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ID: 1749958
User: 70.59.34.116
Article: Hessian (soldiers)
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(Reverted to revision 592443524 by 71.92.116.159 (talk): Rv/v. (TW))
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American patriots made propaganda use of the fact that the soldiers were non-British, and portrayed them as [[mercenaries]]. They also offered them land bounties to desert and join the Americans.
 
American patriots made propaganda use of the fact that the soldiers were non-British, and portrayed them as [[mercenaries]]. They also offered them land bounties to desert and join the Americans.
==History==
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History is the worst
The small German states had professional armies which their princes often hired out for combat duty.
 
John Childs wrote:
 
 
{{quote|Between 1706 and 1707, 10,000 Hessians served as a corps in [[Prince Eugene of Savoy|Eugene of Savoy's]] army in Italy before moving to the [[Spanish Netherlands]] in 1708. In 1714, 6000 Hessians were rented to Sweden for its war with Russia whilst 12,000 Hessians were hired by George I of Great Britain in 1715 to combat the [[Jacobite Rebellion]]. ... In the midst of the War of the Austrian Succession in 1744, 6,000 Hessians were fighting with the British army in Flanders whilst another 6,000 were in the Bavarian army. By 1762, 24,000 Hessians were serving with Ferdinand of Brunswick's army in Germany.<ref>John Brewer, Eckhart Hellmuth, German Historical Institute in London (1999). ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=X57arlJCoUAC&pg=en#v=onepage&q=&f=false Rethinking Leviathan: The Eighteenth-Century State in Britain and Germany''], Oxford University Press. p.64. ISBN 0-19-920189-7</ref>}}
 
 
During the American Revolutionary War, [[Landgrave]] [[Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse|Frederick II]] of [[Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel|Hesse-Kassel]] (a small independent country in northern [[Hesse]]) and other German princes hired out some of their regular army units to Great Britain for use to fight against the rebels in the [[American revolution]]. About 30,000 of these men served in America. They were called ''Hessians,'' because the largest group (12,992 of the total 30,067 men) came from ''Hesse-Kassel''. They came not as individuals but in entire units with their usual uniforms, flags, weapons and officers.
 
 
Units were sent by Count William of [[Hesse-Hanau]]; Duke [[Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg|Charles I]] of [[Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel]]; Prince Frederick of [[Waldeck (state)|Waldeck]]; [[Margrave]] [[Karl Alexander (Brandenburg-Ansbach)|Karl Alexander]] of [[Ansbach-Bayreuth]]; and [[Frederick Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst|Prince Frederick Augustus]] of [[Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst|Anhalt-Zerbst]].
 
[[File:Us unabhaengigkeitskrieg.jpg|thumb|Apocryphal Image of Hessian hussars in America]]
 
The Hessians did not act individually. Their princes determined whether to hire out the units. Many of the men were [[Impressment|press-ganged]] into Hessian service. Deserters were summarily executed or [[Gauntlet (punishment)|beaten]] by an entire company.<ref>David Hackett Fischer (2006). ''Washington's Crossing'', Oxford University Press. p.60. ISBN 0-19-518159-X</ref>
 
 
Hessians comprised approximately one-quarter of the forces fielded by the British in the American Revolution. They included [[Jäger (military)|jäger]], [[hussars]], three artillery companies, and four battalions of [[grenadier]]s. Most of the infantry were ''chasseurs'' ([[sharpshooter]]s), [[musketeer]]s, and [[fusilier]]s. They were armed with smoothbore muskets, while the Hessian artillery used three-pounder cannon. Initially the average regiment was made up of 500 to 600 men. Later in the war, the regiments had only 300 to 400 men.{{Citation needed|reason=Feb 2010|date=February 2010}}
 
 
About 18,000 Hessian troops first arrived in North America in 1776, with more coming in later. They landed at [[Staten Island, New York|Staten Island]] in New York on August 15, 1776. Their first engagement was in the [[Battle of Long Island]]. The Hessians fought in almost every battle, although after 1777, the British used them mainly as [[garrison]] troops. An assortment of Hessians fought in the battles and campaigns in the southern states during 1778–80 (including [[battle of Guilford Courthouse|Guilford Courthouse]]), and two regiments fought at the [[Siege of Yorktown]] in 1781.
 
 
The British use of Hessian troops rankled American sentiment, and pushed some Loyalists to favor the revolution. The British use of non-English speaking foreign troops to put down the rebellion was seen as insulting, as it treated British subjects no differently than non-British subjects. Pro-British Tories believed that the British colonists deserved more than mercenary foes.
 
 
===Hessian captives===
 
[[File:Die Hessen, vom General Washington am 25ten Dec. 1776, zu Trenton überfallen, werden als Kriegsgefangne in Philadelphia eingebracht.jpg|thumb|Hessian soldiers captured during the Battle at Trenton taken to Philadelphia.]]
 
