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ID: 1777834
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Article: Waffen-SS
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| unit_name = Waffen-SS
 
| unit_name = Waffen-SS
 
| image = [[File:Waffen SS Logo.jpg|220px]]
 
| image = [[File:Waffen SS Logo.jpg|220px]]
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| dates = 1933–1945
 
| dates = 1933–1945
 
| country = {{flag|Nazi Germany}}
 
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In Finland, the 6 SS ''Nord'' had held its lines during the Soviet summer offensive until it was ordered to withdraw from Finland upon the conclusion of an armistice between the Finns and the Soviets in September 1944. They then formed the rear guard for the three German corps withdrawing from Finland in [[6th SS Mountain Division Nord|Operation Birch]], and from September to November 1944 marched 1,600 kilometres to [[Mo i Rana]], Norway, where it entrained for the southern end of the country, crossing the [[Skagerrak]] to Denmark.
 
In Finland, the 6 SS ''Nord'' had held its lines during the Soviet summer offensive until it was ordered to withdraw from Finland upon the conclusion of an armistice between the Finns and the Soviets in September 1944. They then formed the rear guard for the three German corps withdrawing from Finland in [[6th SS Mountain Division Nord|Operation Birch]], and from September to November 1944 marched 1,600 kilometres to [[Mo i Rana]], Norway, where it entrained for the southern end of the country, crossing the [[Skagerrak]] to Denmark.
   
====Arnhem and Operation Market Garden====
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====Arnhem and Operati
In early September 1944, the II SS Panzer Corps (9 SS ''Hohenstaufen'' and 10 SS ''Frundberg'') were pulled out of the line and sent to the [[Arnhem]] area in the Netherlands.{{sfn|Harclerode|2005|pp=455–456}} Upon arrival they began the task of refitting, and the majority of the remaining armoured vehicles were loaded onto trains in preparation for transport to repair depots in Germany. On Sunday 17 September 1944 the Allies launched [[Operation Market Garden]], and the British [[1st Airborne Division]] was dropped in [[Oosterbeek]], to the west of Arnhem. Realizing the threat, [[Wilhelm Bittrich]], commander of II SS Panzer Corps, ordered ''Hohenstaufen'' and ''Frundsberg'' to ready themselves for combat. Also in the area was the Training and Reserve Battalion, 16th SS Division ''Reichsführer-SS''. The Allied airborne operation was a failure, and [[Liberation of Arnhem|Arnhem was not liberated]] until 14 April 1945.{{sfn|Ellis|2004|pp=313–315}}
 
 
====Warsaw Uprising====
 
 
[[File:Destroyed Warsaw, capital of Poland, January 1945.jpg|thumb|85 per cent of Warsaw [[Aftereffects of the Warsaw Uprising|was destroyed]]. Centre: ruins of [[Old Town Market Place, Warsaw]] ]]
 
 
At the other end of Europe, the Waffen-SS was dealing with the [[Warsaw Uprising]]. Between August and October 1944, the [[Dirlewanger Brigade]] (recruited from criminals and the mentally ill throughout Germany) and the [[Waffen-Sturm-Brigade RONA]] were sent to [[Warsaw]] to put down the uprising. During the battle, the ''Dirlewanger'' behaved atrociously, raping, looting, and killing citizens of Warsaw regardless of whether they belonged to the Polish resistance or not; the unit commander [[Oskar Dirlewanger|SS-''Oberführer'' Oskar Dirlewanger]] encouraged their excesses. The unit's behavior was reportedly so bestial and indiscriminate that Himmler was forced to send a battalion of SS military police to ensure the Dirlewanger convicts did not turn their aggressions against the leadership of the brigade or other nearby German units.{{sfn|Bell|1966|pp=89–91}} At the same time they were encouraged by Himmler to terrorize freely, take no prisoners, and generally indulge their perverse tendencies. Favoured tactics of the Dirlewanger men during the siege reportedly included the ubiquitous gang rape of female Poles, both women and children; playing "bayonet catch" with live babies; and torturing captives to death by hacking off their arms, dousing them with gasoline, and setting them alight to run armless and flaming down the street.{{sfn|Conot|1984|pp=278–281}}{{sfn|Bell|1966|pp=89–91}} The Dirlewanger brigade committed almost non-stop atrocities during this period, in particular the four-day [[Wola massacre]].
 
[[File:Polish civilians murdered by German-SS-troops in Warsaw Uprising Warsaw August 1944.jpg|thumb|left|Photo taken by the [[Polish resistance movement in World War II|Polish Underground]] showing the bodies of women and children murdered by troops of the [[SS-Sturmbrigade Dirlewanger|SS-Sturmbrigade ''Dirlewanger'']] in Warsaw, August 1944]]
 
 
The other unit, ''Waffen-Sturm-Brigade RONA'' was tasked with clearing the [[Ochota]] district in Warsaw that was defended by members of the Polish [[Armia Krajowa|Home Army]]. Their attack was planned for the morning of 5 August, but when the time came, the RONA unit could not be found; after some searching by the SS military police, members of the unit were found looting abandoned houses in the rear of the German column. Later, thousands of Polish civilians were killed by the RONA SS men during the events known as [[Ochota massacre]]; many victims were also raped.{{efn|"Adolf Hitler is not interested in further existence of Warsaw [...] the whole population shall be executed and all buildings blown up." {{harvnb|Madajczyk|1972|p=390}}. }}{{efn|According to the evidence of [[Erich von dem Bach]] in [[International Military Tribunal|Nürnberg]], Himmler's order (issued on the strength of an order of Hitler), read as follows: "1. Caught razed insurgents shall be killed despite whether they fight in accordance with the [[Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907)|Hague Convention]] or they infringe it. 2. Non-fighting part of population, women, children, shall also be killed. 3. All the city shall be razed to the ground, i.e. buildings, streets, facilities in that city, and everything which is within its borders." {{harvnb|Wroniszewski|1970|pp=128–129}}. }} In following weeks, the RONA unit was moved south to the [[Wola]] district, but it fared no better in combat there than it did in Ochota; in one incident a sub-unit of the RONA brigade advanced to loot a captured building on the [[front line]], but was subsequently cut off from the rest of the SS formation and wiped out by the Poles. Following the fiasco, [[Bronislav Kaminski|SS-Brigadeführer Bronislav Vladislavovich Kaminski]], the unit's commander, was called to [[Łódź]] to attend a SS leadership conference. He never arrived; official Nazi sources blamed Polish partisans for an alleged ambush that killed the RONA commander. But according to various other sources he was arrested and tried by the SS, or simply shot on the spot by the [[Gestapo]]. The behaviour of the ''RONA'' during the battle was an embarrassment even to the SS, and the alleged rape and murder of two German [[Strength Through Joy]] girls may have played a part in the eventual execution of the brigade's commander.{{sfn|Kirchmayer|1978|p=367}}
 
 
====Vistula River line====
 
In late August 1944, 5 SS ''Wiking'' was ordered back to [[Modlin (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki)|Modlin]] on the [[Vistula River]] line near Warsaw, where it was to join the newly formed [[Army Group Vistula]]. Fighting alongside the Luftwaffe's [[Fallschirm-Panzer Division 1 Hermann Göring|Fallschirm-Panzer Division 1 ''Hermann Göring'']], they annihilated the Soviet 3rd Tank Corps. The advent of the Warsaw Uprising brought the Soviet offensive to a halt, and relative peace fell on the front line. The division remained in the Modlin area for the rest of the year, grouped with the 3 SS ''Totenkopf'' in the [[IV SS Panzer Corps]]. Heavy defensive battles around Modlin followed for the rest of the year. Together they helped force the Red Army out of Warsaw and back across the Vistula River, where the Front stabilized until January 1945.
 
