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ID: 756464
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Article: Therapeutic boarding school
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A '''therapeutic boarding school''' (TBS), alternatively known as an '''emotional growth boarding school''', is a [[boarding school]] based on the [[therapeutic community]] model that offers an educational program together with specialized structure and supervision for students with [[emotional]] and [[behavior#In psychology|behavioral]] problems, [[substance abuse]] problems, or [[learning disability|learning difficulties]].<ref name=NATSAP>[http://www.natsap.org/program_definitions.asp NATSAP Program Definitions], [[National Association of Therapeutic Schools and Programs|NATSAP National Association of Therapeutic Schools and Programs]], accessed January 4, 2009</ref><ref>[http://www.boardingschoolreview.com/articles/3 Types of Boarding School], Boarding School Review website, accessed January 5, 2009</ref>
 
 
In contrast with [[residential treatment center|residential treatment programs]], which are more clinically focused and primarily provide [[Behaviour therapy]] and treatment for adolescents with serious issues, the focus of a TBS is toward emotional and academic [[Recovery model#Elements of recovery|recovery]] involving structure and supervision for physical, emotional, behavioral, family, social, intellectual and academic development.<ref name=NATSAP/><ref name=study>Ellen Behrens and Kristin Satterfield, [http://www.strugglingteens.com/news/APAReport81206.pdf Report of Findings from a Multi-Center Study of Youth Outcomes in Private Residential Treatment], Presented at the 114th Annual Convention of the [[American Psychological Association]], New Orleans, Louisiana, August 2006</ref> Therapeutic and educational approaches vary greatly; with the approaches best described as a “tapestry” of interventions.<ref name="Fahlberg 1990"> Vera Fahlberg MD, 1990</ref> The typical duration of student enrollment in a TBS range from one to two years. Students may receive either [[high school diploma]]s or credits for transfer to other [[secondary school]]s.<ref name=NATSAP/> Some therapeutic boarding schools hold [[educational accreditation]].<ref name=RightSchool>[http://www.natsap.org/right-school.asp Selecting The “Right” School or Program], [[National Association of Therapeutic Schools and Programs|NATSAP National Association of Therapeutic Schools and Programs]], accessed January 4, 2009</ref>
 
In his 2005 book, journalist David L. Marcus estimated that dozens of therapeutic schools have been established in the United States since the 1970s, operated by both private [[corporation]]s and [[nonprofit]] agencies.<ref name=Marcus2005>David L. Marcus, 2005</ref> David described one of these schools as follows:<ref name=Marcus2005/>
 
 
<blockquote>
 
[The school's] curriculum defies easy explanations. It was a patchwork of theories of leading behavioral psychologists of the twentieth century, mixed with techniques from [[twelve-step programs]], California feel-good movements, Big Sur [[Group dynamics|group processing]], and [[Esalen]]-style encounters. The curriculum drew from the pioneering Swiss philosopher and psychologist [[Jean Piaget]], who believed that children must learn at their own pace. And [[Erik Erikson]], who argued that a person’s ability to resolve conflicts during critical transitions early in life is an indicator for later happiness. And, especially at base camp, [The school] borrowed from [[Abraham Maslow]]. He had charted a [[Maslow's hierarchy of needs|hierarchy of needs]], starting with the physical – air, food, water – and ascending through self-esteem, belonging, love, and finally to truth and beauty.
 
 
The school wasn't trying to turn rampaging teenagers into cherubic clones. It was trying to help kids rediscover their talents, to give them tools to deal with inevitable setbacks and pain. [The school] started by reducing newcomers to coping with primordial needs – potable water, shelter, a comfortable temperature. As they fulfilled Maslow’s hierarchy, they started to think about who they really were.
 
