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Article: 1980s
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==Technology==
 
===Electronics and computers===
 
[[Arcade game]]s and video games had been growing in popularity since the late 1970s, and by 1982 were a major industry. But a variety of factors, including a glut of low-quality games and the rise of home computers, caused a [[North American video game crash of 1983|tremendous crash]] in late 1983. For the next three years, the video game market practically ceased to exist in the US. But in the second half of the decade, it would be revived by [[Nintendo]], whose Famicom console had been enjoying considerable success in Japan since 1983. Renamed the [[Nintendo Entertainment System]], it would claim 90% of the American video game market by 1989.
 
   
[[Personal computer|Computers]] experienced explosive growth in the '80s, going from being a toy for electronics hobbyists to a full-fledged industry. The IBM PC, launched in 1981, become the dominant computer for professional users. [[Commodore International|Commodore]] created the most popular home computers of both 8-bit and 16-bit generations. [[MSX]] standard was the dominant computer platform in [[Japan]]. [[Apple Inc.|Apple]] was committed to resisting the tide of IBM PC clones, while introducing the first Macintosh computer in 1984. It was the first commercially successful personal computer to use a [[graphical user interface]] and [[Mouse (computing)|mouse]],<ref>{{cite web|last=Polsson|first=Ken|url=http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/applehis/appl1984.htm|title=Chronology of Apple Computer Personal Computers|date=2009-07-29|accessdate=2009-08-27}} See May 3, 1984.</ref> which started to become general features in computers after the middle of the decade.
 
 
<gallery widths="190px" perrow="4">
 
File:IBM PC 5150.jpg|[[IBM 5150]], the first model of the [[IBM PC]], was released in 1981. The IBM PCs and compatible models from other vendors would become the most widely used computer systems in the world.
 
File:C64c system.jpg|[[Commodore 64]], with sales estimated at more than 17 million units in 1982–1994 became the best-selling computer model of all time.
 
File:Macintosh_128k_transparency.png|The [[Macintosh 128K]], the first commercially successful personal computer to use a graphical user interface, was introduced to the public in 1984.<ref name="appleconfidential2">{{Cite book|last=Linzmayer|first=Owen W.|title=Apple Confidential 2.0|publisher=No Starch Press|year=2004|page=113|url=http://www.owenink.com|isbn=1-59327-010-0}}</ref>
 
</gallery>
 
 
[[Walkman]] and [[Boombox]]s, introduced during the late 1970s, became very popular and had a profound impact on the Music industry and youth culture. Consumer [[VCR]]s and video rental stores became commonplace as [[vhs]] won out over the competing [[betamax]] standard. In addition, in the early 1980s various companies began selling compact, modestly priced [[synthesizers]] to the public. This, along with the development of [[Musical Instrument Digital Interface]] (MIDI), made it easier to integrate and synchronize synthesizers and other electronic instruments for use in musical composition
 
 
<gallery widths="190px" perrow="4">
 
File:SONY WM-D6C.jpg|[[Walkman]] WM-D6C Pro (1984)
 
File:Akai AJ-530.jpg|1980s [[Boombox]]
 
File:Betavhs2.jpg|[[VHS]] won out over the competing [[Betamax]] standard.
 
File:Yamaha DX7 Table 4.JPG|1980s [[Synthesizer]] ([[Yamaha DX7]])
 
</gallery>
 
   
 
===Space exploration===
 
===Space exploration===
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The Soviet manned program went well during the decade, experiencing only minor setbacks. The Salyut 6 space station, launched in 1977, was replaced by Salyut 7 in 1982. Then came Mir in 1986, which ended up operating for more than a decade, and was destined to be the last in the line of Soviet space stations that had begun in 1971. One of the Soviet Union's last "superprojects" was the Buran space shuttle; it was only used once, in 1988.
 
The Soviet manned program went well during the decade, experiencing only minor setbacks. The Salyut 6 space station, launched in 1977, was replaced by Salyut 7 in 1982. Then came Mir in 1986, which ended up operating for more than a decade, and was destined to be the last in the line of Soviet space stations that had begun in 1971. One of the Soviet Union's last "superprojects" was the Buran space shuttle; it was only used once, in 1988.
   