 
====Ardennes Offensive====
 
[[File:Kampfgruppe Peiper's Troops on the road To Malmedy.jpg|thumb|left|Peiper's troops on the road to [[Malmedy]] ]]
 
[[File:Malmedy Massacre.jpg|thumb|Aftermath of the Malmedy Massacre]]
 
The [[Battle of the Bulge|Ardennes Offensive]] or "Battle of the Bulge", between 16 December 1944 and 25 January 1945, was a major German offensive through the forested [[Ardennes|Ardennes Mountains region]] of Belgium. The Waffen-SS units included the [[6th Panzer Army]] under [[Sepp Dietrich]]. Created on 26 October 1944, it incorporated the [[I SS Panzer Corps]] (1 SS ''Leibstandarte'', the 12 SS ''Hitlerjugend'' and the [[SS Heavy Panzer Battalion 101]]). It also had the [[II SS Panzer Corps]] (2 SS ''Das Reich'' and the 9 SS ''Hohenstaufen''). Another unit involved was [[Otto Skorzeny]]'s [[SS Panzer Brigade 150]].
 
 
The purpose of the attack was to split the British and American line in half, capture [[Antwerp]], and encircle and destroy four Allied armies, forcing the [[Western Allies]] to negotiate a [[peace treaty]] on terms favorable to the [[Axis powers of World War II|Axis Powers]].{{sfn|United States History}}
 
 
The attack was ultimately a failure. It is infamous for the [[Malmedy massacre]], in which approximately 90 unarmed American [[POW|prisoners of war]] were murdered on 17 December 1944 by the Kampfgruppe Peiper, part of the 1 SS ''Leibstandarte''.{{sfn|Reynolds|2003}} Also during this battle, soldiers from 3./SS-PzAA1 LSSAH captured and shot eleven African-American soldiers from the American [[333rd Field Artillery Battalion (United States)|333rd Artillery Battalion]] in the hamlet of Wereth. Their remains were found by Allied troops two months later. The soldiers had their fingers cut off and legs broken, and one was shot while trying to bandage a comrade's wounds.{{sfn|US Memorial Wereth}}
 
 
====Siege of Budapest====
 
In late December 1944, the Axis forces, including IX Waffen Mountain Corps of the SS (Croatian), defending [[Budapest]], were encircled in the [[Siege of Budapest]]. The IV SS Panzer Corps (3 SS ''Totenkopf'' and 5 SS ''Wiking'') was ordered south to join [[Hermann Balck]]'s [[6th Army (Wehrmacht)|6th Army]] (Army Group ''Balck''), which was mustering for a relief effort code named [[Operation Konrad]].
 
 
As a part of Operation Konrad I, the IV SS Panzer Corps was committed to action on 1 January 1945, near [[Tata, Hungary|Tata]], with the advance columns of ''Wiking'' slamming into the Soviet [[4th Guards Army (Soviet Union)|4th Guards Army]]. A heavy battle ensued, with the 5 SS ''Wiking'' and 3 SS ''Totenkopf'' destroying many of the Soviet tanks. In three days their panzer spearheads had driven 45 kilometres, over half the distance from the start point to Budapest. The Soviets maneuvered forces to block the advance, and they barely managed to halt them at [[Bicske]], only {{convert|28|km|mi}} from Budapest. Two further attacks, Operations Konrad II and III, also failed.{{sfn|Zwack|1999}}
 
 
The [[Hungarian Third Army]] was besieged in Budapest along with the [[IX Waffen Mountain Corps of the SS (Croatian)]] (8 SS ''Florian Geyer'' and 22 SS '' Maria Theresia''). The siege lasted from 29 December 1944 until the city surrendered unconditionally on 13 February 1945. Only 170 men of the 22 SS '' Maria Theresia'' made it back to the German lines.
 
 
===1945===
 
 
====1945 expansion====
 
The Waffen-SS continued to expand in 1945. January saw the [[32nd SS Volunteer Grenadier Division 30 Januar|32nd SS Volunteer Grenadier Division ''30 Januar'']] formed from the remnants of other units and staff from the SS-Junkerschules. In February the Waffen Grenadier Brigade or SS Charlemagne (1st French) was reformed as the [[33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French)]], and the SS Volunteer Grenadier-Brigade Landstorm Nederland was upgraded to the [[34th SS Volunteer Grenadier Division Landstorm Nederland|34th SS Volunteer Grenadier Division ''Landstorm Nederland'']]. The second SS Police division followed when the [[35th SS and Police Grenadier Division]] was formed from SS Police units that had been transferred to the Waffen-SS. The Dirlewanger Brigade was reformed as the [[36th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS]]. There was now a real shortage of Waffen-SS volunteers and conscripts, so units from the Army were attached to bring it up to strength. The third SS Cavalry division [[37th SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Lützow|37th SS Volunteer Cavalry Division ''Lützow'']] was formed from the remnants of the 8 SS ''Florian Geyer'' and 22 SS ''Maria Theresia'', which had both been virtually destroyed. The last Waffen-SS division was the [[38th SS Division Nibelungen|38th SS Division ''Nibelungen'']], which was also formed from students and staff from the SS-Junkerschule, but consisted of only around 6,000 men, the strength of a normal brigade.
 
 
The [[XV SS Cossack Cavalry Corps]], which contained the [[1st Cossack Division|1 SS Cossack Division]], was transferred to the Waffen-SS on 1 February 1945. Despite the refusal of its commander, General von Pannwitz, to enter the SS, the corps was placed under SS administration and all Cossacks became formally part of the Waffen-SS.{{sfn|Michaelis|2006|p=36}}
 
 
====Operation Nordwind====
 
[[Operation Nordwind]] was the last major German offensive on the Western Front. It began on 1 January 1945 in [[Alsace]] and [[Lorraine (province)|Lorraine]] in north-eastern France, and it ended on 25 January. The initial attack was conducted by three Corps of the 1st Army. By 15 January at least 17 German divisions (including units in the [[Colmar Pocket]]) were engaged, including the [[XIII SS Army Corps]] (17 SS ''Götz von Berlichingen'' and 38 SS ''Nibelungen'') and the 6 SS ''Nord'' and 10 SS ''Frundsberg''.{{sfn|100th Division}} At the same time, the Luftwaffe mounted a large offensive over the skies of France. Some 240 fighters were lost and just as many pilots. It was the 'last gasp' attempt for the Luftwaffe to take back air supremacy from the western allies.
 
