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Article: Atlas (mythology)
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In [[Greek mythology]], '''Atlas''' ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|æ|t|l|ə|s}}; {{lang-grc|Ἄτλας}}) was the primordial [[Titan (mythology)|Titan]] who held up the [[celestial sphere]]. He is also the titan of astronomy and navigation. Although associated with various places, he became commonly identified with the [[Atlas Mountains]] in northwest Africa (Modern-day Morocco and Algeria).<ref>{{cite web|author=Smith|url=http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0104%3Aalphabetic+letter%3DA%3Aentry+group%3D53%3Aentry%3Datlas-bio-1|title=Atlas|accessdate=February 26, 2013}}</ref> Atlas was the son of the Titan [[Iapetus (mythology)|Iapetus]] and the [[Oceanid]] [[Asia (mythology)|Asia]]<ref>Pseudo-Apollodorus, ''[[Bibliotheke]]'' i.2.3.</ref> or [[Clymene (mythology)|Klyménē]] (Κλυμένη):<ref>[[Hesiod]] (''[[Theogony]]'' 359 [as a daughter of [[Tethys (mythology)|Tethys]]], 507) gives her name as Clymene but the ''[[Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus)|Bibliotheca]]'' (1.8) gives instead the name ''Asia'', as does [[Lycophron]] (1411). It is possible that the name ''Asia'' became preferred over Hesiod's ''Clymene'' to avoid confusion with what must be a different [[Oceanid]] named Clymene, who was mother of [[Phaethon]] by [[Helios]] in some accounts.</ref>
 
  +
"''Never skip leg day, bro''"
 
  +
-Atlus, King of the Seas
{{quote|Now Iapetus took to wife the neat-ankled maid Clymene, daughter of [[Oceanus|Ocean]], and went up with her into one bed. And she bare him a stout-hearted son, Atlas: also she bare very glorious [[Menoetius (mythology)|Menoetius]] and clever [[Prometheus]], full of various wiles, and scatter-brained [[Epimetheus (mythology)|Epimetheus]].|[[Hesiod]], ''[[Theogony]]'' 507–11}}
 
 
In contexts where a Titan and a Titaness are assigned each of the seven planetary powers, Atlas is paired with [[Phoebe (mythology)|Phoebe]] and governs the [[Moon (mythology)|moon]].{{Failed verification|date=August 2010}}<ref>Classical sources: [[Homer]], ''[[Iliad]]'' v.898; [[Apollonius Rhodius]] ii. 1232; ''[[Bibliotheke]]'' i.1.3; Hesiod, ''Theogony'' 113; [[Stephanus of Byzantium]], under "Adana"; [[Aristophanes]] ''Birds'' 692ff; [[Clement of Rome]] ''Homilies vi.4.72.</ref>
 
 
[[Gaius Julius Hyginus|Hyginus]] emphasises the primordial nature of Atlas by making him the son of [[Aether (mythology)|Aether]] and [[Gaia (mythology)|Gaia]].<ref>Hyginus, Preface to ''Fabulae''.</ref>
 
 
The first part of the term ''[[Atlantic Ocean]]'' refers to "Sea of Atlas", the term ''[[Atlantis]]'' refers to "island of Atlas".
 
 
==Etymology==
 
[[Image:Atlas Santiago Toural GFDL.jpg|thumb|Sculpture of Atlas, Praza do Toural, [[Santiago de Compostela]].]]
 
The [[etymology]] of the name ''Atlas'' is uncertain. [[Virgil]] took pleasure in translating etymologies of Greek names by combining them with adjectives that explained them: for Atlas his adjective is ''durus'', "hard, enduring",<ref>''[[Aeneid]]'' iv.247: "''Atlantis duri''" and other instances; see Robert W. Cruttwell, "Virgil, Aeneid, iv. 247: 'Atlantis Duri'" ''The Classical Review'' '''59'''.1 (May 1945), p. 11.</ref> which suggested to George Doig<ref>George Doig, "Vergil's Art and the Greek Language" ''The Classical Journal'' '''64'''.1 (October 1968, pp. 1-6) p. 2.</ref> that Virgil was aware of the Greek τλήναι "to endure"; Doig offers the further possibility that Virgil was aware of [[Strabo]]'s remark that the native North African name for this mountain was ''Douris''. Since the Atlas mountains rise in the region inhabited by [[Berber people|Berbers]], it has been suggested that the name might be taken from one of the [[Berber languages|Berber]], specifically ''ádrār'' 'mountain'.<ref>Strabo, 17.3;</ref>
 
 
Traditionally historical linguists etymologize the Ancient Greek word Ἄτλας ([[genitive case|genitive]]: Ἄτλαντος) as comprised from copulative α- and the [[Proto-Indo-European language|Proto-Indo-European]] root ''*telh₂-'' 'to uphold, support' (whence also τλήναι), and which was later reshaped to an nt-stem.<ref name="Beekes">{{citation |title=Etymological Dictionary of Greek |volume=1 |author-link=Robert Beekes |first=Robert |last=Beekes |first2=Lucien |last2=van Beek |page=163 |year=2010 |publisher=Brill}}</ref> However, [[Robert Beekes]] argues that it cannot be expected that this ancient Titan carries an Indo-European name, and that we're rather dealing with the word of [[Pre-Greek substrate|Pre-Greek]] origin which often end in ''-ant''.<ref name="Beekes"/>
 
