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ID: 1798893
User: 108.24.3.248
Article: Atretochoana
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| binomial_authority = ([[Edward Harrison Taylor|Taylor]], 1968)
 
| binomial_authority = ([[Edward Harrison Taylor|Taylor]], 1968)
 
| synonyms = }}
 
| synonyms = }}
'''''Atretochoana eiselti''''' is a species of [[caecilian]] known only from two preserved specimens until its 2011 rediscovery in Brazil. Until 1998, it was known only from the [[type specimen]] in the [[Naturhistorisches Museum]], Vienna.<ref name="NHMDis"/> Originally placed in the genus ''[[Typhlonectes]]'' in 1968, it was reclassified into its own [[monotypic]] genus in 1996. It was also found to be more closely related to the genus ''[[Potomotyphlus]]'' than ''Typholonectes''.<ref name="NHMTax">{{cite web|url=http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/species-of-the-day/evolution/atretochoana-eiselti/taxonomy/index.html |title=Taxonomy |publisher=Natural History Museum |accessdate=22 February 2012}}</ref> The species is the largest of the few known [[tetrapod]]s, and one of two caecilians, to lack of lungs, the other being ''[[Caecilita iwokramae]]''.
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'''''Atretochoana eiselti''''' (also known as a "penis snake") is a species of [[caecilian]] known only from two preserved specimens until its 2011 rediscovery in Brazil. Until 1998, it was known only from the [[type specimen]] in the [[Naturhistorisches Museum]], Vienna.<ref name="NHMDis"/> Originally placed in the genus ''[[Typhlonectes]]'' in 1968, it was reclassified into its own [[monotypic]] genus in 1996. It was also found to be more closely related to the genus ''[[Potomotyphlus]]'' than ''Typholonectes''.<ref name="NHMTax">{{cite web|url=http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/species-of-the-day/evolution/atretochoana-eiselti/taxonomy/index.html |title=Taxonomy |publisher=Natural History Museum |accessdate=22 February 2012}}</ref> The species is the largest of the few known [[tetrapod]]s, and one of two caecilians, to lack of lungs, the other being ''[[Caecilita iwokramae]]''.
   
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
''A. eiselti'' is the largest [[tetrapod]] to lack of [[lung]]s, double the size of the next largest.<ref name="NHM">{{cite web|url=http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/species-of-the-day/evolution/atretochoana-eiselti/index.html |title=Atretochoana eiselti |publisher=Natural History Museum |accessdate=22 February 2012}}</ref> Caecilians such as ''Atretochoana'' are limbless amphibians with snake-like bodies, marked with rings like those of [[earthworm]]s.<ref name=SM>{{cite book|last=Naskrecki|first=Piotr|year=2005|title=The Smaller Majority|publisher=Belknap|location=London|isbn=978-0-647-02562-8|pages=46–47}}</ref> It has significant morphological differences from other caecilians, even the genera most closely related to it, despite the fact that those genera are aquatic.<ref name="NHMTax"/> The skull is very different from those of other caecilians, giving the animal a broad, flat head.<ref name="NHM"/> Its nostrils are sealed,<ref name="NHMTax"/> and it has an enlarged mouth with a mobile cheek.<ref name="NHMBio">{{cite web|url=http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/species-of-the-day/evolution/atretochoana-eiselti/biology/index.html |title=Biology |publisher=Natural History Museum |accessdate=22 February 2012}}</ref> Its body has a fleshy dorsal fin.<ref name="NHM"/>
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''A. eiselti'' is the largest [[tetrapod]] to lack of [[lung]]s, double the size of the next largest.<ref name="NHM">{{cite web|url=http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/species-of-the-day/evolution/atretochoana-eiselti/index.html |title=Atretochoana eiselti |publisher=Natural History Museum |accessdate=22 February 2012}}</ref> Caecilians such as ''Atretochoana'' are limbless amphibians with snake-like bodies, marked with rings like those of [[earthworm]]s.<ref name=SM>{{cite book|last=Naskrecki|first=Piotr|year=2005|title=The Smaller Majority|publisher=Belknap|location=London|isbn=978-0-647-02562-8|pages=46–47}}</ref> It has significant morphological differences from other caecilians, even the genera most closely related to it, despite the fact that those genera are aquatic.<ref name="NHMTax"/> The skull is very different (looks similar to a penis) from those of other caecilians, giving the animal a broad, flat head.<ref name="NHM"/> Its nostrils are sealed,<ref name="NHMTax"/> and it has an enlarged mouth with a mobile cheek.<ref name="NHMBio">{{cite web|url=http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/species-of-the-day/evolution/atretochoana-eiselti/biology/index.html |title=Biology |publisher=Natural History Museum |accessdate=22 February 2012}}</ref> Its body has a fleshy dorsal fin.<ref name="NHM"/>
   