 
====Operation Solstice====
 
[[Operation Solstice]], or the "Stargard Tank Battle" (February 1945) was one of the last [[armoured warfare|armoured]] offensive operations on the Eastern Front. It was a limited counter-attack by the three corps of the [[Eleventh SS Panzer Army]], which was being assembled in [[Pomerania]], against the spearheads of the 1st Belorussian Front. Originally planned as a major offensive, it was executed as a more limited attack. It was repulsed by the Red Army, but helped to convince the [[Stavka|Soviet High Command]] to postpone the planned attack on [[Berlin]].{{sfn|Beevor|2002|p=91}}
 
 
Initially the attack achieved a total surprise, reaching the banks of the [[Ina River]] and, on 17 January, [[Arnswalde]]. Strong Soviet counter-attacks halted the advance, and the operation was called off. The III (Germanic) SS Panzer Corps, was pulled back to the [[Stargard Szczeciński|Stargard]] and [[Stettin]] on the northern [[Oder River]].
 
 
====East Pomeranian Offensive====
 
The [[East Pomeranian Offensive]] lasted from 24 February to 4 April, in [[Pomerania]] and [[West Prussia]]. The Waffen-SS units involved were the 11 SS ''Nordland'', 20 SS ''Estonian'', 23 SS ''Nederland'', 27 SS ''Langemark'', 28 SS ''Wallonien'', all in the [[III (Germanic) SS Panzer Corps]], and the [[X SS Corps]], which did not command any SS units.{{sfn|Raus|2005|pp=324–332}}
 
 
In March 1945, the X SS Corps was encircled by the [[Soviet 1st Guards Tank Army|1st Guards Tank Army]], [[3rd Shock Army (Soviet Union)|3rd Shock Army]], and the [[First Polish Army (1944–1945)|Polish 1st Army]] in the area of [[Dramburg]]. This pocket was destroyed by the Red Army on 7 March 1945.{{sfn|Tessin|1973|p=164}}{{sfn|Ustinow|1981|p=179}} On 8 March 1945, the Soviets announced the capture of General Krappe and 8,000 men of the X SS Corps.{{sfn|Schramm|1982|p=1156}}
 
 
====Operation Spring Awakening====
 
{{refimprove section|date=January 2013}}
 
After the Ardennes offensive failed, the SS Divisions involved were pulled out and refitted in Germany in preparation for [[Operation Spring Awakening]], with top priority for men and equipment. The replacements were a mixed group of raw recruits and drafted Luftwaffe and [[Kriegsmarine]] personnel no longer needed by their own branch of service, as they had no aircraft or ships to serve in. The 6th SS Panzer Army would again take the lead, with the I SS Panzer Corps (1 SS ''Leibstandarte'' and 12 SS ''Hitlerjugend'') and the II SS Panzer Corps (2 SS ''Das Reich'' and the 10 SS ''Frundsberg''). Also present but not part of the 6th SS Panzer Army was the IV SS Panzer Corps (3 SS ''Totenkopf'' and 5 SS ''Wiking''). This was the first time that six SS Panzer Divisions took part in the same offensive.
 
 
As planned, the offensive got under way on 6 March 1945, spearheaded by the 6th SS Panzer Army. The attack surprised the Soviets, and impressive gains were made for an offensive launched at such a late date in the war. However, once the Soviets realized that elite SS units were involved, they took the German offensive seriously, utilizing 16 rifle divisions, two tank corps (with some 150 tanks), and two mechanized corps, in direct support just behind the front line south west of [[Lake Balaton]]. The Soviets had been building up their forces for their own offensive along the [[Danube]] valley, which meant the 6th SS Panzer Army's attack was confronted by an overwhelming Soviet force of more than 1,000 tanks, which ground the German advance to a halt.
 
 
By 14 March the attack was in serious trouble. The advance of the 6th SS Panzer Army, while impressive, was well short of its targets. Two days later, the Soviets launched a massive counterattack, which drove the 6th SS Panzer Army back to its start line within 24 hours. All six of the Waffen-SS divisions suffered grievously during Spring Awakening, and by the end most were below 50 per cent strength without much prospect of reinforcements to replace their losses.
 
 
====Armband order====
 
This failure is famous for the notorious "armband order" that followed. The order was issued to Sepp Dietrich by Adolf Hitler, who claimed that the troops, and more importantly, the 1 SS ''Leibstandarte'', "did not fight as the situation demanded."{{sfn|Dollinger|1967|p=198}} As a mark of disgrace, the ''Leibstandarte'' units involved in the battle were ordered to remove their treasured "Adolf Hitler" [[cuff title]]s. Dietrich was disgusted by Hitler's order and did not relay it to his troops.
 
 
====Vienna Offensive====
 
After Operation Spring Awakening, the 6th SS Panzer Army withdrew towards [[Vienna]] and was involved in the [[Vienna Offensive]]. The only major force to face the attacking Red Army was the II SS Panzer Corps (2 SS ''Das Reich'' and 3 SS ''Totenkopf''), under the commanded of [[Wilhelm Bittrich]], along with ''ad hoc'' forces made up of garrison and anti-aircraft units.{{sfn|Dollinger|1967|p=199}} Vienna fell on 13 April.{{sfn|Ustinow|1981|pp=238–239}} Bittrich's II SS Panzer Corps had pulled out to the west that evening to avoid encirclement.{{sfn|Gosztony|1978|p=262}}
 
 
====Berlin====
 
The [[Army Group Vistula]] was formed in 1945 to protect Berlin from the advancing Red Army. It fought in the [[Battle of the Seelow Heights]] (16–19 April) and the [[Battle of Halbe]] (21 April – 1 May), both part of the [[Battle of Berlin]]. The Waffen-SS was represented by the III (Germanic) SS Panzer Corps.
 
 
On 16 April, the remnants of the 11 SS ''Nordland'', 33 SS ''Charlemagne'', and the Spanish Volunteer Company of SS 101 were ordered to move to the front line east of Berlin. From 17 to 20 April they were in constant combat all along the front and pushed back into the city.
 
[[File:Dachau execution coalyard 1945-04-29.jpg|thumb|Waffen-SS soldiers are executed by the U.S. Army at Dachau on 29 April 1945.]]
 
