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ID: 2001
User: 71.138.215.100
Article: Chloroplast
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m (Reverted edits by 24.21.134.122 (talk) to last version by I dream of horses)
(Evolutionary origin)
(Tag: possible vandalism)
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==Evolutionary origin==
 
==Evolutionary origin==
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When I was 4 years old I got shot by a gangster. Your mom is a hooker. <ref>{{cite journal |author= Joyard J Block MA, Douce R|title=Molecular aspects of plastid envelope biochemistry. |journal=Eur J Biochem. |volume=199 |pages=489–509 |year=1991 |pmid=1868841 |doi= 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb16148.x |issue= 3}}</ref> Chloroplasts have their own genome, which is considerably [[genome reduction|reduced]] compared to that of free-living cyanobacteria, but the parts that are still present show clear similarities with the cyanobacterial genome. Plastids may contain 60-100 genes whereas cyanobacteria often contain more than 1500 genes.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Martin W, Rujan T, Richly E |title=Evolutionary analysis of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastid phylogeny and thousands of cyanobacterial genes in the nucleus |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue=19 |pages=12246–51 |year=2002 |month=September |pmid=12218172 |pmc=129430 |doi=10.1073/pnas.182432999 |url=http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12218172}}</ref> Many of the missing genes are encoded in the nuclear genome of the host. The transfer of nuclear information has been estimated in [[tobacco]] plants at one [[gene]] for every 16000 pollen grains.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Huang CY, Ayliffe MA, Timmis JN |title=Direct measurement of the transfer rate of chloroplast DNA into the nucleus |journal=Nature |volume=422 |issue=6927 |pages=72–6 |year=2003 |month=March |pmid=12594458 |doi=10.1038/nature01435 }}</ref>
[[File:Plagiomnium affine laminazellen.jpeg|thumb|250px|Chloroplasts visible in the cells of ''[[Plagiomnium affine]]'' — Many-fruited Thyme-moss]]
 
[[File:Überseemuseum Bremen 2009 238.JPG|thumb|right|250px|A model chloroplast]]
 
Chloroplasts are one of the many different types of organelles in the plant cell. In general, they are considered to have originated from [[cyanobacteria]] through [[endosymbiotic theory|endosymbiosis]]. This was first suggested by [[Konstantin Mereschkowski|Mereschkowsky]] in 1905<ref>{{cite journal | author= Mereschkowsky C | title= Über Natur und Ursprung der Chromatophoren im Pflanzenreiche | journal= Biol Centralbl | year=1905 | volume=25 | pages=593–604}}</ref> after an observation by [[Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper|Schimper]] in 1883 that chloroplasts closely resemble cyanobacteria.<ref>{{cite journal | author= Schimper AFW | title= Über die Entwicklung der Chlorophyllkörner und Farbkörper | journal= Bot. Zeitung | year=1883 | volume=41 | pages=105–14, 121–31, 137–46, 153–62}}</ref> All chloroplasts are thought to derive directly or indirectly from a single endosymbiotic event (in the [[Archaeplastida]]), except for ''[[Paulinella]] chromatophora'', which has recently acquired a photosynthetic cyanobacterial endosymbiont which is not closely related to chloroplasts of other eukaryotes.<ref>{{cite journal | title = Diversity and evolutionary history of plastids and their hosts | author = Patrick J. Keeling | url = http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/91/10/z1481 | journal = American Journal of Botany | year = 2004 | volume = 91 | pages = 1481–1493 | doi = 10.3732/ajb.91.10.1481 | format = {{dead link|date=July 2010}}}}</ref> In that they derive from an endosymbiotic event, chloroplasts are similar to [[mitochondrion|mitochondria]], but chloroplasts are found only in [[plant]]s and [[protist]]a. The chloroplast is surrounded by a double-layered composite membrane with an intermembrane space; further, it has reticulations, or many infoldings, filling the inner spaces. The chloroplast has its own [[DNA]],<ref>C.Michael Hogan. 2010. [http://www.eoearth.org/articles/view/158858/?topic=49496 ''Deoxyribonucleic acid''. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment.] eds. S.Draggan and C.Cleveland. Washington DC</ref> which codes for redox proteins involved in electron transport in photosynthesis; this is termed the [[plastome]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=Krause K |title=From chloroplasts to "cryptic" plastids: evolution of plastid genomes in parasitic plants |journal=Curr. Genet. |volume=54 |issue=3 |pages=111–21 |year=2008 |month=September |pmid=18696071 |doi=10.1007/s00294-008-0208-8}}</ref>
 
