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Article: Digital library
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A '''digital library''' is a [[library]] in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, [[microform]], or other media) and accessible by computers.<ref>Greenstein, Daniel I., Thorin, Suzanne Elizabeth. [ The Digital Library: A Biography]. Digital Library Federation (2002) ISBN 1933645180. Accessed June 25, 2007.</ref> The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. A digital library is a type of [[information retrieval]] system.
The'''Digital Library''' is under a non-profit team called THE DIGITAL LIBRARY TEAM[[portal]] in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, [[microform]], or other media) and accessible by computers,ipads,iphones,moblies.The digital content from our reserves may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks.The site uses a [[common creative]] license USA 3.0
our website-
In the context of the [ DELOS], a Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries, and [], a Coordination Action on ''Digital Library Interoperability, Best Practices and Modelling Foundations'', Digital Library researchers and practitioners produced a '''Digital Library Reference Model'''<ref name="DLRM2011">L. Candela, G. Athanasopoulos, D. Castelli, K. El Raheb, P. Innocenti, Y. Ioannidis, A. Katifori, A. Nika, G. Vullo, S. Ross: ''The Digital Library Reference Model''. April 2011 ([ PDF])</ref><ref name="DLRM2008">L. Candela et al.: ''The DELOS Digital Library Reference Model - Foundations for Digital Libraries''. Version 0.98, February 2008 ([ PDF])</ref> which defines a digital library as: "A potentially virtual '''organisation''', that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for the long depth of time rich digital '''content''', and offers to its targeted '''user''' communities specialised '''functionality''' on that content, of defined '''quality''' and according to comprehensive codified '''policies'''."<ref>L. Candela, G. Athanasopoulos, D. Castelli, K. El Raheb, P. Innocenti, Y. Ioannidis, A. Katifori, A. Nika, G. Vullo, S. Ross: ''The Digital Library Reference Model''. April 2011, 17.([ PDF])</ref>
Actually, this document contains a '''Digital Library Manifesto''' which introduces the three types of relevant ‘systems’, i.e. Digital Library, Digital Library System, and Digital Library Management System. It describes the main concepts characterising these systems, i.e., organisation, content, user, functionality, quality, policy and architecture. It introduces the main roles that actors may play within digital libraries, i.e., end-user, manager and software developer. Finally, it describes the reference frameworks needed to clarify the DL universe at different levels of abstraction, i.e., the Digital Library Reference Model and the Digital Library Reference Architecture.
The first use of the term ''digital library'' in print may have been in a 1988 report to the [[Corporation for National Research Initiatives]]<ref>Kahn, R. E., & Cerf, V. G. (1988). [ The Digital Library Project Volume I: The World of Knowbots, (DRAFT): An Open Architecture For a Digital Library System and a Plan For Its Development]. Reston, VA: Corporation for National Research Initiatives.</ref> The term ''digital libraries'' was first popularized by the [[National Science Foundation|NSF]]/[[DARPA]]/[[NASA]] Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994.<ref>Edward A. Fox. [ The Digital Libraries Initiative - Update and Discussion], Bulletin of the America Society of Information Science, Vol. 26, No 1, October/November 1999.</ref> These draw heavily on [[As We May Think]] by [[Vannevar Bush]] in 1945, which set out a vision not in terms of technology, but user experience.<ref>Candela, L.; Castelli, D. & Pagano, [ History, Evolution and Impact of Digital Libraries]. In P. Iglezakis, I.; Synodinou, T. & Kapidakis, S. (ed.) E-Publishing and Digital Libraries: Legal and Organizational Issues, IGI Global, 2011, 1- 30</ref> The term ''virtual library'' was initially used interchangeably with ''digital library,'' but is now primarily used for libraries that are virtual in other senses (such as libraries which aggregate distributed content).
A distinction is often made between content that was created in a digital format, known as [[born-digital]], and information that has been converted from a physical medium, e.g., paper, by [[digitization|digitizing]]. The term [[hybrid library]] is sometimes used for libraries that have both physical collections and digital collections. For example, [[American Memory]] is a digital library within the [[Library of Congress]]. Some important digital libraries also serve as long term archives, for example, the [[Eprint]] [[arXiv]], and the [[Internet Archive]].