On 23 April, ''Brigadeführer'' [[Wilhelm Mohnke]] was appointed by Hitler as Battle Commander for the centre government district (Zitadelle sector), which included the [[Reich Chancellery]] and ''[[Führerbunker]]''. Mohnke's command post was in the bunkers under the Reich Chancellery.{{sfn|Fischer|2008|pp=42–43}} He formed ''Kampfgruppe Mohnke'' (Battle Group Mohnke), divided into two weak regiments. It was made up of the LSSAH Flak Company, replacements from LSSAH Training and Reserve Battalion from Spreenhagan (under ''Standartenfuhrer'' Anhalt),{{sfn|Fischer|2008|pp=42–43}} 600 men from the ''[[Begleit-Bataillon Reichsführer-SS]]'',{{sfn|Lumsden|2002|p=149}} the Führer-Begleit-Company, and the core group—800 men of the LSSAH Guard Battalion assigned to guard the Führer.{{sfn|Fischer|2008|pp=42–43}}
 
 
On 25 April, ''Brigadeführer'' [[Gustav Krukenberg]] was appointed the commander of (Berlin) Defence Sector C. This included the ''Nordland'' Division, whose previous commander, [[Joachim Ziegler]], was relieved of his command the same day.{{sfn|Beevor|2002|p=301}} On 27 April, after a spirited but futile defence, the remnants of ''Nordland'' were pushed back into the centre government district (Zitadelle sector) in Defence sector Z. There Krukenberg's ''Nordland'' headquarters was a carriage in the Stadtmitte U-Bahn station.{{sfn|Beevor|2002|p=323}} The men of ''Nordland'' were now under Mohnke's overall command. Since Mohnke's fighting force was located at the nerve centre of the German Third Reich, it fell under the heaviest artillery bombardment of the war. The bombardment began as a birthday present to Hitler on 20 April 1945 and lasted until the end of hostilities on 8 May 1945. Under pressure from the most intense shelling, the SS troops put up stiff resistance as the Red Army raced to take the Reichstag and Reich Chancellery. This condemned the SS troops to bitter and bloody street fighting.{{sfn|Beevor|2002|pp=365–367, 372}} By 26 April, the ''Nordland'' defenders were pushed back into the Reichstag and Reich Chancellery. There over the next few days, the survivors (mainly French SS troops from the former 33 SS ''Charlemagne'') held out against overwhelming odds.
 
 
On 30 April, after receiving news of Hitler's suicide, orders were issued that those who could do so were to break out. Prior to the breakout Mohnke briefed all commanders that could be reached within the Zitadelle sector about Hitler's death and the planned breakout.{{sfn|Fischer|2008|p=49}} The break out started at 2300 hours on 1 May. There were ten main groups that attempted to head northwest towards Mecklenburg. Fierce fighting continued all around, especially in the [[Weidendammer Bridge]] area. What was left of the 11 SS ''Nordland'' under ''Brigadeführer'' Krukenberg fought hard in that area, but Soviet artillery and anti-tank guns dispatched the groups. Several very small groups managed to reach the Americans at the [[Elbe]]'s west bank, but most, including Mohnke's group, could not make it through the Soviet rings.{{sfn|Fischer|2008|p=49}}
 
 
On 2 May hostilities officially ended by order of [[Helmuth Weidling]], Kommandant of the Defense Area Berlin. News of the surrender led some of the encircled Waffen-SS men to change their minds as to suicide. Historian Thomas Fischer related the following example of the mindset of some of the men:
 
 
{{quote|Mohnke's adjutant, SS-''Obersturmführer'' Gert Stehr of the Fuhrer Escort Detachment, formerly ... [with] Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler ... shot himself before the group surrendered to the Soviets. His last words: 'Whoever has sworn an oath on the flag of the Führer, no longer has anything that belongs to him!'{{sfn|Fischer|2008|p=49}}
 
}}
 
 
==Commanders==
 
* [[Sepp Dietrich|Josef "Sepp" Dietrich]] was a former Army sergeant with a [[peasant]] background who commanded the forerunner of the Waffen-SS, the Sonderkommando Berlin. He would command the ''[[1 SS|Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler]]'' from its inception to [[Regiment]], [[Brigade]], and [[Military division|Division]]. He was then given command of the [[I SS Panzer Corps|I SS Panzer Corps ''Leibstandarte'']] and by the end of the war was the commander of the [[6th Panzer Army|6th SS Panzer Army]].{{sfn|Flaherty|2004|p=144}}
 
* [[Paul Hausser]], a former General in the regular army, was chosen by Himmler to transform the SS-VT into a credible military organisation. He was the first divisional commander of the Waffen-SS when the SS-VT was formed into a Division for the [[Battle of France]]. He went onto command the [[II SS Panzer Corps]] and the [[7th Army (Wehrmacht)|7th Army]].{{sfn|Flaherty|2004|p=146}}
 
* [[Theodor Eicke]], a former army pay master and police informant. He was the first commander of [[Dachau concentration camp]]. He formed the [[3rd SS Division Totenkopf|SS ''Totenkopf'' Division]] from members of the [[SS-Totenkopfverbände]] and was killed in action on 26 February 1943 on the [[Eastern Front (World War II)|Eastern Front]].{{sfn|Flaherty|2004|p=146}}
 
* [[Felix Steiner]], another former army officer and veteran of [[World War I]]. He was given command of the SS Regiment ''Deutschland''. He is credited with the creation of small mobile [[Battlegroup (army)|Battle Group]]s. He armed his men with [[Submachine gun]]s and [[Grenade]]s instead of rifles and issued [[camouflage]] clothing. He commanded the [[5th SS Panzer Division Wiking|SS Division ''Wiking'']] and the [[III (Germanic) SS Panzer Corps]].{{sfn|Flaherty|2004|p=147}}
 
* [[Kurt Meyer (Panzermeyer)|Kurt Meyer]] started the war in command of the ''Leibstandarte'' anti-tank company, was promoted and given command of the Reconnaissance Battalion, which he led in the Balkans and Russia. He was chosen to lead the SS Panzergrenadier Regiment 25 in the newly formed [[12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend|12th SS Panzer Division ''Hitlerjugend'']], and at the age of 33 became a divisional commander when he took over command of the division (after the death of [[Fritz Witt]]) in Normandy in 1944.
 
 
==Casualties==
 
Total casualties amongst the Waffen-SS will probably never be known, but one estimate indicates that they suffered 180,000 dead, 400,000 wounded, and 40,000 missing.{{sfn|Windrow|Burn|1992|p=10}} [[World War II casualties#Casualties by branch of service|World War II casualties]] indicates that the Waffen-SS suffered 314,000 killed and missing, or 34.9 per cent.{{efn|According to a report from 12 July 1972 from the German bureau responsible for notifying next-of-kin of men killed in the former Wehrmacht, the total Waffen-SS casualties, including those who died in P.O.W. camps, amounted to 6 per cent of the entire German Armed Forces. That included 181,000 men killed and 72,000 missing in action, totaling approximately 253,000 casualties. That constitutes 25–28 per cent of the total strength of the Waffen SS. {{harvnb|''Wenn Alle Brűder Schweigen''|2003}}. }} By comparison, the United States Army suffered 318,274 killed and missing in all theatres of the war.{{sfn|Overmans|2000|p={{page needed|date=June 2013}} }}{{sfn|Leland|Oboroceanu|2010|p=2}}
 
 
==War crimes==
 
 
[[File:Stroop Report - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 06b.jpg|thumb|Photograph from the [[Stroop Report]], prepared for [[Jürgen Stroop]] ]]
 
[[File:Car in Oradour-sur-Glane4.jpg|thumb|Burned out cars and buildings still litter the remains of the original village in [[Oradour-sur-Glane]], as left by Das Reich SS division]]
 
