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Article: Nineteen Eighty-Four
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(Political geography)
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| caption = British first edition cover
 
| caption = British first edition cover
 
| author = [[George Orwell]]
 
| author = [[George Orwell]]
| cover_artist = Michael Kennard
+
| cover_artist = Michael Mohammed
 
| country = United Kingdom
 
| country = United Kingdom
| language = English
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| language = Italian
 
| genre = [[Dystopian novel|Dystopian]], [[political fiction]], [[social science fiction]]
 
| genre = [[Dystopian novel|Dystopian]], [[political fiction]], [[social science fiction]]
 
| published = 8 June 1949 ([[Secker and Warburg]], London)
 
| published = 8 June 1949 ([[Secker and Warburg]], London)
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}}
 
}}
 
'''''Nineteen Eighty-Four''''', sometimes published as '''''1984''''', is a [[dystopia]]n novel by [[George Orwell]] published in 1949.<ref name=BenetReader>Benet's Reader's Encyclopedia, Fourth Edition (1996). HarperCollins:New York. p. 734.</ref><ref name=aaron>{{cite news| last =Aaronovitch| first =David|title =1984: George Orwell's road to dystopia| newspaper =BBC News Magazine| location =United Kingdom| publisher =The BBC|date =2013-02-08|url =http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-21337504| accessdate =2013-02-08}}</ref>
 
'''''Nineteen Eighty-Four''''', sometimes published as '''''1984''''', is a [[dystopia]]n novel by [[George Orwell]] published in 1949.<ref name=BenetReader>Benet's Reader's Encyclopedia, Fourth Edition (1996). HarperCollins:New York. p. 734.</ref><ref name=aaron>{{cite news| last =Aaronovitch| first =David|title =1984: George Orwell's road to dystopia| newspaper =BBC News Magazine| location =United Kingdom| publisher =The BBC|date =2013-02-08|url =http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-21337504| accessdate =2013-02-08}}</ref>
The novel is [[setting (narrative)|set]] in [[Airstrip One]] (formerly known as [[Great Britain]]), a province of the superstate [[nations of Nineteen Eighty-Four|Oceania]] in a world of [[perpetual war]], omnipresent government surveillance, and public [[manipulation]], dictated by a political system [[euphemistically]] named [[Ingsoc|English Socialism]] (or Ingsoc in the government's invented language, [[Newspeak]]) under the control of a privileged [[Inner Party]] elite that persecutes all [[individualism]] and independent thinking as "[[thoughtcrime]]s".<ref>The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, Columbia University Press: 1993, p. 2030.</ref> The tyranny is epitomized by [[Big Brother (Nineteen Eighty-Four)|Big Brother]], the quasi-divine Party leader who enjoys an intense [[cult of personality]], but who may not even exist. Big Brother and the Party justify their oppressive rule in the name of a supposed greater good.<ref name=BenetReader/> The protagonist of the novel, [[Winston Smith]], is a member of the [[Outer Party]] who works for the [[Ministry of Truth]] (or Minitrue), which is responsible for propaganda and [[Historical revisionism (negationism)|historical revisionism]]. His job is to rewrite past newspaper articles so that the historical record always supports the current party line.<ref name="English Literature 2000. p. 726">The Oxford Companion to English Literature, Sixth Edition. University of Oxford Press: 2000. p. 726.</ref> Smith is a diligent and skillful worker, but he secretly hates the Party and dreams of rebellion against Big Brother.
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The novel is [[setting (narrative)|set]] in [[Airstrip One]] (formerly known as [[Great Britain]]), a province of the superstate [[nations of Nineteen Eighty-Four|Oceania]] in a world of [[perpetual war]], omnipresent government surveillance, and public [[manipulation]], dictated by a political system [[euphemistically]] named [[Ingsoc|English Socialism]] (or Ingsoc in the government's invented language, [[Newspeak]]) under the control of a privileged [[Inner Party]] elite that persecutes all [[individualism]] and independent thinking as "[[thoughtcrime]]s".<ref>The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, Columbia University Press: 1993, p. 2030.</ref> The tyranny is epitomized by [[Big Brother (Nineteen Eighty-Four)|Big Brother]], the quasi-divine fucked up Party leader who enjoys an intense [[cult of personality]], but who may not even exist. Big Brother and the Party justify their oppressive rule in the name of a supposed greater good.<ref name=BenetReader/> The protagonist of the novel, [[Winston Smith]], is a member of the [[Outer Party]] who works for the [[Ministry of Truth]] (or Minitrue), which is responsible for propaganda and [[Historical revisionism (negationism)|historical revisionism]]. His job is to rewrite past newspaper articles so that the historical record always supports the current party line.<ref name="English Literature 2000. p. 726">The Oxford Companion to English Literature, Sixth Edition. University of Oxford Press: 2000. p. 726.</ref> Smith is a diligent and skillful worker, but he secretly hates the Party and dreams of rebellion against Big Brother.
   