===Automobiles===
 
The American auto industry began the 1980s in a thoroughly grim situation, faced with poor quality control, rising import competition, and a severe economic downturn. [[Chrysler]] and [[American Motors]] (AMC) were near bankruptcy, and Ford was little better off. Only GM continued with business as usual. But the auto makers recovered with the economy by 1983, and in 1985 auto sales in the United States hit a new record. However, the Japanese were now a major presence, and would begin manufacturing cars in the US to get around tariffs. In 1986, Hyundai became the first Korean auto maker to enter the American market. In the same year, the Yugoslavian-built [[Zastava Koral|Yugo]] was brought to the US, but the car was so small and cheap, that it became the subject of countless jokes. It was sold up to 1991, when economic sanctions against Yugoslavia forced its withdrawal from the American market.
 
 
As the decade progressed, cars became smaller and more efficient in design. In 1983, Ford design teams began revolutionizing existing automobiles with a new philosophy which was called "Aero". The idea was to design cars to incorporate pro-aerodynamic round styling to increase airflow and decrease drag while in motion. The Thunderbird was one of the first cars to receive these design changes and it was an instant hit. Later, in 1985, Ford released the Taurus which was considered a dramatic step in automobile design and its aerodynamic style was so popular and revolutionary at the time that other manufacturers scrambled to emulate it which eventually caused a design revolution which is still evident to the present day which increasingly round and aerodynamic designed being implemented by many companies worldwide.
 
 
GM began suffering significant losses in the late-1980s, partially the result of chairman Roger Smith's restructuring attempts, and partially because of increasingly stale and unappealing cars. For example, "yuppies" increasingly favored European luxury cars to Cadillac. In 1985, GM started Saturn (the first new American make since the Edsel), with the goal of producing high-quality import fighters. Production would not begin until 1990, however.
 
 
Chrysler introduced its new compact, front-wheel drive K-cars in 1981. Under the leadership of Lee Iacocca, the company turned a profit again the following year, and by 1983 paid off its government loans. A seemingly endless succession of K-cars followed. But the biggest success was the arrival of the minivans in 1984. These proved a huge hit, and despite competition, they would dominate the van market for more than a decade. And in 1987, Chrysler purchased the Italian makes of Lamborghini and Maserati. In the same year, Chrysler bought AMC from Renault laying to rest the last significant independent U.S. automaker, but acquiring the hugely profitable [[Jeep]] line and continuing the [[Eagle (automobile)|Eagle]] brand until the late 1990s.
 
 
The [[DeLorean DMC-12]] was the brainchild of [[John DeLorean]], a flamboyant former GM executive. Production of the gull-winged sports car began in Northern Ireland in 1981. John DeLorean was arrested in October 1982 in a sting operation where he was attempting to sell cocaine to save his struggling company. He was acquitted of all charges in 1984, but too late for the DeLorean Motor Company, which closed down in 1983. The DMC-12 gained renewed fame afterward as the time machine in the [[Back to the Future (series)|''Back to the Future'' motion picture trilogy]].
 
 
[[Porsche]] introduced the 959 sports car in 1986, the fastest car in the world back then, which had the ability to reach a top speed of more than 200&nbsp;mph (320&nbsp;km/h). Never before car manufacturers managed to exceed the 200&nbsp;mph barrier. Just one year later, Porsche's rival Ferrari startled the world introducing the F40, at that point the fastest car in the world, even faster than the 959 from Porsche.
 
 
The imposition of CAFE fuel-mileage standards in 1979 spelled the end of big-block engines, but performance cars and convertibles reemerged in the 1980s. Turbochargers were widely used to boost the performance of small cars, and technology from [[fuel injection]] began to take over from the widely used application of [[carburetors]] by the late 1980s. Front-wheel drive also became dominant.
 
 
The eighties marked the decline of European brands in North America by the end of the decade. [[Renault]], [[Citroen]], and [[Peugeot]] ceased importation by the end of the decade. [[Alfa Romeo]] would continue until 1993. [[Fiat]] also ceased imports to North America in the eighties.
 
