservation Ethics and Methods of Treatment. National Museum of Denmark]. Retrieved 6 September 2009.</ref> [[Albertus Pictor]] is arguably the most well-known fresco artist from the period working in Sweden. Examples of Swedish churches with well-preserved frescos include [[Tensta Church|Tensta]], [[Gökhem Church|Gökhem]] and [[Anga Church, Gotland|Anga]] churches.
 
 
===Stained glass===
 
In northern Europe, [[stained glass]] was an important and prestigious form of painting until the 15th century, when it became supplanted by [[panel painting]]. Gothic architecture greatly increased the amount of glass in large buildings, partly to allow for wide expanses of glass, as in [[rose window]]s. In the early part of the period mainly black paint and clear or brightly coloured glass was used, but in the early 14th century the use of compounds of silver, painted on glass which was then fired, allowed a number of variations of colour, centred on yellows, to be used with clear glass in a single piece. By the end of the period designs increasingly used large pieces of glass which were painted, with yellows as the dominant colours, and relatively few smaller pieces of glass in other colours.<ref>Coe, 8-11</ref>
 
 
===Manuscripts and printmaking===
 
Illuminated manuscripts represent the most complete record of Gothic painting, providing a record of styles in places where no monumental works have otherwise survived. The earliest full manuscripts with French Gothic illustrations date to the middle of the 13th century.<ref name="stokstad 540">Stokstad (2005), 540.</ref> Many such illuminated manuscripts were royal bibles, although [[psalter]]s also included illustrations; the Parisian [[Psalter of Saint Louis]], dating from 1253 to 1270, features 78 full-page illuminations in [[tempera]] paint and gold leaf.<ref name="stokstad 541">Stokstad (2005), 541.</ref>
 
 
[[File:Pucelle.jpg|thumb|left|[[Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux]], by [[Jean Pucelle]], Paris, 1320s]]
 
During the late 1200s, scribes began to create prayer books for the laity, often known as [[books of hours]] due to their use at prescribed times of the day.<ref name="stokstad 541"/> The [[William de Brailes|earliest known example]] seems to have written for an unknown laywoman living in a [[North Hinksey|small village]] near [[Oxford]] in about 1240. Nobility frequently purchased such texts, paying handsomely for decorative illustrations; among the most well-known creators of these is [[Jean Pucelle]], whose [[Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux]] was commissioned by King [[Charles IV of France|Charles IV]] as a gift for his queen, [[Jeanne d'Évreux]].<ref name="stokstad 542">Stokstad (2005), 542.</ref> Elements of the French Gothic present in such works include the use of decorative page framing reminiscent of the architecture of the time with elongated and detailed figures.<ref name="stokstad 541"/> The use of spatial indicators such as building elements and natural features such as trees and clouds also denote the French Gothic style of illumination.<ref name="stokstad 541"/>
 
 
From the middle of the 14th century, [[blockbook]]s with both text and images cut as woodcut seem to have been affordable by [[priest|parish priests]] in the [[Low Countries]], where they were most popular. By the end of the century, printed books with illustrations, still mostly on religious subjects, were rapidly becoming accessible to the prosperous middle class, as were [[engraving]]s of fairly high-quality by [[printmaker]]s like [[Israhel van Meckenem]] and [[Master E. S.]]. In the 15th century, the introduction of cheap [[old master print|prints]], mostly in [[woodcut]], made it possible even for peasants to have devotional images at home. These images, tiny at the bottom of the market, often crudely coloured, were sold in thousands but are now extremely rare, most having been pasted to walls.
 