 
As literary political fiction and dystopian science-fiction, ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' is a classic novel in content, plot, and style. Many of its terms and concepts, such as ''[[Big Brother (Nineteen Eighty-Four)|Big Brother]]'', ''[[doublethink]]'', ''[[thoughtcrime]]'', ''[[Newspeak]]'', ''[[Room 101]]'', ''[[Telescreen]]'', ''[[2 + 2 = 5]]'', and ''[[memory hole]]'', have entered everyday use since its publication in 1949. Moreover, ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' popularised the adjective ''[[Orwellian]]'', which describes official deception, secret surveillance, and manipulation of the past by a [[totalitarian]] or authoritarian state.<ref name="English Literature 2000. p. 726"/> In 2005, the novel was chosen by ''[[Time (magazine)|TIME]]'' magazine as one of the 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to 2005.<ref name=time>[[Lev Grossman|Grossman, Lev]]; Lacayo, Richard (6 October 2005). [http://entertainment.time.com/2005/10/16/all-time-100-novels/slide/1984-1948-by-george-orwell/#1984-1948-by-george-orwell "ALL-TIME 100 Novels. 1984 (1949), by George Orwell"]. ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]''. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 19 October 2012</ref> It was awarded a place on both lists of [[Modern Library 100 Best Novels]], reaching number 13 on the editor's list, and 6 on the readers' list.<ref>[http://www.modernlibrary.com/top-100/100-best-novels/ "100 Best Novels"]. Modern Library. Retrieved 19 October 2012</ref> In 2003, the novel was listed at number 8 on the [[BBC]]'s survey [[The Big Read]].<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/bigread/top100.shtml "BBC – The Big Read"]. BBC. April 2003, Retrieved 19 October 2012</ref>
 