==Academic repositories==
Many academic libraries are actively involved in building [[Institutional repository|institutional repositories]] of the institution's books, papers, theses, and other works which can be digitized or were 'born digital'. Many of these repositories are made available to the general public with few restrictions, in accordance with the goals of [[Open access (publishing)|open access]], in contrast to the publication of research in commercial journals, where the publishers often limit access rights. Institutional, truly free, and corporate repositories are sometimes referred to as digital libraries.
==Digital archives==
Physical [[archives]] differ from physical libraries in several ways. Traditionally, archives are defined as:
# Containing [[primary source]]s of information (typically letters and papers directly produced by an individual or organization) rather than the secondary sources found in a library (books, periodicals, etc).
# Having their contents organized in groups rather than individual items.
# Having unique contents.
The technology used to create digital libraries is even more revolutionary for archives since it breaks down the second and third of these general rules. In other words, "digital archives" or "online archives" will still generally contain primary sources, but they are likely to be described individually rather than (or in addition to) in groups or collections. Further, because they are digital their contents are easily reproducible and may indeed have been reproduced from elsewhere. The [[Oxford Text Archive]] is generally considered to be the oldest digital archive of academic physical primary source materials.
==The future==
==The future==
Large scale digitization projects are underway at our research centres located in India,Germany,U.S.A and Malaysia.We are committed to bring in more content through our portal.
Large scale digitization projects are underway at [[Google]], the [[Million Book Project]], and [[Internet Archive]]. With continued improvements in book handling and presentation technologies such as [[optical character recognition]] and [[ebook]]s, and development of alternative depositories and business models, digital libraries are rapidly growing in popularity as demonstrated by Google, Yahoo!, and MSN's efforts. Just as libraries have ventured into audio and video collections, so have digital libraries such as the [[Internet Archive]].
According to Larry Lannom, Director of Information Management Technology at the nonprofit Corporation should be for National Research Initiatives, "all the problems associated with digital libraries are wrapped up in archiving." He goes on to state, "If in 100 years people can still read your article, we'll have solved the problem." Daniel Akst, author of The Webster Chronicle, proposes that "the future of libraries—and of information—is digital." Peter Lyman and Hal Varian, information scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, estimate that "the world's total yearly production of print, film, optical, and magnetic content would require roughly 1.5 billion gigabytes of storage." Therefore, they believe that "soon it will be technologically possible for an average person to access virtually all recorded information."<ref>Akst, D. (2003). The Digital Library: Its Future Has Arrived. Carnegie Reporter, 2(3), 4-8.</ref>
Most digital libraries provide a search interface which allows resources to be found. These resources are typically [[deep web]] (or invisible web) resources since they frequently cannot be located by [[Search engine (computing)|search engine]] [[web crawler|crawlers]]. Some digital libraries create special pages or [[sitemap]]s to allow search engines to find all their resources. Digital libraries frequently use the [[Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting]] (OAI-PMH) to expose their metadata to other digital libraries, and search engines like [[Google Scholar]], [[Yahoo!]] and [[Scirus]] can also use OAI-PMH to find these deep web resources.<ref>Koehler, AEC. ''Some Thoughts on the Meaning of Open Access for University Library Technical Services'' Serials Review Vol. 32, 1, 2006, p. 17</ref>
There are two general strategies for searching a '''federation''' of digital libraries:
#distributed searching, and
#searching previously harvested [[metadata]].
Distributed searching typically involves a client sending multiple search requests in parallel to a number of servers in the federation. The results are gathered, duplicates are eliminated or clustered, and the remaining items are sorted and presented back to the client. Protocols like [[Z39.50]] are frequently used in distributed searching. A benefit to this approach is that the resource-intensive tasks of indexing and storage are left to the respective servers in the federation. A drawback to this approach is that the search mechanism is limited by the different indexing and ranking capabilities of each database, making it difficult to assemble a combined result consisting of the most relevant found items.
Searching over previously harvested metadata involves searching a locally stored [[search engine indexing|index]] of information that has previously been collected from the libraries in the federation. When a search is performed, the search mechanism does not need to make connections with the digital libraries it is searching - it already has a local representation of the information. This approach requires the creation of an indexing and harvesting mechanism which operates regularly, connecting to all the digital libraries and querying the whole collection in order to discover new and updated resources. [[OAI-PMH]] is frequently used by digital libraries for allowing metadata to be harvested. A benefit to this approach is that the search mechanism has full control over indexing and ranking algorithms, possibly allowing more consistent results. A drawback is that harvesting and indexing systems are more resource-intensive and therefore expensive.