 
===Altarpiece and panel painting===
 
Painting with oil on canvas did not become popular until the 15th and 16th centuries and was a hallmark of [[Renaissance art]]. In Northern Europe the important and innovative school of [[Early Netherlandish painting]] is in an essentially Gothic style, but can also be regarded as part of the [[Northern Renaissance]], as there was a long delay before the Italian revival of interest in [[classicism]] had a great impact in the north. Painters like [[Robert Campin]] and [[Jan van Eyck]], made use of the technique of [[oil painting]] to create minutely detailed works, correct in perspective, where apparent realism was combined with richly complex symbolism arising precisely from the realistic detail they could now include, even in small works. In Early Netherlandish painting, from the richest cities of Northern Europe, a new minute realism in [[oil painting]] was combined with subtle and complex theological allusions, expressed precisely through the highly detailed settings of religious scenes. The [[Mérode Altarpiece]] (1420s) of [[Robert Campin]], and the [[Annunciation (van Eyck, Washington)|Washington Van Eyck Annunciation]] or [[Madonna of Chancellor Rolin]] (both 1430s, by [[Jan van Eyck]]) are examples.<ref>Lane, Barbara G,''The Altar and the Altarpiece, Sacramental Themes in Early Netherlandish Painting'', Harper & Row, 1984, ISBN 0-06-430133-8 analyses all these works in detail. See also the references in the articles on the works.</ref> For the wealthy, small [[panel painting]]s, even [[polyptych]]s in [[oil painting]] were becoming increasingly popular, often showing [[donor portrait]]s alongside, though often much smaller than, the Virgin or saints depicted. These were usually displayed in the home.
 
 
==Sculpture==
 
 
===Monumental sculpture===
 
[[File:Vierge a l'Enfant debout.jpg|thumb|French ivory Virgin and Child, end of 13th century, 25 cm high, curving to fit the shape of the ivory tusk]]
 
The Gothic period is essentially defined by [[Gothic architecture]], and does not entirely fit with the development of style in sculpture in either its start or finish. The facades of large churches, especially around doors, continued to have large tympanums, but also rows of sculpted figures spreading around them. The statues on the Western (Royal) Portal at [[Chartres Cathedral]] (c. 1145) show an elegant but exaggerated columnar elongation, but those on the south [[transept]] portal, from 1215–20, show a more naturalistic style and increasing detachment from the wall behind, and some awareness of the classical tradition. These trends were continued in the west portal at [[Rheims Cathedral]] of a few years later, where the figures are almost in the round, as became usual as Gothic spread across Europe.<ref>Honour and Fleming, 297–300; Henderson, 55, 82-84</ref> [[Bamberg Cathedral]] has perhaps the largest assemblage of 13th century sculpture, culminating in 1240 with the [[Bamberg Rider]], the first life-size [[equestrian statue]] in Western art since the 6th century.
 
 
In Italy [[Nicola Pisano]] (1258–78) and his son [[Giovanni Pisano|Giovanni]] developed a style that is often called [[Proto-Renaissance]], with unmistakable influence from Roman sarcophagi and sophisticated and crowded compositions, including a sympathetic handling of nudity, in relief panels on their [[Pulpit (Siena Cathedral)|pulpit of Siena Cathedral (1265–68)]], the [[Fontana Maggiore]] in [[Perugia]], and Giovanni's [[Pulpit by Giovanni Pisano in Sant'Andrea, Pistoia|pulpit in Pistoia]] of 1301.<ref>Olson, 11–24; Honour and Fleming, 304; Henderson, 41</ref> Another revival of classical style is seen in the [[International Gothic]] work of [[Claus Sluter]] and his followers in [[Burgundy (historical region)|Burgundy]] and [[Flanders]] around 1400.<ref>Snyder, 65-69</ref> Late Gothic sculpture continued in the North, with a fashion for very large wooden sculpted altarpieces with increasingly virtuoso carving and large numbers agitated expressive figures; most surviving examples are in Germany, after much iconoclasm elsewhere. [[Tilman Riemenschneider]], [[Veit Stoss]] and others continued the style well into the 16th century, gradually absorbing Italian Renaissance influences.<ref>Snyder, 305-311</ref>
 
 
Life-size tomb effigies in stone or [[alabaster]] became popular for the wealthy, and grand multi-level tombs evolved, with the [[Scaliger Tombs]] of [[Verona]] so large they had to be moved outside the church. By the 15th century there was an industry exporting [[Nottingham alabaster]] altar reliefs in groups of panels over much of Europe for economical parishes who could not afford stone retables.<ref>[http://www.vam.ac.uk/vastatic/microsites/bbchistory/object_text07.htm [[V&A Museum]] feature on the Nottingham alabaster ''Swansea Altarpiece'']</ref>
 
 
<gallery widths="200px" heights="200px" perrow="4">
 
 
File:Chartres cathedral 023 martyrs S TTaylor.JPG|South portal of [[Chartres Cathedral]] (c. 1215-20)
 