   
 
==Economics==
 
==Economics==
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  +
\
===Entertainers===
 
{{col-begin}}
 
{{col-3}}
 
* [[Michael J. Fox]]
 
* [[Woody Allen]]
 
* [[Eddie Murphy]]
 
* [[Christopher Lloyd]]
 
* [[Whoopi Goldberg]]
 
* [[Arnold Schwarzenegger]]
 
* [[Sylvester Stallone]]
 
* [[Chuck Norris]]
 
* [[Tom Cruise]]
 
* [[Sigourney Weaver]]
 
* [[Linda Hamilton]]
 
* [[Jennifer Grey]]
 
* [[Patrick Swayze]]
 
* [[David Hasselhoff]]
 
{{col-3}}
 
* [[Matthew Broderick]]
 
* [[Michael Keaton]]
 
* [[Prince (musician)|Prince]]
 
* [[Christopher Reeve]]
 
* [[Harrison Ford]]
 
* [[Mark Hamill]]
 
* [[John Travolta]]
 
* [[John Belushi]]
 
* [[Warren Beatty]]
 
* [[Dustin Hoffman]]
 
* [[Robert De Niro]]
 
* [[Al Pacino]]
 
* [[Dan Aykroyd]]
 
* [[Bill Murray]]
 
{{col-3}}
 
[[File:Michael J Fox 2 crop.jpg|thumb|130px|right|[[Michael J. Fox]], 1988]]
 
* [[Patrick Stewart]]
 
* [[Hulk Hogan]]
 
* [[Alan Alda]]
 
* [[John Ritter]]
 
* [[Ted Danson]]
 
* [[Tom Selleck]]
 
* [[Don Johnson]]
 
* [[Bruce Willis]]
 
* [[Richard Dean Anderson]]
 
* [[Bill Cosby]]
 
* [[Marlon Brando]]
 
* [[Mel Gibson]]
 
* [[Clint Eastwood]]
 
* [[Danny DeVito]]
 
{{col-end}}
 
 
===Musicians===
 
{{col-begin}}
 
{{col-3}}
 
* [[A-ha]]
 
* [[AC/DC]]
 
* [[Aerosmith]]
 
* [[Alabama (band)|Alabama]]
 
* [[Anthrax (band)|Anthrax]]
 
* [[Axl Rose]]
 
* [[Kenny Loggins]]
 
* [[The B-52's]]
 
* [[Bad Religion]]
 
* [[Belinda Carlisle]]
 
* [[Billy Idol]]
 
* [[Billy Joel]]
 
* [[Black Flag (band)|Black Flag]]
 
* [[Bobby Brown]]
 
* [[Bob Marley]]
 
* [[Bon Jovi]]
 
* [[Bonham (band)|Bonham]]
 
* [[Boy George]]
 
* [[Bryan Adams]]
 
* [[Bryan Ferry]]
 
* [[Bruce Springsteen]]
 
* [[Cher]]
 
* [[Chris de Burgh]]
 
* [[The Cure]]
 
* [[Culture Club]]
 
* [[Wang Chung (band)|Wang Chung]]
 
* [[Cyndi Lauper]]
 
* [[R.E.M.]]
 
* [[David Bowie]]
 
* [[Def Leppard]]
 
* [[Depeche Mode]]
 
* [[Dire Straits]]
 
* [[Duran Duran]]
 
{{col-3}}
 
* [[Talking Heads]]
 
* [[Devo]]
 
* [[Eddie Van Halen]]
 
* [[Five Star]]
 
* [[Freddie Mercury]]
 
* [[GWAR]]
 
* [[George Harrison]]
 
* [[George Michael]]
 
* [[George Strait]]
 
* [[Guns N' Roses]]
 
* [[Huey Lewis and the News]]
 
* [[Iron Maiden]]
 
* [[Irene Cara]]
 
* [[Jason Donovan]]
 
* [[Jefferson Starship]]
 
* [[Joan Jett]]
 
* [[John Lennon]]
 
* [[Journey (band)|Journey]]
 
* [[Joy (band)|Joy]]
 
* [[Judas Priest]]
 
* [[Thomas Dolby]]
 
* [[Kajagoogoo]]
 
* [[Kim Carnes]]
 
* [[Kim Wilde]]
 
* [[Kiss (band)|Kiss]]
 
* [[Kylie Minogue]]
 
* [[Laura Branigan]]
 
* [[Limahl]]
 
* [[Lionel Richie]]
 
* [[Madonna (entertainer)|Madonna]]
 
* [[Megadeth]]
 
* [[Metallica]]
 
* [[Motley Crue]]
 
* [[Michael Jackson]]
 
* [[Nick Kamen]]
 
* [[Paul Simon]]
 
{{col-3}}
 
* [[Peter Cetera]]
 
* [[Peter Gabriel]]
 
* [[Pet Shop Boys]]
 
* [[Phil Collins]]
 
* [[Philip Oakey]]
 
* [[Tears for Fears]]
 
* [[Prince (musician)|Prince]]
 
