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Article: Fibonacci
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{{About||applications. The book was well received throughout educated Europe and had a profound impact on European thought.
{{About||the number sequence|Fibonacci number|the Prison Break character|Otto Fibonacci}}
{{Infobox person
|citizenship =
|image =Fibonacci.jpg
|caption =Portrait by unknown artist
|nationality = Italian
|ethnicity =
|birth_date =c. 1170
|death_date =c. 1250 (aged around 80)
|fields = [[Mathematician]]
|workplaces =
|alma_mater =
|doctoral_advisor =
|parent = Guglielmo Bonacci
|doctoral_students =
|notable_students =
|known_for = [[Fibonacci number]]<br>Introduction of [[Hindu–Arabic numeral system|digital notation]] to Europe
|author_abbrev_bot =
|author_abbrev_zoo =
|influences =
|influenced =
|awards =
|religion = [[Catholic]]
|signature = <!--(filename only)-->
| parents =Guglielmo Bonacci
'''Leonardo Pisano Bigollo''' (c. 1170 – c. 1250)<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=The Fibonacci Series – Biographies – Leonardo Fibonacci (ca.1175 – ca.1240) | |date= |accessdate=2010-08-02}}</ref>{{spaced ndash}}known as '''Fibonacci''', and also '''Leonardo of Pisa''', '''Leonardo Pisano''', '''Leonardo Bonacci''', '''Leonardo Fibonacci'''{{spaced ndash}}was an [[Italy|Italian]] [[mathematician]], considered by some "the<!--The cited book uses a lower-case initial "t" in "the", and this is in quotation marks, so lower case should be used.--> most talented western mathematician of the [[Middle Ages]]."<ref>[[Howard Eves]]. ''An Introduction to the History of Mathematics''. Brooks Cole, 1990: ISBN 0-03-029558-0 (6th ed.), p 261.</ref>
Fibonacci is best known to the modern world for<ref>[ Leonardo Pisano – page 3: "Contributions to number theory"]. [[Encyclopædia Britannica]] Online, 2006. Retrieved 18 September 2006.</ref>
the spreading of the [[Hindu–Arabic numeral system]] in [[Europe]], primarily through his composition in 1202 of ''[[Liber Abaci]]'' (''Book of Calculation''), and for a number [[sequence]] named the [[Fibonacci numbers]] after him, which he did not discover but used as an example in the ''Liber Abaci''.<ref>Parmanand Singh. "Acharya Hemachandra and the (so called) Fibonacci Numbers". ''Math''. Ed. Siwan , 20(1):28–30, 1986. ISSN 0047-6269]</ref>
Fibonacci was born around 1170 to Guglielmo Bonacci, a wealthy Italian merchant and, by some accounts, the [[consul]] for Pisa.{{according to whom|date=April 2014}} Guglielmo directed a trading post in [[Bejaia|Bugia]], a port in the [[Almohad dynasty]]'s sultanate in [[North Africa]]. Fibonacci traveled with him as a young boy, and it was in Bugia (now [[Béjaïa]], [[Algeria]]) that he learned about the [[Hindu–Arabic numeral system]].<ref>{{cite web|author=Dr R Knott: fibandphi (AT) ronknott DOT com |url= |title=Who was Fibonacci? | |date= |accessdate=2010-08-02}}</ref>
Alternatively, according to a history text by mathematician [[Tobias Dantzig]], his father was "a lowly shipping clerk nicknamed Bonaccio, which, in the idiom of the period, meant 'simpleton' ... hence 'Fibonacci,' the 'son of a simpleton.'"<ref>{{citation|title=Mathematics in Ancient Greece|first=Tobias|last=Dantzig|publisher=Dover Publications,Inc.|year=1983|isbn=0-486-45347-2|page=113}}.</ref>
Recognizing that arithmetic with Hindu–Arabic numerals is simpler and more efficient than with [[Roman numerals]], Fibonacci travelled throughout the Mediterranean world to study under the leading [[Arab]] mathematicians of the time. He returned from his travels around 1200, and in 1202, the 32-year-old recorded what he had learned in ''[[Liber Abaci]]'' (''Book of Abacus'' or ''Book of Calculation''), and thereby popularized Hindu–Arabic numerals in Europe.
Fibonacci became a guest of [[Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor|Emperor Frederick II]], who enjoyed mathematics and science. In 1240 the [[Republic of Pisa]] honored Fibonacci (referred to as Leonardo Bigollo)<ref>See the incipit of ''Flos'': "Incipit flos Leonardi '''bigolli''' pisani..." (quoted in the [[MS Word]] document [ ''Sources in Recreational Mathematics: An Annotated Bibliography''] by David Singmaster, 18 March 2004 – emphasis added), in English: "Here starts 'the flower' by Leonardo the wanderer of Pisa..."<br>The basic meanings of "bigollo" appear to be "good-for-nothing" and "traveller" (so it could be translated by "vagrant", "vagabond" or "tramp"). A. F. Horadam contends a connotation of "bigollo" is "absent-minded" (see first footnote of [ "Eight hundred years young"]), which is also one of the connotations of the English word "wandering". The translation "the wanderer" in the quote above tries to combine the various connotations of the word "bigollo" in a single English word.</ref> by granting him a salary.
The date of Fibonacci's death is not known, but it has been estimated to be between 1240<ref>{{citation|title=Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers with Applications|first=Thomas|last=Koshy|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|year=2011|isbn=9781118031315|url=|page=3}}.</ref> and 1250,<ref>{{citation|title=Encyclopédia of Mathematics|first=James Stuart|last=Tanton|publisher=Infobase Publishing|year=2005|isbn=9780816051243|page=192|url=}}.</ref> most likely in Pisa.
==''Liber Abaci''==
[[Image:Liber abbaci magliab f124r.jpg|thumb|A page of Fibonacci's ''[[Liber Abaci]]'' from the [[National Central Library (Florence)|Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze]] showing (in box on right) the Fibonacci sequence with the position in the sequence labeled in Roman numerals and the value in Hindu-Arabic numerals.]]
{{main|Liber Abaci}}
In the ''Liber Abaci'' (1202), Fibonacci introduced the so-called ''modus Indorum'' (method of the Indians), today known as Arabic numerals (Sigler 2003; Grimm 1973). The book advocated numeration with the digits 0–9 and [[place value]]. The book showed the practical importance of the new [[numeral system]] by applying it to commercial [[bookkeeping]], conversion of weights and measures, the calculation of interest, money-changing, and other applications. The book was well received throughout educated Europe and had a profound impact on European thought.
==Fibonacci sequence==
==Fibonacci sequence==
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Tyson rocks
* Goetzmann, William N. and Rouwenhorst, K.Geert, ''The Origins of Value: The Financial Innovations That Created Modern Capital Markets'' (2005, Oxford University Press Inc, USA), ISBN 0-19-517571-9.
* Grimm, R. E., "[ The Autobiography of Leonardo Pisano]", [[Fibonacci Quarterly]], Vol. 11, No. 1, February 1973, pp.&nbsp;99–104.
* A. F. Horadam, "Eight hundred years young," ''The Australian Mathematics Teacher'' 31 (1975) 123–134.
==External links==
*[ Fibonacci Biography]
*[ Who was Fibonacci?] by Ron Knott.
* Goetzmann, William N., ''[ Fibonacci and the Financial Revolution]'' (October 23, 2003), [[Yale School of Management]] International Center for Finance Working Paper No. 03-28
*[ Fibonacci] at [ Convergence]
*{{MacTutor|id=Fibonacci|title=Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci}}
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