</blockquote>
 
 
==History==
 
 
'''Emotional Growth Education'''
 
 
The term ''"emotional growth education"'' was created by Linda Houghton in the early 1980s to describe workshops and other specialty programs at the first [[CEDU]] School. The term was intended to clearly define how the curriculum used child development principles and healthy stages of growth to create self-esteem and develop greater skills in communication, work ethic, self-awareness and academic study. She used the principles of child development as described by [[Erik Erikson]] to bring understanding of the emotional growth workshop curriculum to parents, faculty and referring professionals.<ref>http://www.incrisis.org/pr/HoughtonBio.htm</ref><ref name=tiege>http://www.strugglingteens.com/Tiege/</ref> Ms. Houghton went on to found two schools ([[Mount Bachelor Academy]] and the [[King George School (Sutton, Vermont)|King George School]]) attempting to refine what she calls ''"holistic education"'' or ''"a new way of looking at things"''.<ref>http://www.strugglingteens.com/artman/publish/LookingatThingsES_090916.shtml</ref> These schools and programs were designed as models for the integration of emotional growth, academics, the arts and other specialized learning.<ref name=tiege/>
 
 
There are subtle differences between emotional growth and therapeutic schools. Emotional growth theory developed from the idea that immaturity was the reason for behavior problems in teens. With a tightly structured community where consequences for behavior were immediate and appropriate, the student might learn from his/her mistakes and grow appropriately. However, a strictly emotional growth curriculum is considered ineffective for students with deep-seated trauma or serious psychiatric disorders such as bipolar, anorexia, etc. A TBS will add clinical treatments to the emotional growth curriculum, including medications, for students with more serious disorders.<ref>http://www.strugglingteens.com/artman/publish/article_5340.shtml</ref>
 
The original emotional growth programs rarely incorporated medications for the students. Over the years, as more schools and programs were created, the term ''"emotional growth"'' was used and misused to describe vastly different therapeutic schools that sometimes did not adhere to the basic components needed for true emotional growth education.<ref name=tiege/>
 
 
'''Troubled Teen Industry'''
 
 
The [[National Association of Therapeutic Schools and Programs]] listed 140 schools and programs as of 2005. Educational consultants say the total number of programs available is closer to 300. The market for this industry appears to be expanding; there seemed to be less of a stigma about seeking therapy today. Educational consultant Lon Woodbury stated ''"All indications are that the market is still growing. The consensus is that increasing numbers of children are in trouble and are not growing up very well."''<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/17/business/17teen.html?_r=1&ex=1281931200 A Business Built on the Troubles of Teenagers, Louise Story, The New York Times, August 17, 2005</ref>
 
 
The [[disability rights]] organization, [[Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law]], opposes placement in therapeutic boarding schools, equating them with [[residential treatment center]]s. The organization questions the appropriateness and efficacy of group placements, citing failure of some programs to address problems in the child’s home and community environment, lack of mental health services, and substandard educational programs. Concerns specifically related to private therapeutic boarding schools include inappropriate discipline techniques, medical neglect, restricted communication (such as lack of access to child protection and advocacy hotlines), and lack of monitoring and regulation. Bazelon promotes community-based services on the basis that they are more effective and less costly than residential placement.<ref name="Forest Grove Factsheet">[http://www.bazelon.org/pdf/ForestGrove_factsheet.pdf U.S. Supreme Court to Decide Forest Grove v. T.A.: Parents Should Win, But Bazelon Center Opposes Therapeutic Boarding Schools], [[Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law]], Retrieved May 1, 2009</ref>
 
 
From late 2007 through 2008, a coalition of [[medical]] and [[psychological]] organizations that including members of Alliance for the Safe, Therapeutic and Appropriate use of Residential Treatment (ASTART) and the [[Community Alliance for the Ethical Treatment of Youth]] (CAFETY), provided testimony and support that led to the creation of the ''Stop Child Abuse in Residential Programs for Teens Act of 2008'' by the [[United States Congress]] [[Committee on Education and Labor]].<ref name=SCARPTA>[http://edlabor.house.gov/issues/residentialprograms.shtml "Stop Child Abuse in Residential Programs for Teens Act of 2008."] Official bill language from the [[U.S. Congress]]. Retrieved May 1, 2009.</ref>
 