In the [[Battle of Trenton]], the Hessian force of 1,400 was surprised and virtually destroyed by the Continentals, with about 20 killed, 100 wounded, and 1,000 captured. General [[George Washington]]'s [[Continental Army]] [[Washington's crossing of the Delaware River|had crossed the Delaware River]] to make a surprise attack on the Hessians on the early morning of December 26, 1776.<ref>[http://www.britishbattles.com/battle-trenton.htm "Battle of Trenton"], British Battles.com, accessed 13 Feb 2010</ref>
 
 
Family records of Johann Nicholas Bahner(t), one of the Hessians captured in the Battle of Trenton, indicate that some of the Hessian soldiers were told they were needed to defend the American Colonies against Indian incursions. When they arrived in North America, they discovered they had been hired to fight against the British colonists, rather than the Indians.<ref>''History of Our Ancestors: The First Bohner (Bahn, Bahner) to Migrate to America''</ref> The Hessians captured in the Battle of Trenton were paraded through the streets of Philadelphia to raise American morale; anger at their presence helped the Continental Army recruit new soldiers.<ref>''Johannes Schwalm the Hessian'', p. 21]</ref> Most of the prisoners were sent to work as farm hands.<ref>{{cite book|author=Rodney Atwood|title=The Hessians|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=GejQdlQrD-kC&pg=PA199|year=2002|publisher=Cambridge University Press|page=199}}</ref>
 
 
By early 1778, negotiations for the exchange of prisoners between Washington and the British had begun in earnest. On a one-for-one exchange if a Hessian soldier deserted, there would be one less American who would return home.{{Explain}}<ref>[http://www.jsha.org/ Herbert M. Bahner and Mark A. Schwalm, "Johann Nicholas Bahner – From Reichenbach, Hessen To Pillow, Pennsylvania"], ''Journal of the Johannes Schwalm Historical Association, Inc.'' Vol 3, No. 3, 1987</ref> Nicholas Bahner(t), Jacob Strobe, George Geisler, and Conrad Kramm are a few of the Hessian soldiers who deserted the British forces after being returned in exchange for American prisoners of war.<ref>[Journal of Johannes Schwalm Historical Assoc., Inc Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 2]</ref> These men were hunted by the British for being deserters, and by many of the colonists as an enemy.
 
 
Americans tried to entice Hessians to desert from the British and join the large [[German-American]] population. The US Congress authorized the offer of 50 [[acre]]s (approximately 20 [[hectare]]s) of land to individual Hessian soldiers to encourage them to desert. They offered 50 to 800 acres to British soldiers, depending on rank.<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=h2wCj5DsRCAC&pg=PA80&lpg=PA80&dq=hessian+%2250+acres%22+land+deserter&source=web&ots=QHOELlsmXr&sig=Wfz-LAs7flc7NrP1OftbPww_-yA#PPA80,M1 R. Douglas Hurt (2002) ''American Agriculture: A Brief History''], p. 80</ref>
 
 
In August 1777, a satirical letter, "The Sale of the Hessians", was widely distributed. It claimed that a Hessian commander wanted more of his soldiers dead so that he could be better compensated. For many years, the author of the letter was unknown. In 1874, [[John Bigelow]] translated it to English (from a French version) and claimed that [[Benjamin Franklin]] wrote it, including it in his biography, ''The Life of Benjamin Franklin'', published that year. There appears to be no evidence to support this claim.<ref>[http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-049X(19830616)127%3A3%3C202%3AFA%22SOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1 Everett C. Wilkie, Jr., "Franklin and 'The Sale of the Hessians': The Growth of a Myth"], ''Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society,'' Vol. 127, No. 3 (Jun. 16, 1983), pp. 202–212</ref>
 
 
When the British General [[John Burgoyne]] surrendered to American General [[Horatio Gates]] during the [[Saratoga campaign]] in 1777, his forces included around 5,800 troops. The surrender was negotiated in the [[Convention of Saratoga]], and Burgoyne's remnant army became known as the [[Convention Army]]. "Hessian" soldiers from [[Brunswick-Lüneburg]], under [[Friedrich Adolf Riedesel|General Riedesel]], comprised a high percentage of the Convention Army. The Americans marched the prisoners to [[Charlottesville, Virginia|Charlottesville]], [[Virginia]], where they were imprisoned in the [[Albemarle Barracks]] until 1781. From there, they were sent to [[Reading, Pennsylvania|Reading]], [[Pennsylvania]], until 1783.
 
 
[[File:German Soldiers in the American Revolution.svg|thumb|right|300px|German soldiers in the American Revolution]]
 
 
===Conclusion of the war===
 
About 30,000 Hessians served in the Americas, and, after the war ended in 1783, some 17,313 Hessian soldiers returned to their German homelands. Of the 12,526 who did not return, about 7,700 had died. Some 1,200 were killed in action, and 6,354 died from [[illness]] or accidents, mostly the former.<ref>{{cite web|author=Name |url=http://madmikesamerica.com/2011/07/revolutionary-war-the-hessian-involvement/ |title=Revolutionary War - The Hessian involvement |publisher=MadMikesAmerica |date= |accessdate=2012-10-29}}</ref> Approximately 5,000 Hessians settled in [[North America]], both in the [[United States]] and [[Canada]].
 
   
 
==Ireland 1798==
 
==Ireland 1798==
Reason: ANN scored at 0.980119
Reporter Information
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Status: Reported
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