The formal reference models include the DELOS Digital Library Reference Model (Agosti, et al., 2006)<ref>Agosti, M., Candela, L., Castelli, D., Ferro, N., Ioannidis, Y., Koutrika, G., Meghini, C., Pagano, P., Ross, S., Schek, H.-J., & Schuldt, H. (2006). A Reference Model for DLMSs Interim Report. In L. Candela, & D. Castelli (Eds.), Deliverable D1.4.2 - Reference Model for Digital Library Management Systems [Draft 1]. DELOS, A Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries -- IST-2002-, Technology-enhanced Learning and Access to Cultural Heritage. Online at:</ref> and the Streams, Structures, Spaces, Scenarios, Societies (5S) formal framework.<ref>Gonçalves, M. A., Fox, E. A., Watson, L. T., & Kipp, N. A. (2004). Streams, Structures, Spaces, Scenarios, Societies (5S): A Formal Model for Digital Libraries. ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS),22 (2), 270-312.</ref>
The Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System ([[OAIS]]) provides a framework to address [[digital preservation]].<ref>"The DSpace team recognized the value of the OAIS framework and recast the repository’s architecture to accommodate this archival framework" {{Cite
| last = Baudoin
| first = P.
| coauthors = M. Branschofsky
| title = MIT's DSpace experience: a case study
| date = 2004
| url =
==Construction and organization==
See also [[Digital Collections Selection Criteria]].
There are a number of software packages for use in general digital libraries, for notable ones see [[:Category:Digital library software|Digital library software]]. Institutional repository software, which focuses primarily on ingest, preservation and access of locally produced documents, particularly locally produced academic outputs, can be found in [[:Category:Institutional repository software|Institutional repository software]].
In the past few years, procedures for [[Digitization|digitizing]] books at high speed and comparatively low cost have improved considerably with the result that it is now possible to plan the digitization of millions of books per year for creating digital.<ref>Committee on Institutional Cooperation: [ Partnership announced between CIC and Google], 6 June 2007, Retrieved 7.</ref>
The advantages of digital libraries as a means of easily and rapidly accessing books, archives and images of various types are now widely recognized by commercial interests and public bodies alike.<ref>[ European Commission steps up efforts to put Europe’s memory] on the Web via a “European Digital Library” Europa press release, 2 March 2006</ref>
Traditional libraries are limited by storage space; digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain it. As such, the cost of maintaining a digital library is much lower than that of a traditional library.
A traditional library must spend large sums of money paying for staff, book maintenance, rent, and additional books. Digital libraries may reduce or, in some instances, do away with these fees. Both types of library require cataloguing input to allow users to locate and retrieve material. Digital libraries may be more willing to adopt innovations in technology providing users with improvements in electronic and audio book technology as well as presenting new forms of communication such as wikis and blogs; conventional libraries may consider that providing online access to their OPAC catalogue is sufficient. An important advantage to digital conversion is increased accessibility to users. They also increase availability to individuals who may not be traditional patrons of a library, due to geographic location or organizational affiliation.
* '''No physical boundary'''. The user of a digital library need not to go to the library physically; people from all over the world can gain access to the same information, as long as an Internet connection is available.
* '''Round the clock availability''' A major advantage of digital libraries is that people can gain access 24/7 to the information.
* '''Multiple access'''. The same resources can be used simultaneously by a number of institutions and patrons. This may not be the case for copyrighted material: a library may have a license for "lending out" only one copy at a time; this is achieved with a system of [[digital rights management]] where a resource can become inaccessible after expiration of the lending period or after the lender chooses to make it inaccessible (equivalent to returning the resource).
* '''Information retrieval'''. The user is able to use any search term (word, phrase, title, name, subject) to search the entire collection. Digital libraries can provide very user-friendly interfaces, giving clickable access to its resources.
* '''Preservation and conservation'''. Digitization is not a long-term preservation solution for physical collections, but does succeed in providing access copies for materials that would otherwise fall to degradation from repeated use. Digitized collections and born-digital objects pose many preservation and conservation concerns that analog materials do not. Please see the following "Problems" section of this page for examples.
* '''Space'''. Whereas traditional libraries are limited by storage space, digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain them and media storage technologies are more affordable than ever before.