File:Reims6.jpg|West portal at [[Rheims Cathedral]], [[Annunciation]] group
 
File:Pisa.Baptistery.pulpit02.jpg|[[Nicola Pisano]], ''Nativity'' and ''[[Adoration of the Magi]]'' from the pulpit of the [[Pisa Baptistery]]
 
Image:Dijon mosesbrunnen4.jpg|[[Claus Sluter]], [[David (biblical king)|David]] and a [[prophet]] from the ''Well of Moses''
 
File:Holy Thorn Reliquary base.jpg|Base of the [[Holy Thorn Reliquary]], French (Paris), 1390s, a ''Resurrection of the Dead'' in gold, enamel and gems
 
Image:Ulm-Muenster-SchmerzensMann-061104.jpg|[[Man of Sorrows]] on the main portal of [[Ulm Münster]] by [[Hans Multscher]], 1429
 
File:English - Resurrection - Walters 27308.jpg|Section of a panelled altarpiece with ''[[Resurrection of Christ]]'', English, 1450–90, [[alabaster]] with remains of colour
 
File:Rothenburg ob der Tauber 2011 St Jakob 002.JPG|Detail of the [[Last Supper]] from [[Tilman Riemenschneider]]'s ''Altar of the Holy Blood'', 1501–05, [[Rothenburg ob der Tauber]], [[Bavaria]]
 
</gallery>
 
 
===Portable sculpture===
 
[[File:French - Casket with Scenes of Romances - Walters 71264 - Top.jpg|thumb|350px|Lid of the [[Casket with Scenes of Romances (Walters 71264)|Walters Casket]], with the ''Siege of the Castle of Love'' at left, and [[jousting]]. Paris, 1330-1350]]
 
 
Small carvings, for a mainly lay and often female market, became a considerable industry in Paris and some other centres. Types of ivories included small devotional [[polyptych]]s, [[Virgin and Child from the Sainte-Chapelle|single figures, especially of the Virgin]], mirror-cases, combs, and [[Casket with Scenes of Romances (Walters 71264)|elaborate caskets with scenes from Romances]], used as engagement presents.<ref>Calkins, 193-198</ref> The very wealthy collected extravagantly elaborate jewelled and enamelled metalwork, both secular and religious, like the [[Duc de Berry]]'s [[Holy Thorn Reliquary]], until they ran short of money, when they were melted down again for cash.<ref>Cherry, 25-48; Henderson, 134-141</ref>
 
 
Gothic sculptures independent of architectural ornament were primarily created as devotional objects for the home or intended as donations for local churches.,<ref name="stokstad 537">Stokstad (2005), 537.</ref> although small [[relief]]s in [[ivory]], bone and wood cover both religious and secular subjects, and were for church and domestic use. Such sculptures were the work of urban artisans, and the most typical subject for three dimensional small staues is the Virgin Mary alone or with child.<ref name="stokstad 539">Stokstad (2005), 539.</ref> Paris was the main centre of ivory workshops, and exported to most of northern Europe, though Italy also had a considerable production. An exemplar of these independent sculptures is among the collections of the Abbey Church of St Denis; the silver-gilt ''Virgin and Child'' dates to 1339 and features Mary enveloped in a flowing cloak holding an infantile Christ figure.<ref name="stokstad 539"/> Both the simplicity of the cloak and the youth of the child presage other sculptures found in northern Europe dating to the 1300s and early 1400s.<ref name="stokstad 539"/> Such sculpture shows an evolution from an earlier stiff and elongated style, still partly Romanesque, into a spatial and naturalistic feel in the late 12th and early 13th century.<ref name="stokstad 539"/> Other French Gothic sculptural subjects included figures and scenes from popular literature of the time.<ref name="stokstad 539"/> Imagery from the poetry of the [[troubadour]]s was particularly popular among artisans of mirror-cases and small boxes presumably for use by women.<ref name="stokstad 539"/> The [[Casket with Scenes of Romances (Walters 71264)]] of 1330-50 is an unusually large example with space for a number of scenes from different literary sources.
 