 
==Punishment==
 
Atlas and his brother [[Menoetius (mythology)|Menoetius]] sided with the Titans in their war against the [[Twelve Olympians|Olympians]], the [[Titanomachy]]. When the Titans were defeated, many of them (including Menoetius) were confined to [[Tartarus]], but [[Zeus]] condemned Atlas to stand at the western edge of [[Gaia (mythology)|Gaia (the Earth)]] and hold up [[Uranus (mythology)|Uranus]] on his shoulders, to prevent the two from resuming their primordial embrace. Thus, he was ''Atlas Telamon'', "enduring Atlas," and became a doublet of [[Coeus]], the embodiment of the celestial axis around which the heavens revolve.<ref>The usage in [[Virgil]]'s ''maximum Atlas axem umero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum'' (''Aeneid'', iv.481f , cf vi.796f), combining poetic and parascientific images, is discussed in P. R. Hardie, "Atlas and Axis" ''The Classical Quarterly'' N.S. '''33'''.1 (1983:220-228).</ref>
 
 
A common misconception today is that Atlas was forced to hold the Earth on his shoulders, but Classical art shows Atlas holding the [[celestial spheres]], not a [[globe]]; the solidity of the marble globe born by the renowned [[Farnese Atlas]] may have aided the conflation, reinforced in the 16th century by the developing usage of ''atlas'' to describe a corpus of terrestrial maps.
 
 
[[Image:GandharanAtlas.JPG|thumb|250px|[[Greco-Buddhist]] (1-200 [[Before Christ|BC]]) Atlas, supporting a Buddhist monument, [[Hadda, Afghanistan|Hadda]], Afghanistan.]]
 
 
===Variations===
 
In a late story,<ref>[[Polyeidos (poet)|Polyeidos]], Fragment 837; Ovid, ''Metamorphoses'' 4.627</ref> a giant named Atlas tried to drive a wandering [[Perseus]] from the place where the [[Atlas mountains]] now stand. In [[Ovid]]'s telling,<ref>Ovid, ''[[Metamorphoses]]'', IV.617ff ([http://www.theoi.com/Heros/Perseus.html#Atlas on-line English translation at TheoiProject]).</ref> Perseus revealed [[Medusa]]'s head, turning Atlas to stone (those very mountains) when he tried to drive him away, as a prophecy said that a son of Zeus would steal the golden apples.{{Elucidate|date=March 2014}} As is not uncommon in myth, this account cannot be reconciled with the far more common stories of Atlas' dealings with [[Heracles]], who was Perseus' great-grandson.
 
 
According to [[Plato]], the first king of [[Atlantis]] was also named [[Atlas (son of Poseidon)|Atlas]], but that Atlas was a son of [[Poseidon]] and the mortal woman Cleito.<ref>[[Plato]], ''[[Critias (dialogue)|Critias]]</ref> A [[euhemerism|euhemerist]] origin for Atlas was as a legendary Atlas, king of Mauretania, an expert astronomer.
 
 
==Encounter with Heracles==
 
One of the [[The Twelve Labours|Twelve Labors]] of the hero [[Heracles]] was to fetch some of the golden apples which grow in [[Hera]]'s garden, tended by Atlas' daughters, the Hesperides, and guarded by the dragon [[Ladon (mythology)|Ladon]]. Heracles went to Atlas and offered to hold up the heavens while Atlas got the apples from his daughters.
 
 
Upon his return with the apples, however, Atlas attempted to trick Heracles into carrying the sky permanently by offering to deliver the apples himself, as anyone who purposely took the burden must carry it forever, or until someone else took it away. Heracles, suspecting Atlas did not intend to return, pretended to agree to Atlas' offer, asking only that Atlas take the sky again for a few minutes so Heracles could rearrange his cloak as padding on his shoulders. When Atlas set down the apples and took the heavens upon his shoulders again, Heracles took the apples and ran away.
 
 
In some versions,<ref>A lost passage of [[Pindar]] quoted by Strabo (3.5.5) was the earliest reference in this context: "the pillars which Pindar calls the 'gates of Gades' when he asserts that they are the farthermost limits reached by Heracles"; the passage in Pindar has not been traced.</ref> Heracles instead built the two great [[Pillars of Hercules]] to hold the sky away from the earth, liberating Atlas much as he liberated [[Prometheus]].
 
 
==Etruscan Aril==<!--hatnote at [[Aril]] redirects here-->
 
The identifying name ''Aril'' is inscribed on two 5th-century Etruscan bronze items, a mirror from [[Vulci]] and a ring from an unknown site.<ref>Paolo Martini, ''Il nome etrusco di Atlante'', (Rome:Università di Roma) 1987 investigates the etymology of ''aril'', rejecting a link to the verbal morpheme ''ar-'' ("support") in favor of a Phoenician etymon in an unattested possible form ''*'arrab(a)'', signifying "guarantor in a commercial transaction" with the connotation of "mediator", related to the Latin borrowing ''arillator'', "middleman". This section and note depend on Rex Wallace's review of Martini in ''Language'' '''65'''.1 (March 1989:187-188).</ref> Both objects depict the encounter with Atlas of [[Hercle]], the Etruscan [[Heracles]], identified by the inscription; they represent rare instances where a figure from [[Greek mythology]] is imported into [[Etruscan mythology]], but the name is not. The Etruscan name ''aril'' is etymologically independent.
 