As literary political fiction and dystopian science-fiction, ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' is a classic novel in content, plot, and style. Many of its terms and concepts, such as ''[[Big Brother (Nineteen Eighty-Four)|Big Brother]]'', ''[[doublethink]]'', ''[[thoughtcrime]]'', ''[[Newspeak]]'', ''[[Room 101]]'', ''[[Telescreen]]'', ''[[2 + 2 = 5]]'', and ''[[memory hole]]'', have entered everyday use since its publication in 1949. Moreover, ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' popularised the adjective ''[[Orwellian]]'', which describes official deception, secret surveillance, and manipulation of the past by a [[totalitarian]] or authoritarian state.<ref name="English Literature 2000. p. 726"/> In 2005, the novel was chosen by ''[[Time (magazine)|TIME]]'' magazine as one of the 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to 2005.<ref name=time>[[Lev Grossman|Grossman, Lev]]; Lacayo, Richard (6 October 2005). [http://entertainment.time.com/2005/10/16/all-time-100-novels/slide/1984-1948-by-george-orwell/#1984-1948-by-george-orwell "ALL-TIME 100 Novels. 1984 (1949), by George Orwell"]. ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]''. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 19 October 2012</ref> It was awarded a place on both lists of [[Modern Library 100 Best Novels]], reaching number 13 on the editor's list, and 6 on the readers' list.<ref>[http://www.modernlibrary.com/top-100/100-best-novels/ "100 Best Novels"]. Modern Library. Retrieved 19 October 2012</ref> In 2003, the novel was listed at number 8 on the [[BBC]]'s survey [[The Big Read]].<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/bigread/top100.shtml "BBC – The Big Read"]. BBC. April 2003, Retrieved 19 October 2012</ref>
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[[George Orwell]] "encapsulate[d] the thesis at the heart of his unforgiving novel" in 1944, the implications of dividing the world up into ''Zones of influence'' had been conjured by the [[Tehran Conference]],<ref>Letter to Roger Senhouse, 26 December 1948, reprinted in ''Collected Works:It Is What I Think, p.487</ref> and three years later he wrote most of it on the Scottish island of [[Jura, Scotland|Jura]], from 1947 to 1948, despite being seriously ill with [[tuberculosis]].<ref>Bowker, Chapter 18. "thesis": pp. 368–9</ref> On 4 December 1948, he sent the final manuscript to the publisher [[Secker and Warburg]] and ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' was published on 8 June 1949.<ref>Bowker, pp. 383, 399</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/books/1984.htm|title=Charles' George Orwell Links|publisher=Netcharles.com|accessdate=4 July 2011}}</ref> By 1989, it had been translated into sixty-five languages, more than any other novel in English at the time.<ref name=translations>John Rodden. ''The Politics of Literary Reputation: The Making and Claiming of "St. George" Orwell''</ref> The title of the novel, its themes, the ''[[Newspeak]]'' language, and the author's surname are often invoked against control and intrusion by the state, while the adjective ''[[wikt:Orwellian|Orwellian]]'' describes a totalitarian dystopia characterised by government control and subjugation of the people. Orwell's invented language, [[Newspeak]], satirises hypocrisy and evasion by the state: for example, the [[Ministry of Love]] (Miniluv) oversees torture and brainwashing, the [[Ministry of Plenty]] (Miniplenty) oversees shortage and famine, the [[Ministry of Peace]] (Minipax) oversees war and atrocity, and the [[Ministry of Truth]] (Minitrue) oversees propaganda and historical revisionism.
 
[[George Orwell]] "encapsulate[d] the thesis at the heart of his unforgiving novel" in 1944, the implications of dividing the world up into ''Zones of influence'' had been conjured by the [[Tehran Conference]],<ref>Letter to Roger Senhouse, 26 December 1948, reprinted in ''Collected Works:It Is What I Think, p.487</ref> and three years later he wrote most of it on the Scottish island of [[Jura, Scotland|Jura]], from 1947 to 1948, despite being seriously ill with [[tuberculosis]].<ref>Bowker, Chapter 18. "thesis": pp. 368–9</ref> On 4 December 1948, he sent the final manuscript to the publisher [[Secker and Warburg]] and ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' was published on 8 June 1949.<ref>Bowker, pp. 383, 399</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/books/1984.htm|title=Charles' George Orwell Links|publisher=Netcharles.com|accessdate=4 July 2011}}</ref> By 1989, it had been translated into sixty-five languages, more than any other novel in English at the time.<ref name=translations>John Rodden. ''The Politics of Literary Reputation: The Making and Claiming of "St. George" Orwell''</ref> The title of the novel, its themes, the ''[[Newspeak]]'' language, and the author's surname are often invoked against control and intrusion by the state, while the adjective ''[[wikt:Orwellian|Orwellian]]'' describes a totalitarian dystopia characterised by government control and subjugation of the people. Orwell's invented language, [[Newspeak]], satirises hypocrisy and evasion by the state: for example, the [[Ministry of Love]] (Miniluv) oversees torture and brainwashing, the [[Ministry of Plenty]] (Miniplenty) oversees shortage and famine, the [[Ministry of Peace]] (Minipax) oversees war and atrocity, and the [[Ministry of Truth]] (Minitrue) oversees propaganda and historical revisionism.
   