 
Souvenirs of pilgrimages to shrines, such as clay or lead [[pilgrim badge|badges]], medals and [[ampullae]] stamped with images were also popular and cheap. Their secular equivalent, the [[livery badge]], were signs of feudal and political loyalty or alliance that came to be regarded as a social menace in England under [[bastard feudalism]]. The cheaper forms were sometimes given away free, as with the 13,000 badges ordered in 1483 by King [[Richard III of England]] in [[fustian]] cloth with his emblem of a [[white boar]] for the investiture of his son [[Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales|Edward]] as Prince of Wales,<ref>Cherry (2003), 204</ref> a huge number given the population at the time. The [[Dunstable Swan Jewel]], modelled fully in the round in enamelled gold, is a far more exclusive version, that would have been given to someone very close or important to the donor.
 
 
== See also ==
 
{{commons|Gothic art}}
 
{{commons|Gothic painters}}
 
 
* [[List of Gothic artists]]
 
* [[Renaissance of the 12th century]]
 
* [[Blackletter]] (also known as ''Gothic script'')
 
* [[The Ten Virgins]]
 
* [[Danse Macabre]]
 
* [[History of Painting]]
 
* [[Western painting]]
 
* [[Church frescos in Denmark]]
 
* [[Church frescos in Sweden]]
 
* [[Template:Timeline of Italian artists to 1800|Timeline of Italian artists to 1800]]
 
 
== Notes ==
 
{{reflist|2}}
 
 
==References==
 
* Calkins, Robert G.; ''Monuments of Medieval Art'', Dutton, 1979, ISBN 0525475613
 
* Cherry, John. ''The Holy Thorn Reliquary'', 2010, British Museum Press (British Museum objects in focus), ISBN 0-7141-2820-1
 
*Cherry, John, in Marks, Richard and Williamson, Paul, eds. ''Gothic: Art for England 1400-1547'', 2003, V&A Publications, London, ISBN 1-85177-401-7
 
* Henderson, George. ''Gothic'', 1967, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-020806-2
 
* [[Hugh Honour]] and John Fleming, ''A World History of Art'', 1st edn. 1982 (many later editions), Macmillan, London, page refs to 1984 Macmillan 1st edn. paperback. ISBN 0333371852
 
* Olson, Roberta J.M., ''Italian Renaissance Sculpture'', 1992, Thames & Hudson (World of Art), ISBN 0500202531
 
* Robinson, James, ''Masterpieces of Medieval Art'', 2008, British Museum Press, ISBN 978-0-7141-2815-3
 
*[[James Snyder (art historian)|Snyder, James]]. ''Northern Renaissance Art'', 1985, Harry N. Abrams, ISBN 0136235964
 
 
== External links ==
 
* [http://www.gothic-architecture.com Gothic Art and Architecture]
 
* [http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/gothic.html Gothic art], from ArtCyclopedia.com
 
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9037489/Gothic-art Gothic art], from ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]'' Online.
 
* [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761562615/Gothic_Art_and_Architecture.html Gothic art] ([http://www.webcitation.org/5kwq98B7L Archived] 2009-10-31), from [[Microsoft Encarta]].
 
* [http://www.bartleby.com/65/go/Gothicar.html Gothic art], from [[The Columbia Encyclopedia]], Sixth Edition. 2001.
 
* [http://www.museen-sh.de/ml/digicult.php?digiID=601.46&s=2 Gothic art], Museumsportal Schleswig-Holstein
 
* [http://www.all-art.org/history194_gothic_contents.html Gothic art], from "A World History of Art" and [http://www.all-art.org/gothic_era/01.html].
 
* {{cite web |publisher= [[Victoria and Albert Museum]]
 
|url= http://www.vam.ac.uk/vastatic/microsites/1220_gothic/
 
|title= Gothic: Art for England 1400–1547
 
|accessdate= 2007-06-08 }}
 
 
{{Western art movements}}
 
{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2011}}
 
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Gothic Art}}
 
[[Category:Gothic art| ]]
 
[[Category:Medieval art]]
 
[[Category:Roman Catholic Church art by period]]
 
Reason: ANN scored at 0.969446
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Date: Friday, the 14th of October 2016 at 12:57:46 PM
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Monday, the 13th of October 2014 at 09:39:00 AM #96467
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Friday, the 14th of October 2016 at 12:57:46 PM #106522
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