 
Most caecilians have a well-developed right lung and a relictual left lung. Some, such as ''Atretochoana''{{'}}s relatives, have two well-developed lungs. ''Atretochoana'', however, entirely lacks lungs, and has a number of other features associated with lunglessness, including sealed [[choanae]], and an absence of [[Pulmonary artery|pulmonary arteries]].<ref name=NW95/> Its skin is filled with capillaries that penetrate the [[epidermis (zoology)|epidermis]], allowing gas exchange. Its skull shows evidence of muscles not found in any other organism.<ref name="NHMBio"/> The Vienna specimen of ''Atretochoana'' is a large caecilian at a length of {{convert|72.5|cm|in|abbr=on}},<ref name=NW95/> while the Brasília specimen is larger still at {{convert|80.5|cm|in|abbr=on}}.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.bmnh.org/PDFs/MW_98_second.pdf|title=The largest lungless tetrapod: report on a second specimen of Atretochoana eiselti (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Typhlonectidae) from Brazil|doi=10.1516/Q417-21HR-6615-7217|last=Wilkinson|first=M.|last2=Sebben|first2=A.|last3=Schwartz|first3=E.N.F.|last4=Schwartz|first4=C.A.|year=1998|journal=Journal of Natural History|volume=32|pages=617–627|issue=4}}</ref> By comparison, caecilians range in length from {{convert|11|to|160|cm|in|abbr=on}}.<ref name=NW95/>
 
Most caecilians have a well-developed right lung and a relictual left lung. Some, such as ''Atretochoana''{{'}}s relatives, have two well-developed lungs. ''Atretochoana'', however, entirely lacks lungs, and has a number of other features associated with lunglessness, including sealed [[choanae]], and an absence of [[Pulmonary artery|pulmonary arteries]].<ref name=NW95/> Its skin is filled with capillaries that penetrate the [[epidermis (zoology)|epidermis]], allowing gas exchange. Its skull shows evidence of muscles not found in any other organism.<ref name="NHMBio"/> The Vienna specimen of ''Atretochoana'' is a large caecilian at a length of {{convert|72.5|cm|in|abbr=on}},<ref name=NW95/> while the Brasília specimen is larger still at {{convert|80.5|cm|in|abbr=on}}.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.bmnh.org/PDFs/MW_98_second.pdf|title=The largest lungless tetrapod: report on a second specimen of Atretochoana eiselti (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Typhlonectidae) from Brazil|doi=10.1516/Q417-21HR-6615-7217|last=Wilkinson|first=M.|last2=Sebben|first2=A.|last3=Schwartz|first3=E.N.F.|last4=Schwartz|first4=C.A.|year=1998|journal=Journal of Natural History|volume=32|pages=617–627|issue=4}}</ref> By comparison, caecilians range in length from {{convert|11|to|160|cm|in|abbr=on}}.<ref name=NW95/>
Reason: ANN scored at 0.901619
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 04:48:15 PM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 18th of April 2014 at 03:23:00 PM #94156
Anonymous (anonymous)

Hello! A quick Google search would reveal that the colloquial name for such an animal is a "penis snake" due to their heads being shaped like penises (no one actually goes around using the term "Atretochoana eiselti". Therefore, it would perhaps be, in the best interest of all, to include the colloquial name in the introduction as well as giving the reason why it is called a "penis snake" in the Description section.

Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 04:48:15 PM #101587
Bradley (anonymous)

nrmhs4 http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

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