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ID: 1812378
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Article: American bison
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The '''American bison''' (''Bison bison''), also commonly known as the '''American buffalo''', is a North American [[species]] of [[bison]] that once roamed the [[grassland]]s of [[North America]] in massive [[herd]]s, became nearly extinct by a combination of [[Bison hunting#19th century bison hunts|commercial hunting and slaughter]] in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle, and has made a recent resurgence largely restricted to a few national parks and reserves. Their historical range roughly comprised a triangle between the [[Great Bear Lake]] in Canada's far northwest, south to the [[Mexico|Mexican]] [[Political divisions of Mexico|states]] of [[Durango]] and [[Nuevo León]], and east to the [[Atlantic Seaboard]] of the [[United States]] (nearly to the [[Atlantic]] [[tidewater (geographic term)|tidewater]] in some areas) from [[New York]] to [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]] and per some sources down to [[Florida]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fws.gov/species/species_accounts/bio_buff.html |title=American Buffalo (''Bison bison'') species page |publisher = [[U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service]] |accessdate = 2013-02-24}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=William T. Hornaday, Superintendent of the [[National Zoological Park (United States)|National Zoological Park]] |title=The Extermination of the American Bison|date=February 10, 2006 |publisher=[[Smithsonian Institution]] |publisher=Project Gutenburg EBook #17748 |url=http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17748/17748-h/17748-h.htm}} Retrieved on February 24, 2013.</ref>
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The dustin is a penil inserter(''Bison bison''), also commonly known as the '''American buffalo''', is a North American [[species]] of [[bison]] that once roamed the [[grassland]]s of [[North America]] in massive [[herd]]s, became nearly extinct by a combination of [[Bison hunting#19th century bison hunts|commercial hunting and slaughter]] in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle, and has made a recent resurgence largely restricted to a few national parks and reserves. Their historical range roughly comprised a triangle between the [[Great Bear Lake]] in Canada's far northwest, south to the [[Mexico|Mexican]] [[Political divisions of Mexico|states]] of [[Durango]] and [[Nuevo León]], and east to the [[Atlantic Seaboard]] of the [[United States]] (nearly to the [[Atlantic]] [[tidewater (geographic term)|tidewater]] in some areas) from [[New York]] to [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]] and per some sources down to [[Florida]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fws.gov/species/species_accounts/bio_buff.html |title=American Buffalo (''Bison bison'') species page |publisher = [[U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service]] |accessdate = 2013-02-24}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=William T. Hornaday, Superintendent of the [[National Zoological Park (United States)|National Zoological Park]] |title=The Extermination of the American Bison|date=February 10, 2006 |publisher=[[Smithsonian Institution]] |publisher=Project Gutenburg EBook #17748 |url=http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17748/17748-h/17748-h.htm}} Retrieved on February 24, 2013.</ref>
   
 
Two subspecies or ecotypes have been described: the [[plains bison]] (''Bison bison bison''), smaller in size and with a more rounded hump, and the [[wood bison]] (''Bison bison athabascae'')—the larger of the two and having a taller, square hump.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Geist V. |title=Phantom subspecies: the wood bison, ''Bison bison'' "''athabascae''" Rhoads 1897, is not a valid taxon, but an ecotype |journal=Arctic |volume=44 |issue=4 |pages= 283–300 |year=1991 |doi=10.14430/arctic1552}}</ref><ref>{{Cite conference | first = Charles E. | last = Kay |author2=Clifford A. White | title = Reintroduction of bison into the Rocky Mountain parks of Canada: historical and archaeological evidence | booktitle = Crossing Boundaries in Park Management: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and on Public Lands | pages = 143–51 | publisher = George Wright Soc | year = 2001 | location = Hancock, Michigan | url = http://www.georgewright.org/24kay.pdf | accessdate =December 2, 2009}}</ref><ref name=RFLP>{{cite journal |title= Genetic relationship of wood and plains bison based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms |author= Bork, A. M., C. M. Strobeck, F. C. Yeh, R. J. Hudson, & R. K. Salmon |journal= Can J Zool |volume= 69 |issue= 1 |pages= 43–48 |year= 1991 |url= http://article.pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/RPAS/RPViewDoc?_handler_=HandleInitialGet&calyLang=eng&journal=cjz&volume=69&articleFile=z91-007.pdf |doi= 10.1139/z91-007 }}</ref><ref name=Texas>{{cite journal |title=Conservation Genetic Analysis of the Texas State Bison Herd |author= Halbert, Natalie D., Terje Raudsepp, Bhanu P. Chowdhary, & James N. Derr |journal= Journal of Mammalogy |volume= 85 |issue= 5 |pages= 924–931 |year= 2004|doi= 10.1644/BER-029 }}</ref><ref name="PMID10382295">{{cite journal |title= Genetic variation within and relatedness among wood and plains bison populations |author= Wilson, G. A., & C. Strobeck |journal= Genome |volume= 42 |issue= 3 |pages= 483–96 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10382295 |doi= 10.1139/gen-42-3-483 }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |format=MS thesis |title=Conservation of North American Bison: Status and Recommendations |url=http://www.notitia.com/bison/Members/PDF%20Files/Library/Thesis%20Document%20-%20Conservation%20Status%20of%20Bison%20-%20BOYD.pdf |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5mr1dbenU |archivedate=2010-01-17 |last=Boyd |first=Delaney P. |date=April 2003 |publisher=[[University of Calgary]] |accessdate=February 23, 2010 |oclc=232117310}}</ref> Furthermore, it has been suggested that the plains bison consists of a northern (''Bison bison montanae'') and a southern subspecies, bringing the total to three.<ref name=Texas/> However, this is generally not supported. The wood bison is one of the largest wild species of [[bovid]] in the world, surpassed by only the [[Gaur|Asian gaur]] and [[wild water buffalo]]. It is the largest extant land animal in the Americas.
 