The separately organised [[Allgemeine SS]] was responsible for the administration of [[extermination camp]]s. Many members of it and the SS-Totenkopfverbände subsequently became members of the Waffen-SS, forming the initial core of the ''Totenkopf'' Division.{{sfn|Flaherty|2004|p=149}}{{sfn|Flaherty|2004|p=150}} Many Waffen-SS members and units were responsible for [[war crime]]s against civilians and allied servicemen. After the war the SS organisation as a whole was held to be a criminal organization by the post-war German government, due to evidence that it was responsible for war crimes. Formations such as the ''Dirlewanger'' and [[29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS RONA (1st Russian)|''Kaminski'' Brigade]]s were singled out, and many others were involved in large-scale massacres or smaller-scale killings such as murder of 34 captured allied servicemen ordered by [[Josef Kieffer]] during [[Operation Bulbasket]] in 1944, the Houtman affair,{{sfn|Zimmermann|2004}} or murders perpetrated by [[Heinrich Boere]]. The most infamous incidents include the following:
 
 
* [[Wormhoudt massacre]] by [[SS Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler]], 1940, France
 
* [[Le Paradis massacre]] by [[SS Division Totenkopf]], 1940, France
 
* [[Oradour-sur-Glane|Oradour-sur-Glane massacre]] by [[SS Division Das Reich]], 1944, France
 
* [[Ochota massacre]] by SS [[Kaminski Brigade]], 1944, Poland
 
* [[Wola massacre]] by [[SS-Sturmbrigade Dirlewanger]], 1944, Poland
 
* [[Huta Pieniacka massacre]] by [[14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Galizien (1st Ukrainian)|SS-Galizien division]] 1944, Poland
 
* [[Tulle murders|Tulle massacre]] by SS Das Reich, 1944, France
 
* [[Marzabotto massacre]] by [[16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS]], 1944, Italy
 
* [[Malmedy massacre]] by [[Kampfgruppe Peiper]], part of 1st SS Panzer Division, 1944, Belgium
 
* [[Ardeatine massacre]] by two SS officers, 1944, Italy
 
* [[Distomo massacre]] by 4th [[SS Polizei Division]], 1944, Greece
 
* [[Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre]] by [[16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS]], 1944, Italy
 
* [[Ardenne Abbey massacre]] by [[12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend]], 1944, France
 
 
The linking of the SS-VT with the [[SS-Totenkopfverbände]] (SS-TV) in 1938 posed important questions about Waffen-SS criminality,{{sfn|Flaherty|2004|p=148}} since the SS-TV were already responsible for imprisonment, torture, and murder of Jews and other political opponents through providing the personnel for manning of the concentration camps. Their leader, [[Theodor Eicke]], who was the commandant of Dachau, inspector of the camps, and murderer of [[Ernst Röhm]], later became the commander of the 3 SS ''Totenkopf'' Division.{{sfn|Flaherty|2004|p=146}} With the invasion of Poland, the Totenkopfverbände troops were called on to carry out "police and security measures" in rear areas. What these measures involved is demonstrated by the record of ''SS Totenkopf Standarte Brandenburg''. It arrived in [[Włocławek]] on 22 September 1939 and embarked on a four-day "Jewish action" that included the burning of [[synagogues]] and the execution en masse of the leaders of the Jewish community. On 29 September the Standarte travelled to [[Bydgoszcz]] to conduct an "intelligentsia action". Approximately 800 Polish civilians and what the [[Sicherheitsdienst]] (SD) termed "potential resistance leaders" were killed. The Totenkopfverbände was to become one of the elite SS divisions, but from the start they were among the first executors of a policy of systematic extermination.
 
 
Several formations within the Waffen-SS were found guilty of war crimes, especially in the opening and closing phases of the war.{{sfn|Repa|2006}} In addition to documented atrocities, Waffen-SS units assisted in rounding up Eastern European Jews for deportation and utilised [[scorched earth]] tactics during anti-partisan operations. Some Waffen-SS personnel convalesced at concentration camps, from which they were drawn, by serving guard duties. Other members of the Waffen-SS were more directly involved in genocide.{{sfn|WBSTV|2007}}
 
 
The end of the war saw a number of war crime trials, including the [[Malmedy massacre trial]]. The counts of indictment related to the massacre of more than 300 American prisoners "in the vicinity of [[Malmedy]], [[Honsfeld]], [[Büllingen]], [[Ligneuville]], [[Stoumont]], [[La Gleize]], [[Cheneux]], [[Petit Thier]], [[Trois Ponts]], [[Stavelot]], Wanne, and [[Lutrebois]]", between 16 December 1944 and 13 January 1945, and the massacre of 100 Belgian civilians mainly in the vicinity of Stavelot.{{sfn|US War Department|1948}}
 
 
During the [[Nuremberg Trials]], the Waffen-SS was declared a criminal organisation, except conscripts from 1943 onward, who were exempted from that judgement as they had been forced to join.{{sfn|Jewish Virtual Library, Waffen SS}}
 
 
==HIAG==
 
{{Main|HIAG}}
 
[[File:Поховання (Меморіал воїнів Української дивізії “Галичина” ).jpg|thumb|Memorial to [[14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Ukrainian)|SS-Galizien division]] in Chervone, [[Lviv Oblast]], western Ukraine]]
 
The [[HIAG]] ({{lang-de|'''Hi'''lfsgemeinschaft '''a'''uf '''G'''egenseitigkeit der Angehörigen der ehemaligen Waffen-SS}}, literally "Mutual Help Association of Former Waffen-SS Members") was an organization founded in 1951 by former members of the Waffen-SS to provide assistance to veterans, and campaign for the rehabilitation of their legal status with respect to veterans' pensions. Unlike soldiers of the regular [[Wehrmacht]], pensions had been denied to members of the Waffen-SS as a result of it having been declared a criminal organization at the Nuremberg trials.{{sfn|Wilke|2006}}
 
 
==See also==
 
 
* [[Allgemeine SS]]
 
* [[German war crimes]]
 
* [[Germanic-SS]]
 
* [[Glossary of Nazi Germany]]
 
* [[List of Knight's Cross recipients of the Waffen-SS]]
 
* [[List of SS personnel]]
 
* [[List of Waffen-SS units]]
 
* [[ODESSA]]
 
* [[Signal Corps of the Wehrmacht and Waffen SS]]
 
* [[SS-Standarte Kurt Eggers]]
 
* [[SS and Police Leader]]
 
* [[Uniforms and insignia of the Schutzstaffel]]
 
* [[Waffen-SS foreign volunteers and conscripts]]
 
 
==References==
 
 
===Explanatory notes===
 
{{notelist}}
 
 
===Citations===
 
{{reflist|30em}}
 
 
===Bibliography===
 
{{refbegin|30em}}
 
 
* {{cite book | last = Ailsby | first = Christopher | title = Hitler's Renegades: Foreign Nationals in the Service of the Third Reich | publisher = Brasseys | year = 2004 | isbn = 1-57488-838-2 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | author = Association of Soldiers of the Former Waffen SS | title = Wenn Alle Brűder Schweigen | year = 2003 | origyear = 1973 | publisher = [[Nation und Europa|Nation Europa Verlag GmbH]] | location = Coburg | isbn = 3-920677-06-4 | ref = {{sfnRef|.27.27Wenn Alle Brűder Schweigen.27.27|2003}} }}
 