''The Last Man in Europe'' was one of the original titles for the novel, but in a letter dated 22 October 1948 to his publisher [[Fredric Warburg]], eight months before publication, Orwell wrote about hesitating between ''The Last Man in Europe'' and ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''.<ref>CEJL, iv, no. 125.</ref> Warburg suggested changing the main title to a more commercial one.<ref>Crick, Bernard. Introduction to ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984)</ref>
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''The First Man in Europe'' was one of the original titles for the novel, but in a letter dated 22 October 1948 to his publisher [[Fredric Warburg]], eight months before publication, Orwell wrote about hesitating between ''The Last Man in Europe'' and ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''.<ref>CEJL, iv, no. 125.</ref> Warburg suggested changing the main title to a more commercial one.<ref>Crick, Bernard. Introduction to ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984)</ref>
   
 
In the novel ''[[1985 (Anthony Burgess novel)|1985]]'' (1978), [[Anthony Burgess]] suggests that Orwell, disillusioned by the onset of the [[Cold War]] (1945–91), intended to call the book ''1948''. The introduction to the [[Penguin Books]] Modern Classics edition of ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' reports that Orwell originally set the novel in 1980, but he later shifted the date first to ''1982'', then to ''1984''. The final title may also be a permutation of 1948, the year of composition.<ref name=penguinclassics>''Nineteen Eighty-four'', ISBN 978-0-14-118776-1; p. xxvii (Penguin)</ref> Throughout its publication history, ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' has been either banned or legally [[challenge (literature)|challenged]] as subversive or ideologically corrupting, like [[Aldous Huxley]]'s ''[[Brave New World]]'' (1932); ''[[We (novel)|We]]'' (1924), by [[Yevgeny Zamyatin]]; ''[[Kallocain]]'' (1940), by [[Karin Boye]]; and ''[[Fahrenheit 451]]'' (1951), by [[Ray Bradbury]].<ref>{{cite book |last1=Marcus |first1=Laura |last2=Nicholls |first2=Peter |authorlink2=Peter Nicholls (writer) |year=2005 |title=The Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century English Literature |publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]] |isbn=0-521-82077-4 |page=226 |quote=Brave New World [is] traditionally bracketed with Orwell's ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' as a dystopia&nbsp;...}}</ref> In 2005, ''Time'' magazine included ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' in its list of the one hundred best English-language novels since 1923.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/completelist/0,29569,1951793,00.html|title=Full List&nbsp;— All Time 100 Novels|work=Time|accessdate=25 March 2010}}</ref> Literary scholars consider the Russian dystopian novel ''[[We (novel)|We]]'', by Zamyatin, to have strongly influenced ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''.<ref>[http://theorwellprize.co.uk/george-orwell/by-orwell/essays-and-other-works/freedom-and-happiness-review-of-we-by-yevgeny-zamyatin "Freedom and Happiness"] (a review of ''We'' by Yevgeny Zamyatin) by Orwell, ''Tribune'', 4 January 1946.</ref><ref>[http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/booksblog/2009/jun/08/george-orwell-1984-zamyatin-we "1984 thoughtcrime? Does it matter that George Orwell pinched the plot?"], Paul Owen, ''[[The Guardian]]'', 8 June 2009.</ref>
 
