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ID: 1735938
User: 99.147.141.145
Article: Cannabis smoking
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("often" for "commonly")
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Similar to a gravity bong, a waterfall bong utilizes both a bottle and a cap or screen rigged over the bottle's mouth to hold cannabis. In this case, however, the bottle—which has one or several covered holes bored at the bottom—is filled with water before the cannabis is loaded. The holes are then uncovered, evacuating the water. When heat is applied to the drug, the resultant smoke is forced into the bottle with negative pressure, as with the gravity bong. Once the water is evacuated, the smoke can be inhaled from the bottle. Variations on this concept are also used.
 
Similar to a gravity bong, a waterfall bong utilizes both a bottle and a cap or screen rigged over the bottle's mouth to hold cannabis. In this case, however, the bottle—which has one or several covered holes bored at the bottom—is filled with water before the cannabis is loaded. The holes are then uncovered, evacuating the water. When heat is applied to the drug, the resultant smoke is forced into the bottle with negative pressure, as with the gravity bong. Once the water is evacuated, the smoke can be inhaled from the bottle. Variations on this concept are also used.
   
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this is completely retarded
== Health effects of smoking ==
 
{{Main|Effects of cannabis|Long-term effects of cannabis}}
 
<!----- This is only a summary of the effects specific to smoking practices. Further details of health effects should be placed in the main article, Effects of cannabis----->
 
 
A 2013 literature review said that exposure to marijuana had biologically-based physical, mental, behavioral and social health consequences and was "associated with diseases of the liver (particularly with co-existing hepatitis C), lungs, heart, and vasculature". The authors cautioned that "evidence is needed, and further research should be considered, to prove causal associations of marijuana with many physical health conditions".<ref name=Gordon2013>{{cite journal |author=Gordon AJ, Conley JW, Gordon JM |title=Medical consequences of marijuana use: a review of current literature |journal=Curr Psychiatry Rep |volume=15 |issue=12 |pages=419 |date=December 2013 |pmid=24234874 |doi=10.1007/s11920-013-0419-7 |type=Review}}</ref>
 
 
There is conflicting data on the correlation of an increase in the incidence of lung cancer and cannabis smoking. A systematic review evaluating 19 studies from 1966 to 2006 found no significant tobacco-adjusted association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer development despite evidence of precancerous histopathologic changes of the respiratory mucosa.<ref name="Mehra-2006">{{citation |url=http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/166/13/1359 |title=The Association Between Marijuana Smoking and Lung Cancer |author=Mehra et al. |publisher=archinte.ama-assn.org |volume=166 |issue=13 |pages=1359–1367 |doi=10.1001/archinte.166.13.1359 |date=2006-07-10 |accessdate=2012-03-06}}</ref> Some studies indicate increased rates of cancer and others do not. The studies do indicate increased prevalence of pre-cancerous changes in the user's airways.
 
 
Cannabis smoke was listed as a cancer agent in California in 2009.<ref>{{citation |url=http://oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/files/p65single072012.pdf |title=Chemicals known to the state to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity |publisher=ca.gov |date=2012-07-20 |accessdate=2013-01-08}}</ref> Cannabis smoke contains many of the same [[carcinogen]]s as [[Tar (tobacco residue)|tar]] from [[tobacco]] smoke.<ref>{{citation |last=Tomar |first=Rajpal C. |coauthors=Beaumont and Hsieh |date=August 2009 |title=Evidence on the carcinogenicity of marijuana smoke |publisher=Reproductive and Cancer Hazard Assessment Branch Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency |url=http://oehha.ca.gov/prop65/hazard_ident/pdf_zip/FinalMJsmokeHID.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=23 June 2012}}</ref>
 
 
A 2012 literature survey by the [[British Lung Foundation]] identified cannabis smoke as a carcinogen and also found awareness of the danger was low compared with 40% of under 35s thinking that cannabis was not harmful. Other observations include increased risk from each cigarette due to drawing in larger puffs of smoke than cigarette smokers and holding the smoke in for longer;<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-18283689 Health risks of cannabis 'underestimated', experts warn]</ref> lack of research on the effect of cannabis smoke alone due to common mixing of cannabis and tobacco and frequent cigarette smoking by cannabis users; low rate of addiction compared to tobacco; and episodic nature of cannabis use compared to steady frequent smoking of tobacco.<ref name=BLA2012>{{citation |title=The impact of cannabis on your lungs |url=http://www.blf.org.uk/Files/8ec171b2-9b7e-49d9-b3b1-a07e00f11c05/ |publisher=British Lung Association |date=June 2012 |accessdate=2013-01-09}}</ref> Professor [[David Nutt]], a UK drug expert, points out that the study cited by the British Lung Foundation has been accused of both "false reasoning" and "incorrect methodology".<ref>{{citation |last=Le |first=Bryan |url=http://www.thefix.com/content/david-nutt-cannabis-carcinogenic90225 |title=Drug prof slams pot lung-danger claims |publisher=The Fix |date=2012-06-08 |accessdate=2013-01-09}}</ref>
 
   
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
Reason: ANN scored at 0.951044
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 04:21:45 PM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 04:21:45 PM #101558
Bradley (anonymous)

t3JeM5 http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

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