* {{cite web | title = Battle of the Buldge | url = http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1753.html | accessdate =2 June 2013 | ref = {{sfnRef|United States History}}}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Beevor | first = Antony | authorlink = Antony Beevor | year = 2002 | title = Berlin: The Downfall 1945 | publisher = Viking-[[Penguin Books]] | isbn = 0-670-03041-4 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Bell | first = Bowyer J | year = 1966 | title = Besieged: Seven Cities Under Siege | publisher = Chilton | isbn = | ref = harv}}
 
* {{Cite book | last = Bender | first = Roger James | last2 = Taylor | first2 = Hugh Page | title = Uniforms, Organization, and History of the Waffen-SS, Volume 2 | publisher = R. James Bender | year = 1971 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Bercuson | first = David | authorlink = David Bercuson | title = Maple Leaf Against the Axis | publisher = Red Deer Press | year = 2004 | origyear = 1996 | isbn = 0-88995-305-8 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Bergstrom | first = Christopher | title = Kursk – The Air Battle: July 1943 | publisher = Chervron/Ian Allen | year = 2007 | isbn = 978-1-903223-88-8 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Browning | first = Christopher | title = The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942 | publisher = University of Nebraska Press | year = 2007 | isbn = 0-8032-5979-4 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Butler | first = Rupert | title = SS-Leibstandarte: The History of the First SS Division, 1934–45 | publisher = Spellmount | year = 2001 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Clark | first = Alan | title = Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict 1941–1945 | publisher = William Morrow | year = 1966 | isbn = 0-304-35864-9 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book| last = Conot | first = Robert E. | title = Justice at Nuremberg | publisher = Carrol & Graf | year = 1984 | isbn = | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last1 = Cook | first1 = Stan | last2 = Bender | first2 = Roger James | title = Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler: Uniforms, Organization, & History | year = 1994 | publisher = R. James Bender | location = San Jose, CA | isbn = 978-0-912138-55-8 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Cuppers | first = Martin | title = Vorreiter der Shoah, Ein Vergleich der Einsätze der beiden SS-Kavallerieregimenter im August 1941 | publisher = Meidenbauer Martin Verlag | language = German | year = 2006 | isbn = 3-89975-080-2 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Madajczyk | first = Czesław | title = Polityka III Rzeszy w okupowanej Polsce | publisher = Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe | location = Warsaw | language = Polish | year = 1972 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Dollinger | first = Hans | title = The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan | year = 1967 | origyear = 1965 | publisher = Bonanza | location = New York | isbn = 978-0-517-01313-7 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Dunn | first = Walter | title = Kursk: Hitler's Gamble, 1943 | publisher = Greenwood Press | year = 2007 | origyear = 1997 | isbn = 978-0-275-95733-9 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last1 = Ellis | first1 = L.F. | editor-last = Butler | editor-first = J. R. M. | editor-link = James Ramsay Montagu Butler | title = Victory in the West, Volume II: The Defeat of Germany | series = History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series | publisher = Naval & Military Press | year = 2004 | origyear = 1968 | isbn = 1-84574-059-9 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Evans | first = Richard J. | year = 2008 | title = The Third Reich at War | publisher = Penguin | location = New York | isbn = 978-0-14-311671-4 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite journal | last = Eyre | first = Wayne | year = 2006 | title = Operation RÖSSELSPRUNG and The Elimination of Tito, May 25, 1944: A Failure in Planning and Intelligence Support | journal = Journal of Slavic Military Studies | volume = 19 | issue = 2 | pages = 343–376 | publisher = Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group | doi = 10.1080/13518040600697969 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Fellgiebel | first = Walther-Peer | year = 2000 | title = Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 | publisher = Podzun-Pallas | location = Wölfersheim-Berstadt, Germany | isbn = 3-7909-0284-5 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Fey | first = William | year = 2003 | title = Armor Battles of the Waffen-SS | publisher = Stackpole | isbn = 978-0-8117-2905-5 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Fischer | first = Thomas | year = 2008 | title = Soldiers of the Leibstandarte | publisher = J.J. Fedorowicz | isbn = 978-0-921991-91-5 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Flaherty | first = T. H. | title = The Third Reich: The SS | publisher = Time-Life | year = 2004 | origyear = 1988 | isbn = 1-84447-073-3 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last1 = Glantz | first1 = David M. | last2 = House | first2 = Jonathon | year = 1995 | title = When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler | publisher = University of Kansas Press | isbn = 978-0-700-60717-4 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Gosztony | first = Peter | title = Endkampf an der Donau 1944/45 | year = 1978 | publisher = Molden Taschenbuch Verlag | location = Vienna | language = German | isbn = 3-217-05126-2 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite web | title = Götz von Berlichingen Diary | url = http://www.waffen-ss.no/diary-17-SS-Gotz-von-Berlichingen.htm | accessdate = 24 May 2013 | ref = {{sfnRef|.27.27Götz von Berlichingen.27.27 Diary}} }}
 
* {{cite news | title = Greeks lose Nazi massacre claim | publisher = BBC News | date = 26 June 2003| url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3023144.stm | accessdate = 2 June 2013 | ref = {{sfnRef|BBC News|2003}} }}
 
* {{cite book | last1 = Hannes | first1 = Heer | last2 = Naumann | first2 = Klaus | title = War of Extermination: The German Military in World War II 1941–1944 | publisher = Berghahn | year = 2000 | isbn = 1-57181-232-6 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Harclerode | first = Peter | title = Wings Of War – Airborne Warfare 1918–1945 | publisher = Weidenfeld & Nicolson | year = 2005 | isbn = 978-0-304-36730-6 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Harman | first = Nicholas | title = Dunkirk: The Necessary Myth | publisher = Hodder and Stoughton | year = 1980 | isbn = 0-340-24299-X | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Hastings | first = Max | authorlink = Max Hastings | title = Overlord: D-Day and the Battle for Normandy | publisher = Vintage | year = 2006 | origyear = 1985 | isbn = 0-307-27571-X | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite news | title = Italy convicts Nazis of massacre | publisher = BBC News | date = 13 January 2007 | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6259987.stm | accessdate = 2 June 2013 | ref = {{sfnRef|BBC News|2007}} }}
 