* '''Added value'''. Certain characteristics of objects, primarily the quality of images, may be improved. Digitization can enhance legibility and remove visible flaws such as stains and discoloration.<ref>Gertz, Janet. "Selection for Preservation in the Digital Age." ''Library Resources & Technical Services.'' 44(2) (2000):97-104.</ref>
*'''Easily accessible'''.
{{Inappropriate tone|date=May 2008}}
===Digital preservation===
{{Main|Digital preservation}}
Digital preservation aims to ensure that digital media and information systems are still interpretable into the indefinite future. Each necessary component of this must be migrated, preserved or [[emulated]].<ref name="Cain, Mark p 29">Cain, Mark. “Managing Technology: Being a Library of Record in a Digital Age”, Journal of Academic Librarianship 29:6 (2003).</ref> Typically lower levels of systems ([[floppy disk]]s for example) are emulated, bit-streams (the actual files stored in the disks) are preserved and operating systems are emulated as a [[virtual machine]]. Only where the meaning and content of digital media and information systems are well understood is migration possible, as is the case for office documents.<ref name="Cain, Mark p 29"/><ref>Breeding, Marshall. “Preserving Digital Information.”. Information Today 19:5 (2002).</ref><ref>Teper, Thomas H. "Where Next? Long-Term Considerations for Digital Initiatives." ''Kentucky Libraries'' 65(2)(2001):12-18.</ref>
===Copyright and licensing===
Digital libraries are hampered by [[copyright]] law because, unlike with traditional libraries, digital libraries do not have access to works from every time period. The republication of material on the Web by libraries may require permission from rights holders, and there is a conflict of interest between them and publishers who may wish to create online versions of their acquired content for commercial purposes. In the year 2010 it was estimated that twenty-three percent of books in existence were created before 1923 and thus out of copyright. Of those printed after this date, only five percent were still in print as of 2010. Thus, approximately seventy-two percent of books were not available to the public.<ref>Van Le, Christopher, "Opening the Doors to Digital Libraries: A Proposal to Exempt Digital Libraries From the Copyright Act," ''Case Western Reserve Journal of Law, Technology & The Internet'', 1.2 (Spring 2010),135.</ref>
There is a dilution of responsibility that occurs as a result of the spread-out nature of digital resources. Complex intellectual property matters may become involved since digital material is not always owned by a library.<ref>Pymm, Bob. "Building Collections for All Time: The Issue of Significance." ''Australian Academic & Research Libraries.'' 37(1) (2006):61-73.</ref> The content is, in many cases, [[public domain]] or self-generated content only. Some digital libraries, such as [[Project Gutenberg]], work to digitize out-of-copyright works and make them freely available to the public. An estimate of the number of distinct books still existent in library catalogues from 2000 BC to 1960, has been made.<ref>[ Antique Books<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref name="nyt">{{cite news |first=Kevin |last=Kelly |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Scan This Book! |url= |quote=When Google announced in December 2004 that it would digitally scan the books of five major research libraries to make their contents searchable, the promise of a [[universal library]] was resurrected. ... From the days of Sumerian clay tablets till now, humans have "published" at least 32 million books, 750 million articles and essays, 25 million songs, 500 million images, 500,000 movies, 3 million videos, TV shows and short films and 100 billion public Web pages.|publisher=[[New York Times Magazine]] |date=2006-05-14|accessdate=2008-03-07 }}</ref>
The [[Fair Use]] Provisions [[Title 17 of the United States Code|(17 USC § 107)]] under the [[Copyright Act of 1976]] provide specific guidelines under which circumstances libraries are allowed to copy digital resources. Four factors that constitute fair use are "Purpose of the use, Nature of the work, Amount or substantiality used and Market impact."<ref>Hirtle, Peter B.,[ "Digital Preservation and Copyright,"] ''Stanford University Libraries''. Retrieved October 24, 2011.</ref>
Some digital libraries acquire a license to "lend out" their resources. This may involve the restriction of lending out only one copy at a time for each license, and applying a system of [[digital rights management]] for this purpose (see also above).