 
==Children==
 
[[Image:Atlas New York.JPG|thumb|[[Lee Lawrie]]'s colossal bronze ''[[Atlas statue (New York City)|Atlas]]'', [[Rockefeller Center]], New York.]]
 
 
Sources describe Atlas as the father, by different goddesses, of numerous children, mostly daughters. Some of these are assigned conflicting or overlapping identities or parentage in different sources.
 
*By [[Hesperius]]:
 
**the [[Hesperides]]<ref>[[Diodorus Siculus]], ''The Library of History'' 4.26.2</ref>
 
*By [[Pleione (mythology)|Pleione]] (or [[Aethra (Greek mythology)|Aethra]]<ref>[[Gaius Julius Hyginus|Hyginus]], ''Astronomica'' 2.21; [[Ovid]], ''Fasti'' 5.164</ref>):
 
**the [[Hyades (mythology)|Hyades]]<ref name="Hyginus, Fabulae 192">Hyginus, ''Fabulae'' 192</ref>
 
**a son, [[Hyas]]<ref name="Hyginus, Fabulae 192"/>
 
**the [[Pleiades (Greek mythology)|Pleiades]]<ref>Hesiod, ''[[Works and Days]]'' 383; ''[[Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus)|Bibliotheca]]'' 3.110; Ovid, ''Fasti'' 5.79</ref>
 
*By one or more unspecified goddesses:
 
**[[Calypso (mythology)|Calypso]]<ref>[[Homer]], ''Odyssey'' 1.52; Apollodorus, E7.23</ref>
 
**[[Dione (mythology)|Dione]]<ref>Hyginus, ''Fabulae'' 82, 83</ref>
 
**[[Maera]]<ref>[[Pausanias (geographer)|Pausanias]], ''Guide to Greece'' 8.12.7, 8.48.6</ref>
 
 
==Cultural influence==
 
{{Main|Atlas (disambiguation)}}
 
[[Image:Atlas sculpture on collins street melbourne.jpg|thumb|Atlas supports the terrestrial globe on a building in [[Collins Street, Melbourne]], [[Australia]].]]
 
[[Image:Dutch - Nautilus Cup - Walters 57989 - Profile.jpg|thumb|''Nautilus Cup''. This drinking vessel, for court feasts, depicts Atlas holding the shell on his back.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=[[The Walters Art Museum]]|url=http://art.thewalters.org/detail/16751|title=Nautilus Cup}}</ref> The Walters Art Museum.]]
 
 
Atlas' best-known cultural association is in [[cartography]]. The first publisher to associate the Titan Atlas with a group of maps was the print-seller Antonio Lafreri, on the engraved title-page he applied to his ''ad hoc'' assemblages of maps, ''Tavole Moderne Di Geografia De La Maggior Parte Del Mondo Di Diversi Autori'' (1572);<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mapforum.com/03/lafrscho.htm|author=Ashley Baynton-Williams|title=The 'Lafreri school' of Italian mapmakers|accessdate=February 26, 2013}}</ref> however, he did not use the word "atlas" in the title of his work, an innovation of [[Gerardus Mercator]], who dedicated his "atlas" specifically "to honour the Titan, Atlas, King of [[Mauretania]], a learned philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer"; he actually depicted the [[Atlas (King)|astronomer king]].
 
 
==See also==
 
*[[Atlas (architecture)]]
 
*[[Farnese Atlas]]
 
*[[Upelluri]]
 
 
==Notes==
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
 
==References==
 
*[http://www.mapforum.com/01/atlas.htm Origin of the term "Atlas" as a name for a collection of maps]
 
*[[Robert Graves]], ''[[The Greek Myths]]'', London: Penguin, 1955; Baltimore: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-001026-2
 
*[[William Smith (lexicographer)|Smith, William]]; ''[[Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology]]'', London (1873). [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0104%3Aalphabetic+letter%3DA%3Aentry+group%3D53%3Aentry%3Datlas-bio-1 "Atlas" ]
 
 
==External links==
 
{{Commons and category|Atlas (mythology)|Atlas (mythology)}}
 
* [http://warburg.sas.ac.uk/vpc/VPC_search/subcats.php?cat_1=5&cat_2=168 Warburg Institute Iconographic Database] (ca 140 images of Atlas)
 
 
{{Greek mythology (deities)}}
 
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Atlas (Mythology)}}
 
[[Category:Greek gods]]
 
[[Category:Greek mythology]]
 
[[Category:Titans]]
 
Reason: ANN scored at 0.959929
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Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 04:23:58 PM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 04:23:58 PM #101562
Bradley (anonymous)

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