* {{cite book | last = Jackson | first = Julian | title = The Fall of France: The Nazi Invasion of 1940 | year = 2001 | publisher = Oxford University Press | isbn = 0-19-280550-9 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Jarymowycz | first = Roman | authorlink = Roman Jarymowycz | title = Tank Tactics: From Normandy to Lorraine | publisher = Lynne Rienner | year = 2001 | isbn = 1-55587-950-0 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Kershaw | first = Ian | title = Hitler: A Biography | publisher = W. W. Norton & Company | location = New York | year = 2008 | isbn = 978-0-393-06757-6 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Kirchmayer | first = Jerzy | authorlink = Jerzy Kirchmayer | title = Powstanie Warszawskie | year = 1978 | publisher = Książka i Wiedza | language = Polish | isbn = 83-05-11080-X | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Król | first = Eugeniusz C. | title = Polska i Polacy w propagandzie narodowego socjalizmu w Niemczech 1919-1945 | year = 2006 | publisher = Instytut Studiów Politycznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk | language = Polish | location = Warsaw | isbn = 978-83-7399-019-7 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Landwehr | first = Richard | title = Alarm Units! SS Panzergrenadier Brigades 49 and 51 | year = 1999 | publisher = Merriam Press | location = 1-57638-178-1 | isbn = | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last1 = Langer | first1 = Howard J. | last2 = Rudowski | first2 = Marek | title = Księga najważniejszych postaci II wojny światowej | year = 2008 | publisher = Bellona | location = Warsaw | language = Polish | isbn = 978-83-11-11111-0 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite journal | last = Latimer | first = Jon | title = World War II: 12th SS Hitlerjugend Panzer Division Fought in Normandy | journal = World War II | issue = July | year = 2001 | url = http://www.historynet.com/world-war-ii-12th-ss-hitlerjugend-panzer-division-fought-in-normandy.htm/6 | accessdate = 16 February 2009 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite web | title = Lawrenceville Man Admits Training Concentration Camp Attack Dogs | date = 2 October 2007 | publisher = Cox Media Group | url = http://www.wsbtv.com/news/14243131/detail.html | accessdate = 3 June 2013 | ref = {{sfnRef|WBSTV|2007}} }}
 
* {{cite web | last1 = Leland | first1 = Anne | last2 = Oboroceanu | first2 = Mari–Jana | title = American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics | year = 2010 | publisher = Congressional Research Service | url = http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL32492.pdf | format = PDF | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Longerich | first = Peter | authorlink = Peter Longerich | year = 2012 | title = Heinrich Himmler: A Life | publisher = Oxford University Press | location = Oxford; New York | isbn = 978-0-19-959232-6 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Lumsden | first = Robin | title = A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine – SS | year = 2002 | publisher = Ian Allan | location = | isbn = 0-7110-2905-9 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Margry | first = Karel | title = The Four Battles for Kharkov | publisher = Battle of Britain International | year = 2001 | oclc = 254320761 | ref = harv}}
 
*{{cite book | last = McGilvray | first = Evan | title = The Black Devil's March – A Doomed Odyssey: The 1st Polish Armoured Division 1939–1945 | publisher = Helion & Company | year = 2005 | isbn= 1-874622-42-6 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = McNab | first = Chris | title = The SS: 1923–1945 | year = 2009 | publisher = Amber Books | location = | isbn = 1-906626-49-9 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Michaelis | first = Rolf | title = Die Waffen-SS. Mythos und Wirklichkeit | year = 2006 | publisher = Michaelis-Verlag | location = Berlin | language = German | isbn = | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Mitcham | first = Samuel | title = German Order of Battle, Volume 3 | publisher = Stackpole Books | year = 2007 | isbn = 0-8117-3438-2 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Mitcham | first = Samuel | title = The Panzer Legions: A Guide to the German Army Tank Divisions of World War II and Their Commanders | publisher = Greenwood | year = 2001 | isbn = 0-313-31640-6 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Mollo | first = Andrew | title = Uniforms of the SS: Volume 3: SS-Verfügungstruppe | year = 1991 | publisher = Historical Research Unit | isbn = 1-872004-51-2 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Nash | first = Douglas E. | title = Hell's Gate: The Battle of the Cherkassy Pocket, January–February 1944 | year = 2002 | publisher = RZM Publishing | location = Southbury, Connecticut | isbn = 0-9657584-3-5 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite web | author = War Crimes Office | title = Nazi Crimes on Trial: The Dachau Trials. Trials by U.S. Army Courts in Europe 1945 – 1948 | work = U.S. Army Trial Reviews and Recommendations | publisher = United States War Department | year = 1948 | url = http://www1.jur.uva.nl/junsv/JuNSVEng/DTRR/DTCasesfr.htm | accessdate = 3 June 2013 | ref = {{sfnRef|US War Department|1948}} }}
 
* {{cite web | title = Operation Nordwind in the Low Vosges 1–7 January 1945 | url = http://www.100thww2.org/overview/k.html | accessdate = 2 June 2013 | ref = {{sfnRef|100th Division}} }}
 
* {{cite book | last = Overmans | first = Rűdiger | title = Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg | year = 2000 | publisher = Oldenbourg | location = Munich | language = German | isbn = 3-486-56531-1 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Raus | first = Erhard | title = Panzer Operations. The Eastern Front Memoir of General Raus, 1941–1945 | year = 2005 | publisher = DeCapo | location = | isbn = | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Reitlinger | first = Gerald | authorlink = Gerald Reitlinger | title = The SS: Alibi of a Nation, 1922–1945 | publisher = Da Capo | year = 1989 | isbn = 978-0-306-80351-2 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite web | title = Remembering the invisible soldiers of the Battle of the Bulge | year = 2012 | publisher = U.S. Wereth Memorial | url = http://www.wereth.org/index.php/history | accessdate = 10 November 2013 | ref = {{sfnRef|US Memorial Wereth}} }}
 
* {{cite news | last = Repa | first = Jan | title = Grass SS role stirs indignation | work = BBC News | date = 15 August 2006 | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4793593.stm | accessdate = 3 September 2009 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Reynolds | first = Michael | title = Steel Inferno: I SS Panzer Corps in Normandy | publisher = Spellmount | year = 1997 | isbn = 1-873376-90-1 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite journal | last = Reynolds | first = Michael | title = Massacre At Malmédy During the Battle of the Bulge | journal = World War II Magazine |date=February 2003 | volume = | issue = | pages = | publisher = | location = | jstor = | url = http://www.historynet.com/massacre-at-malmedy-during-the-battle-of-the-bulge.htm | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Ripley | first = Tim | title = The Waffen-SS at War: Hitler's Praetorians 1925–1945 | publisher = Zenith Imprint | year = 2004 | isbn = 0-7603-2068-3 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite web | title = The Sant'Anna di Stazzema Massacre (August 1944) | publisher = Jewish Virtual Library | url = http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/Stazzema.html | accessdate = 2 June 2013 | ref = {{sfnRef|Jewish Virtual Library, Sant'Anna massacre}} }}
 
* {{cite book | last = Schramm | first = Percy E. | title = Kriegstagebuch des Oberkommandos der Wehrmacht 1944–1945 Teilband II | language = German | publisher = Manfred Pawlak | location = Herrsching | year = 1982 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Stein | first = George | title = The Waffen-SS: Hitler's Elite Guard at War 1939–1945 | publisher = Cornell University Press | year = 1984 | origyear = 1966 | isbn = 0-8014-9275-0 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite web | last = Stroop | first = Jürgen | authorlink = Jürgen Stroop | title = The Stroop Report: The Warsaw Ghetto Is No More | year = 1943 | work = Jewish Virtual Library | url = http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/nowarsaw.html | accessdate = 24 May 2013 | ref = harv }}
 