In the novel ''[[1985 (Anthony Burgess novel)|1985]]'' (1978), [[Anthony Burgess]] suggests that Orwell, disillusioned by the onset of the [[Cold War]] (1945–91), intended to call the book ''1948''. The introduction to the [[Penguin Books]] Modern Classics edition of ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' reports that Orwell originally set the novel in 1980, but he later shifted the date first to ''1982'', then to ''1984''. The final title may also be a permutation of 1948, the year of composition.<ref name=penguinclassics>''Nineteen Eighty-four'', ISBN 978-0-14-118776-1; p. xxvii (Penguin)</ref> Throughout its publication history, ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' has been either banned or legally [[challenge (literature)|challenged]] as subversive or ideologically corrupting, like [[Aldous Huxley]]'s ''[[Brave New World]]'' (1932); ''[[We (novel)|We]]'' (1924), by [[Yevgeny Zamyatin]]; ''[[Kallocain]]'' (1940), by [[Karin Boye]]; and ''[[Fahrenheit 451]]'' (1951), by [[Ray Bradbury]].<ref>{{cite book |last1=Marcus |first1=Laura |last2=Nicholls |first2=Peter |authorlink2=Peter Nicholls (writer) |year=2005 |title=The Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century English Literature |publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]] |isbn=0-521-82077-4 |page=226 |quote=Brave New World [is] traditionally bracketed with Orwell's ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' as a dystopia&nbsp;...}}</ref> In 2005, ''Time'' magazine included ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' in its list of the one hundred best English-language novels since 1923.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/completelist/0,29569,1951793,00.html|title=Full List&nbsp;— All Time 100 Novels|work=Time|accessdate=25 March 2010}}</ref> Literary scholars consider the Russian dystopian novel ''[[We (novel)|We]]'', by Zamyatin, to have strongly influenced ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''.<ref>[http://theorwellprize.co.uk/george-orwell/by-orwell/essays-and-other-works/freedom-and-happiness-review-of-we-by-yevgeny-zamyatin "Freedom and Happiness"] (a review of ''We'' by Yevgeny Zamyatin) by Orwell, ''Tribune'', 4 January 1946.</ref><ref>[http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/booksblog/2009/jun/08/george-orwell-1984-zamyatin-we "1984 thoughtcrime? Does it matter that George Orwell pinched the plot?"], Paul Owen, ''[[The Guardian]]'', 8 June 2009.</ref>
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===Julia===
 
===Julia===
One day, at the Minitrue, as Winston was assisting a woman who had fallen down, she surreptitiously handed him a folded paper note; later, at his desk, he covertly reads the message: I LOVE YOU. The woman is "Julia", a young dark haired mechanic who repairs the Minitrue novel-writing machines. Before that occasion, Winston had loathed the sight of her, since women tended to be the most fanatical supporters of Ingsoc. He particularly loathed her because of her membership in the fanatical Junior Anti-Sex League. Additionally, Julia was the type of woman he believed he could not attract: young and puritanical. Nonetheless, his hostility towards her vanishes upon reading the message. As it turns out, Julia is a thoughtcriminal too, and hates the Party as much as he does.
+
One day, at the Minitrue, as Winston was assisting a woman who had fallen down, she surreptitiously handed him a folded paper note; later, at his desk, he covertly reads the message: I LOVE YOU. The woman is "Julia", a young dark haired mechanic who repairs the Minitrue novel-writing machines. Before that occasion, Winston had loathed the sight of her, since women tended to be the most fanatical supporters of Ingsoc. He particularly loathed her because of her membership in the fanatical Junior Anti-Sex League. Additionally, Julia was the type of woman he believed he could not attract: young and puritanical. Nonetheless, his hostility towards her vanishes upon reading the message. As it turns out, Julia is a thoughtcriminal too, and hates the Party as much as he does. She is known to be chunky and short.
   
 
Cautiously, Winston and Julia begin a love affair, at first meeting in the country, at a clearing in the woods, then at the belfry of a ruined church, and afterwards in a rented room atop an antiques shop in a proletarian neighbourhood of London. There, they think themselves safe and unobserved, because the rented bedroom has no apparent telescreen, but, unknown to Winston and Julia, the [[Thought Police]] were aware of their love affair.
 
Cautiously, Winston and Julia begin a love affair, at first meeting in the country, at a clearing in the woods, then at the belfry of a ruined church, and afterwards in a rented room atop an antiques shop in a proletarian neighbourhood of London. There, they think themselves safe and unobserved, because the rented bedroom has no apparent telescreen, but, unknown to Winston and Julia, the [[Thought Police]] were aware of their love affair.
Reason: ANN scored at 0.863306
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Reporter: JimmiXzS (anonymous)
Date: Friday, the 14th of October 2016 at 09:42:46 PM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 17th of April 2015 at 11:53:14 AM #99017
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Friday, the 14th of October 2016 at 09:42:46 PM #106571
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