 
==Effectiveness==
 
{{Expand section|date=December 2009}}
 
In 2006, the results of a study<ref name=study/> conducted between 2003 and 2005 involving 993 students from 9 schools was presented at the 114th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. The study made use of the [[Youth outcome questionnaire]] certified by [[BYU]] in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity as well as being a valid and reliable self-report measure of psychosocial distress in youth psychotherapy research.<ref>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19693961 Ridge NW, Warren JS, Burlingame GM, Wells MG, Tumblin KM, Reliability and validity of the youth outcome questionnaire self-report, Brigham Young University</ref>
 
 
The Federal Trade Commission has issued guides for parents considering residential treatment programs.<ref name="Facts for Consumers">[http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/pubs/consumer/products/pro27.shtm Considering a Private Residential Treatment Program for a Troubled Teen? Questions for Parents and Guardians to Ask], [[Federal Trade Commission|FTC Federal Trade Commission]], Retrieved May 1, 2009</ref><ref name="FTC Urges Caution">[http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2008/07/residentialfyi.shtm Evaluating Private Residential Treatment Programs for Troubled Teens, FTC Urges Caution When Considering 'Boot Camps'], [[Federal Trade Commission|FTC Federal Trade Commission]], Retrieved May 1, 2009</ref>
 
 
 
==See also==
 
 
{{multicol}}
 
;Related Therapies
 
*[[Adventure therapy]]
 
*[[Behaviour therapy]]
 
*[[Cognitive behavioral therapy]]
 
*[[Dialectical behavioral therapy]]
 
*[[Milieu therapy]]
 
*[[Motivational interviewing]]
 
*[[Wilderness therapy]]
 
{{multicol-break}}
 
 
;Related Concepts
 
*[[Educational psychology#Individual differences and disabilities|Educational learning differences]]
 
*[[Evidence-based practice]]
 
*[[Humanistic psychology]]
 
*[[Operant conditioning]]
 
*[[Therapeutic community]]
 
{{multicol-break}}
 
 
;Related Institutions
 
*[[Alternative school]]
 
*[[Behavior modification facility]]
 
*[[Continuation high school]]
 
*[[Outdoor education]]
 
*[[Residential education]]
 
*[[Residential treatment center]]
 
 
{{multicol-end}}
 
 
==References==
 
 
;Citations
 
 
{{reflist|2}}
 
 
;Bibliography
 
 
{{refbegin|2|indent=yes
 
 
}}
 
 
:Fahlberg, Vera, MD (1990), ''Residential treatment: A tapestry of many therapies'', Perspectives Press. ISBN 978-0944934029
 
 
:Marcus, David L. (2005), ''What It Takes To Pull Me Through: Why Teenagers Get in Trouble and How Four of Them Got Out'', Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 978-0618145454
 
 
{{Refend}}
 
 
==External links==
 
* {{dmoz|Health/Mental_Health/Child_and_Adolescent/Treatment/Programs_and_Services/Therapeutic_Schools|Therapeutic Schools}}
 
* [http://astart.fmhi.usf.edu/ Alliance for the Safe, Therapeutic and Appropriate use of Residential Treatment]
 
* [http://www.bazelon.org/ Judge David L. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law]
 
* [http://www.cafety.org/ Community Alliance for the Ethical Treatment of Youth]
 
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Therapeutic Boarding School}}
 
[[Category:School types]]
 
[[Category:Therapeutic community]]
 
[[Category:Boarding schools]]
 
[[Category:Psychotherapy]]
 
[[Category:Special schools in the United States]]
 
[[Category:Therapeutic boarding schools| ]]
 
Reason: ANN scored at 0.971004
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 10:47:56 PM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 10:47:56 PM #101841
Bradley (anonymous)

GeYcBn http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

Wednesday, the 25th of May 2016 at 10:40:23 PM #104510
Evking22

This is obvious vandalism.

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