 
In green plants, chloroplasts are surrounded by two [[cell membrane|lipid-bilayer membrane]]s. They are believed to correspond to the outer and inner membranes of the ancestral cyanobacterium.<ref>{{cite journal |author= Joyard J Block MA, Douce R|title=Molecular aspects of plastid envelope biochemistry. |journal=Eur J Biochem. |volume=199 |pages=489–509 |year=1991 |pmid=1868841 |doi= 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb16148.x |issue= 3}}</ref> Chloroplasts have their own genome, which is considerably [[genome reduction|reduced]] compared to that of free-living cyanobacteria, but the parts that are still present show clear similarities with the cyanobacterial genome. Plastids may contain 60-100 genes whereas cyanobacteria often contain more than 1500 genes.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Martin W, Rujan T, Richly E |title=Evolutionary analysis of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastid phylogeny and thousands of cyanobacterial genes in the nucleus |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue=19 |pages=12246–51 |year=2002 |month=September |pmid=12218172 |pmc=129430 |doi=10.1073/pnas.182432999 |url=http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12218172}}</ref> Many of the missing genes are encoded in the nuclear genome of the host. The transfer of nuclear information has been estimated in [[tobacco]] plants at one [[gene]] for every 16000 pollen grains.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Huang CY, Ayliffe MA, Timmis JN |title=Direct measurement of the transfer rate of chloroplast DNA into the nucleus |journal=Nature |volume=422 |issue=6927 |pages=72–6 |year=2003 |month=March |pmid=12594458 |doi=10.1038/nature01435 }}</ref>
 
   
 
In some algae (such as the [[heterokont]]s and other protists such as [[Euglenozoa]] and [[Cercozoa]]), chloroplasts seem to have evolved through a secondary event of endosymbiosis, in which a eukaryotic cell engulfed a second eukaryotic cell containing chloroplasts, forming chloroplasts with three or four membrane layers. In some cases, such secondary [[endosymbiont]]s may have themselves been engulfed by still other eukaryotes, thus forming tertiary endosymbionts. In the alga ''[[Chlorella]]'', there is only one chloroplast, which is bell-shaped.
 
In some algae (such as the [[heterokont]]s and other protists such as [[Euglenozoa]] and [[Cercozoa]]), chloroplasts seem to have evolved through a secondary event of endosymbiosis, in which a eukaryotic cell engulfed a second eukaryotic cell containing chloroplasts, forming chloroplasts with three or four membrane layers. In some cases, such secondary [[endosymbiont]]s may have themselves been engulfed by still other eukaryotes, thus forming tertiary endosymbionts. In the alga ''[[Chlorella]]'', there is only one chloroplast, which is bell-shaped.
Reason: ANN scored at 1
Reporter Information
Reporter: Anonymous (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of February 2018 at 03:24:38 AM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 21st of February 2018 at 03:24:38 AM #110659
Anonymous (anonymous)

I did it as a joke and really wish for it to deleted

Thursday, the 29th of March 2018 at 04:45:09 AM #111002
Huracan259

I DON'TDO IT

Friday, the 26th of October 2018 at 01:16:22 PM #112426
avraampostnikov

Yes

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 08:42:12 PM #112435
HIDDEN CAT

HELLO READERS,,,,,,YOUR SEARCH ENDS ON ME....

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 08:43:19 PM #112436
HIDDEN CAT

HIDDEN CAT,,,,an untold story before.

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 08:43:21 PM #112437
HIDDEN CAT

HIDDEN CAT,,,,an untold story before.

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 08:44:43 PM #112438
HIDDEN CAT

Its the story of a girl who always used to think "I am the best"

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 08:47:31 PM #112439
HIDDEN CAT

Parents and neighbours used to call her LUCY CAT,sometimes PUSSY CAT,hahaha..and she loved her name,fond of being called A CAT. CAT....

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 08:47:31 PM #112440
HIDDEN CAT

Parents and neighbours used to call her LUCY CAT,sometimes PUSSY CAT,hahaha..and she loved her name,fond of being called A CAT. CAT....