* [[Ratt]]
 
* [[Reba McEntire]]
 
* [[Richard Marx]]
 
* [[Rick Astley]]
 
* [[Roy Orbison]]
 
* [[The Smiths]]
 
* [[Samantha Fox]]
 
* [[Sandra (singer)|Sandra]]
 
* [[Skid Row (American band)]]
 
* [[Slayer]]
 
* [[Stevie Nicks]]
 
* [[Stevie Wonder]]
 
* [[Sting (musician)|Sting]]
 
* [[Swing Out Sister]]
 
* [[Tina Turner]]
 
* [[Tom Petty]]
 
* [[Toto (band)|Toto]]
 
* [[Twisted Sister]]
 
* [[Whitney Houston]]
 
* [[Winger (band)]]
 
* [[Thompson Twins]]
 
* [[The Clash]]
 
* [[U2]]
 
* [[Van Halen]]
 
* [[W.A.S.P]]
 
* [[White Lion]]
 
* [[Whitesnake]]
 
* [[Yngwie Malmsteen]]
 
{{col-end}}
 
 
===Sports figures===
 
{{col-begin}}
 
{{col-3}}
 
* [[Boris Becker]]
 
* [[Steffi Graf]]
 
* [[Diego Armando Maradona]]
 
* [[Roberto Duran]]
 
* [[Eric Heiden]]
 
* [[Carl Lewis]]
 
* [[Sergey Bubka]]
 
* [[Greg LeMond]]
 
* [[Wayne Gretzky]]
 
* [[Magic Johnson]]
 
* [[Larry Bird]]
 
* [[Michael Jordan]]
 
* [[Sugar Ray Leonard]]
 
* [[Joe Montana]]
 
* [[Hulk Hogan]]
 
* [[Andre The Giant]]
 
* [[Ric Flair]]
 
{{col-3}}
 
* [[Ian Botham]]
 
* [[Julio Cesar Chavez]]
 
* [[Jack Nicklaus]]
 
* [[Jimmy Connors]]
 
* [[Seve Ballesteros]]
 
* [[Martina Navratilova]]
 
* [[Sebastian Coe]]
 
* [[Nikos Galis]]
 
* [[Karl-Heinz Rummenigge]]
 
* [[Michel Platini]]
 
* [[Gary Lineker]]
 
* [[Bo Jackson]]
 
{{col-3}}
 
* [[Marco van Basten]]
 
* [[Franco Baresi]]
 
* [[Ruud Gullit]]
 
* [[Zico]]
 
* [[Karch Kiraly]]
 
* [[Ayrton Senna]]
 
* [[Alain Prost]]
 
* [[Alberto Tomba]]
 
* [[Mike Tyson]]
 
* [[Matt Biondi]]
 
* [[Greg Luganis]]
 
* [[Freddie Spencer]]
 
* [[Eddie Lawson]]
 
* [[Vladimir Artemov]]
 
* [[Imran Khan]]
 
* [[Wasim Akram]]
 
* [[Waqar Younis]]
 
* [[Naas Botha]]
 
{{col-end}}
 
 
===Film makers===
 
* [[Steven Spielberg]]
 
* [[George Lucas]]
 
* [[Tim Burton]]
 
* [[James Cameron]]
 
* [[Stanley Kubrick]]
 
* [[Brian De Palma]]
 
* [[Ridley Scott]]
 
* [[John Hughes (filmmaker)|John Hughes]]
 
* [[David Cronenberg]]
 
* [[Wes Craven]]
 
* [[Oliver Stone]]
 
* [[John Carpenter]]
 
 
==See also==
 
*[[1980s in music]]
 
*[[1980s in fashion]]
 
*[[1980s in television]]
 
*[[1980s in video gaming]]
 
*[[List of years in literature#1980s|1980s in literature]]
 
*Andy McSmith. ''No Such Thing as Society: A History of Britain in the 1980s''. Constable, 2010. ISBN 978-1-84901-009-2
 
 
===Timeline===
 
The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most prominent events of the decade:
 
 
[[1980]] • [[1981]] • [[1982]] • [[1983]] • [[1984]] • [[1985]] • [[1986]] • [[1987]] • [[1988]] • [[1989]]
 
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
Reason: ANN scored at 0.876651
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Reporter: JimmiXzS (anonymous)
Date: Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:37:30 PM
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Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:04:12 PM #100360
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Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:37:30 PM #106383
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