The [[Digital Millennium Copyright Act]] of 1998 was an act created in the United States to attempt to deal with the introduction of digital works. This Act incorporates two treaties from the year 1996. It criminalizes the attempt to circumvent measures which limit access to copyrighted materials. It also criminalizes the act of attempting to circumvent access control.<ref>United States Copyright Office, [ "The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 - U.S. Copyright Office Summary"] 1998, 2.</ref> This act provides an exemption for nonprofit libraries and archives which allows up to three copies to be made, one of which may be digital. This may not be made public or distributed on the web, however. Further, it allows libraries and archives to copy a work if its format becomes obsolete.<ref>United States Copyright Office, [ "The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 - U.S. Copyright Office Summary"] 1998, 15.</ref>
Copyright issues persist. As such, proposals have been put forward suggesting that digital libraries be exempt from copyright law. Although this would be very beneficial to the public, it may have a negative economic effect and authors may be less inclined to create new works.<ref>Van Le, Christopher, "Opening the Doors to Digital Libraries: A Proposal to Exempt Digital Libraries From the Copyright Act," ''Case Western Reserve Journal of Law, Technology & The Internet'', 1.2 (Spring 2010),145.</ref>
===Metadata creation===
In traditional libraries, the ability to find works of interest was directly related to how well they were catalogued. While cataloguing electronic works digitized from a library's existing holding may be as simple as copying or moving a record from the print to the electronic form, complex and born-digital works require substantially more effort. To handle the growing volume of electronic publications, new tools and technologies have to be designed to allow effective automated semantic classification and searching. While [[full text search]] can be used for some searches, there are many common catalog searches which cannot be performed using full text, including:
* finding texts which are translations of other texts
* linking texts published under pseudonyms to the real authors ([[Samuel Clemens]] and [[Mark Twain]], for example)
* differentiating non-fiction from parody (''[[The Onion]]'' from ''[[The New York Times]]'', for example)
==See also==
{{Wikiversity|Curriculum on Digital Libraries}}
* [[List of digital library projects]]
* [[List of online encyclopedias]]
* [[:Category:Digital library software]]
* [[:Category:Institutional repository software]]
* {{LISWiki_link|Digital library}}
* [[Libraries in Second Life]]
==External links==
*[ CNRI-DARPA: D-Lib Magazine] Electronic publication that primarily focuses on digital library research and development
*[ TPDL] - International Conference on Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries
*[ ECDL] - European Conference on Digital Libraries
*[ ICADL] - International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries
*[ JCDL] - ACM and IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries
*[ ICSD] - International Conference for Digital Libraries and the Semantic Web
{{DEFAULTSORT:Digital Library}}
[[Category:1988 introductions]]
[[Category:Digital libraries| ]]
[[Category:Library science]]
[[Category:Types of library]]
[[Category:Archival science]]
[[Category:Digital humanities]]
[[ar:مكتبة رقمية]]
[[bn:ডিজিটাল গ্রন্থাগার]]
[[bg:Електронна библиотека]]
[[ca:Biblioteca digital]]
[[cs:Digitální knihovna]]
[[da:Digitalt bibliotek]]
[[de:Virtuelle Bibliothek]]
[[el:Ψηφιακή βιβλιοθήκη]]
[[es:Biblioteca digital]]
[[eo:Cifereca biblioteko]]
[[fa:کتابخانه دیجیتال]]
[[fr:Bibliothèque numérique]]
[[ko:전자 도서관]]
[[hi:आंकिक पुस्तकालय]]
[[hr:Digitalna knjižnica]]
[[id:Perpustakaan digital]]
[[it:Biblioteca digitale]]
[[lv:Digitālā bibliotēka]]
[[ml:ഡിജിറ്റൽ ലൈബ്രറി]]
[[ms:Perpustakaan digital]]
[[nl:Digitale bibliotheek]]
[[no:Digitalt bibliotek]]
[[pl:Biblioteka cyfrowa]]
[[pt:Biblioteca digital]]
[[ru:Электронная библиотека]]
[[sk:Digitálna knižnica]]
[[sl:Digitalna knjižnica]]
[[ta:எண்ணிம நூலகம்]]
[[tr:Sayısal kütüphane]]
[[uk:Електронна бібліотека]]
[[vi:Thư viện số]]
Reason: ANN scored at 0.950513
Reporter Information
Reporter: JimmiXzS (anonymous)
Date: Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:37:03 PM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:04:19 PM #100362
Bradley (anonymous)


Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:37:03 PM #106364
JimmiXzS (anonymous)