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 08:47:35 PM #112441
HIDDEN CAT

Parents and neighbours used to call her LUCY CAT,sometimes PUSSY CAT,hahaha..and she loved her name,fond of being called A CAT. CAT....

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 08:47:35 PM #112442
HIDDEN CAT

Parents and neighbours used to call her LUCY CAT,sometimes PUSSY CAT,hahaha..and she loved her name,fond of being called A CAT. CAT....

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 08:52:00 PM #112443
HIDDEN CAT

Parents and neighbours used to call her LUCY CAT,sometimes PUSSY CAT,hahaha..and she loved her name,fond of being called A CAT. CAT....She was fair like milk ,,but people used to call her GREY.... LUCY GREY..... IT suited her personality because she inspite of lacking confidence in real life ,,,,,she was bold in her dreams,her thoughts......A BRAIN TEASER..........

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 08:52:02 PM #112444
HIDDEN CAT

Parents and neighbours used to call her LUCY CAT,sometimes PUSSY CAT,hahaha..and she loved her name,fond of being called A CAT. CAT....She was fair like milk ,,but people used to call her GREY.... LUCY GREY..... IT suited her personality because she inspite of lacking confidence in real life ,,,,,she was bold in her dreams,her thoughts......A BRAIN TEASER..........

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 08:53:06 PM #112445
HIDDEN CAT

Cat coming back in few minutes...someone at the door....

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 09:11:46 PM #112446
HIDDEN CAT

Writing a fictional story,,,,,not my style.....i write REAL STORIES,,,,better say,,,I MAKE STORIES, Hahaha........

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 09:11:47 PM #112447
HIDDEN CAT

Writing a fictional story,,,,,not my style.....i write REAL STORIES,,,,better say,,,I MAKE STORIES, Hahaha........

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 09:13:42 PM #112448
HIDDEN CAT

No,i dont make stories,,,,,,,i make concepts and that too after a proper counselling..... READERS,,,,

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 09:13:43 PM #112449
HIDDEN CAT

No,i dont make stories,,,,,,,i make concepts and that too after a proper counselling..... READERS,,,,

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 09:13:47 PM #112450
HIDDEN CAT

No,i dont make stories,,,,,,,i make concepts and that too after a proper counselling..... READERS,,,,

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 09:15:48 PM #112451
HIDDEN CAT

MAY I HAVE THE CONSENT TO REVIEW MY STORY???? Hahaha....

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 09:17:43 PM #112452
HIDDEN CAT

Silence is a form of INFORMED CONSENT.hahaha ..i m enjoying....

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 09:22:19 PM #112453
HIDDEN CAT

So,,lucy cat was a girl born in a family gifted with poverty. Her father was a Professor of political science in a renowned college .

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 09:44:27 PM #112454
HIDDEN CAT

Renowned college,professor,political science and poverty....dont be shocked readers.....

Poverty is the politics which teaches one to become the professor of a term called "RENOWNED"....yes lucy wanted to be renowned,,,,to be famous,,,,she used to feel like celebrity when her classmates called her "CAPTAIN OF THE CLASS".She loved her batchmates her school ,her freinds,her family,,,everyone...She used to find love in everyone,,,every creature...... with love from LUCY ,,CAT,she used to tell everyone....Love ,love and love..

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 09:44:30 PM #112455
HIDDEN CAT

Renowned college,professor,political science and poverty....dont be shocked readers.....

Poverty is the politics which teaches one to become the professor of a term called "RENOWNED"....yes lucy wanted to be renowned,,,,to be famous,,,,she used to feel like celebrity when her classmates called her "CAPTAIN OF THE CLASS".She loved her batchmates her school ,her freinds,her family,,,everyone...She used to find love in everyone,,,every creature...... with love from LUCY ,,CAT,she used to tell everyone....Love ,love and love..

Sunday, the 11th of November 2018 at 09:44:31 PM #112456
HIDDEN CAT

Renowned college,professor,political science and poverty....dont be shocked readers.....

Poverty is the politics which teaches one to become the professor of a term called "RENOWNED"....yes lucy wanted to be renowned,,,,to be famous,,,,she used to feel like celebrity when her classmates called her "CAPTAIN OF THE CLASS".She loved her batchmates her school ,her freinds,her family,,,everyone...She used to find love in everyone,,,every creature...... with love from LUCY ,,CAT,she used to tell everyone....Love ,love and love..

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