Two subspecies or ecotypes have been described: the [[plains bison]] (''Bison bison bison''), smaller in size and with a more rounded hump, and the [[wood bison]] (''Bison bison athabascae'')—the larger of the two and having a taller, square hump.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Geist V. |title=Phantom subspecies: the wood bison, ''Bison bison'' "''athabascae''" Rhoads 1897, is not a valid taxon, but an ecotype |journal=Arctic |volume=44 |issue=4 |pages= 283–300 |year=1991 |doi=10.14430/arctic1552}}</ref><ref>{{Cite conference | first = Charles E. | last = Kay |author2=Clifford A. White | title = Reintroduction of bison into the Rocky Mountain parks of Canada: historical and archaeological evidence | booktitle = Crossing Boundaries in Park Management: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and on Public Lands | pages = 143–51 | publisher = George Wright Soc | year = 2001 | location = Hancock, Michigan | url = http://www.georgewright.org/24kay.pdf | accessdate =December 2, 2009}}</ref><ref name=RFLP>{{cite journal |title= Genetic relationship of wood and plains bison based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms |author= Bork, A. M., C. M. Strobeck, F. C. Yeh, R. J. Hudson, & R. K. Salmon |journal= Can J Zool |volume= 69 |issue= 1 |pages= 43–48 |year= 1991 |url= http://article.pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/RPAS/RPViewDoc?_handler_=HandleInitialGet&calyLang=eng&journal=cjz&volume=69&articleFile=z91-007.pdf |doi= 10.1139/z91-007 }}</ref><ref name=Texas>{{cite journal |title=Conservation Genetic Analysis of the Texas State Bison Herd |author= Halbert, Natalie D., Terje Raudsepp, Bhanu P. Chowdhary, & James N. Derr |journal= Journal of Mammalogy |volume= 85 |issue= 5 |pages= 924–931 |year= 2004|doi= 10.1644/BER-029 }}</ref><ref name="PMID10382295">{{cite journal |title= Genetic variation within and relatedness among wood and plains bison populations |author= Wilson, G. A., & C. Strobeck |journal= Genome |volume= 42 |issue= 3 |pages= 483–96 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10382295 |doi= 10.1139/gen-42-3-483 }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |format=MS thesis |title=Conservation of North American Bison: Status and Recommendations |url=http://www.notitia.com/bison/Members/PDF%20Files/Library/Thesis%20Document%20-%20Conservation%20Status%20of%20Bison%20-%20BOYD.pdf |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5mr1dbenU |archivedate=2010-01-17 |last=Boyd |first=Delaney P. |date=April 2003 |publisher=[[University of Calgary]] |accessdate=February 23, 2010 |oclc=232117310}}</ref> Furthermore, it has been suggested that the plains bison consists of a northern (''Bison bison montanae'') and a southern subspecies, bringing the total to three.<ref name=Texas/> However, this is generally not supported. The wood bison is one of the largest wild species of [[bovid]] in the world, surpassed by only the [[Gaur|Asian gaur]] and [[wild water buffalo]]. It is the largest extant land animal in the Americas.
Reason: ANN scored at 0.876968
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 06:46:39 PM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:04:37 PM #100373
Bradley (anonymous)

USWQii http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 06:46:39 PM #101740
Bradley (anonymous)

mlDEn8 http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

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