* {{cite book | last = Tessin | first = Georg | title = Verbände und Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen-SS 1939–1945, Volumes II and III | publisher = Biblio Verlag | language = German | year = 1973 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite web | last = Thomson | first = Mike | title = Hitler's secret Indian army | date = 23 September 2004 | work = BBC News | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/3684288.stm | accessdate = 24 May 2013 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite web | title = Jewish Uprisings in Ghettos and Camps, 1941–1944: Resistance in Ghettos | publisher = United States Holocaust Memorial Museum | url = http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005407 | accessdate = 28 May 2013 | ref = {{sfnRef|Holocaust Memorial Museum}} }}
 
* {{cite book | last = Ustinow | first = D. F | title = Geschichte des zweiten Weltkrieges 1939–1945 | volume = X | year = 1981 | publisher = Militärverlag der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik | location = Berlin | language = German | isbn = | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite web | title = Waffen-SS | publisher = Jewish Virtual Library | url = http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/waffenss.html |accessdate = 3 June 2013 | ref = {{sfnRef|Jewish Virtual Library, Waffen SS}} }}
 
* {{cite web | last = Wilke | first = Karsten | title = Verband der Unbelehrbaren? Die Hilfsgemeinschaft auf Gegenseitigkeit der Angehörigen der ehemaligen Waffen-SS (HIAG) 1949–1990 | publisher = University of Bielefeld | year = 2006 | accessdate = 3 June 2013 | url = http://www.uni-bielefeld.de/Universitaet/Einrichtungen/Pressestelle/dokumente/pressedienst-forschung/26_2006/Wilke%20HIAG%2019.5.pdf | format = PDF | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Williamson | first = Gordon | title = The SS: Hitler's Instrument of Terror | year = 1994 | publisher = Sidgwick & Jackson | location = London | isbn = 978-0-283-06280-3 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last1 = Williamson | first1 = Gordon | last2 = Andrew | first2 = Stephan | title = The Waffen-SS (4): 24. To 38. Divisions, & Volunteer Legions | publisher = Osprey | year = 2004 | isbn = 1-84176-589-9 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last1 = Windrow | first1 = Martin | last2 = Burn | first2 = Cristopher | title = The Waffen-SS, Edition 2 | publisher = Osprey | year = 1992 | isbn = 0-85045-425-5 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Wroniszewski | first = Józef | title = Ochota 1944 | publisher = Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej | location = Warsaw | language = Polish | year = 1970 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book | last1 = Zetterling | first1 = Niklas | last2 = Frankson | first2 = Anders | title = The Korsun Pocket: The Encirclement and Breakout of a German Army in the East, 1944 | year = 2008 | publisher = Casemate | location = Philadelphia | isbn = 978-1-932033-88-5 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite web | last = Zimmermann | first = Elizabeth| title = Former SS member faces trial for war crimes in the Netherlands | work = World Socialist Web Site | publisher = International Committee of the Fourth International | date = 21 January 2004 | url = http://www.wsws.org/articles/2004/jan2004/nazi-j21.shtml | accessdate = 3 June 2013 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite journal | last = Zwack | first = Peter | title = World War II: Siege of Budapest | journal = Quarterly Journal of Military History | year = 1999 | url = http://www.historynet.com/world-war-ii-siege-of-budapest.htm/14 | ref = harv}}
 
* {{cite book |last = Goldsworthy | first = Terry | title= Valhalla's Warriors: A History of the Waffen-SS on the Eastern Front 1941-1945 | year= 2010 | publisher= Dog Ear Publishing | isbn = 978-1-60844-639-1 | ref = harv}}
 
{{refend}}
 
 
== Further reading ==
 
* {{cite book | last = Clark | first = Lloyd | title = Operation Epsom | series = Battle Zone Normandy | publisher = History Press | year = 2004 | isbn = 0-7509-3008-X}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Lasik | first = Aleksander | title = Sztafety Ochronne w systemie niemieckich obozów koncentracyjnych. Rozwój organizacyjny, ewolucja zadań i struktur oraz socjologiczny obraz obozowych załóg SS | trans_title = Schutzstaffel of the NSDAP in the System of German Concentration Camps; Organizational Development, Evolution of Goals, Structure, and Social Picture of SS Staff | language = Polish | publisher = Państwowe Muzeum | location = Auschwitz-Birkenau | year = 2007 | isbn = 83-60210-32-2}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Le Tissier | first = Tony | title = Charlemagne: The 33rd Waffen-SS Grenadier Division of the SS | year = 2010 | publisher = Pen & Sword | location = | isbn = 1-84884-231-7}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Mühlenberg | first = Jutta | title = Das SS-Helferinnenkorps: Ausbildung, Einsatz und Entnazifizierung der weiblichen Angehörigen der Waffen-SS 1942–1949 | language = German | year = 2011 | publisher = Hamburger Edition | location = Hamburg | isbn = 978-3-86854-239-4}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Munoz | first = Antonio J. | title = Forgotten Legions: Obscure Combat Formations of the Waffen-SS | publisher = Paladin | year = 1991 | isbn = 0-87364-646-0}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Quarrie | first = Bruce | title = Hitler's Samurai: The Waffen-SS in Action | publisher = Arco Publishing | year = 1983 | isbn = 0-668-05805-6}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Rikmenspoel | first = Marc J. | title = Waffen-SS Encyclopedia | publisher = Aberjona Press | year = 2004 | isbn = 978-0-9717650-8-5}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Wegner | first = Bernd | title = The Waffen-SS: Organization, Ideology and Function | publisher = Blackwell | year = 1990 | isbn = 0-631-14073-5}}
 
* {{cite book | last1 = Wiesenthal | first1 = Simon | authorlink1 = Simon Wiesenthal | last2 = Wechsberg | first2 = Joseph | title = The Murderers Among Us: The Simon Wiesenthal Memoirs | publisher = McGraw-Hill | year = 1967 | id = LCN 67-13204}}
 
* {{cite book | last = Williamson | first = Gordon | title = Loyalty is my Honor | publisher = Motorbooks International | year = 1995 | isbn = 0-7603-0012-7}}
 
* {{cite book | last1 = Williamson | first1 = Gordon | last2 = Andrew | first2 = Stephan | title = The Waffen-SS (1): 1. to 5. Divisions | publisher = Osprey | year = 2003 | isbn = 1-84176-592-9}}
 
 
==External links==
 
* {{Commons category-inline|Waffen-SS}}
 
 
{{SS Brigades}}
 
{{SS Divisions}}
 
{{SS Corps}}
 
{{SS organizations}}
 
{{Fascism organization}}
 
 
[[Category:Nazi SS| ]]
 
[[Category:German words and phrases]]
 
[[Category:Military history of Germany during World War II]]
 
[[Category:Military units and formations of the Waffen-SS| ]]
 
 
[[Category:Military wings of political parties]]
 
[[Category:Military wings of political parties]]
 
[[Category:German World War II special forces]]
 
[[Category:German World War II special forces]]
Reason: ANN scored at 0.954022
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Thursday, the 22nd of October 2015 at 01:38:03 AM
Status: Reported
Thursday, the 22nd of October 2015 at 01:38:03 AM #101846
Bradley (anonymous)

Gq2oSL http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

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