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Article: Thor
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By way of Viking Age Scandinavian settlement in England, the name of the Old Norse form of the deity was introduced into [[Old English]] as ''Þór'', apparently overtaking the native form of the deity's name, ''Þunor''. However, the modern spelling ''Thor'' is an anglicization of the Old Norse name by way of antiquarian interest in the Viking Age in the 17th century.<ref>''Þór and Owðen, þe hæðene men herjað swiðe'' ([[Wulfstan]] homilies (21a) , ca. 1020). ''Description of the great Idol Thor.'' ([[Richard Verstegan]], ''A Restitution Of Decayed Intelligence In Antiquities Concerning Our Nation'' 74, 1605); cited after [[OED]].</ref>
By way of Viking Age Scandinavian settlement in England, the name of the Old Norse form of the deity was introduced into [[Old English]] as ''Þór'', apparently overtaking the native form of the deity's name, ''Þunor''. However, the modern spelling ''Thor'' is an anglicization of the Old Norse name by way of antiquarian interest in the Viking Age in the 17th century.<ref>''Þór and Owðen, þe hæðene men herjað swiðe'' ([[Wulfstan]] homilies (21a) , ca. 1020). ''Description of the great Idol Thor.'' ([[Richard Verstegan]], ''A Restitution Of Decayed Intelligence In Antiquities Concerning Our Nation'' 74, 1605); cited after [[OED]].</ref>
yall dumb
===Roman era===
[[File:Hermannsweg02.jpg|thumb|The [[Teutoburg Forest]] in northwestern Germany]]
The earliest records of the Germanic peoples were recorded by the Romans, and in these works Thor is frequently referred to—via a process known as ''[[interpretatio romana]]'' (where characteristics perceived to be similar by Romans result in identification of a non-Roman god as a Roman deity)—as either the Roman god [[Jupiter (mythology)|Jupiter]] (also known as ''Jove'') or the [[Classical mythology|Greco-Roman]] [[demigod]] [[Hercules]]. The first clear example of this occurs in the Roman historian [[Tacitus]]'s late first century work ''[[Germania (book)|Germania]]'', where, writing about the religion of the [[Suebi]] (a confederation of [[Germanic peoples]]), he comments that "among the gods Mercury is the one they principally worship. They regard it as a religious duty to offer to him, on fixed days, human as well as other sacrificial victims. Hercules and Mars they appease by animal offerings of the permitted kind" and adds that a portion of the Suebi also venerate "Isis". In this instance, Tacitus refers to the god [[Odin]] as "[[Mercury (mythology)|Mercury]]", Thor as "Hercules", and the god [[Týr]] as "[[Mars (mythology)|Mars]]", and the identity of the [["Isis" of the Suebi]] has been debated. In Thor's case, the identification with the god Hercules is likely due to similarities between Thor's hammer and Hercules's club. In his ''[[Annals (Tacitus)|Annals]]'', Tacitus again refers to the veneration of "Hercules" by the Germanic peoples; he records a wood beyond the river [[Weser]] (in what is now northwestern [[Germany]]) as dedicated to him.<ref name="BIRLEY41">Birley (1999:42 and 106—107).</ref>
In Germanic areas occupied by the [[Roman Empire]], coins and votive objects dating from the 2nd and 3rd century AD have been found with Latin inscriptions referring to "Hercules", and so in reality, with varying levels of likelihood, refer to Thor by way of ''interpretatio romana''.<ref name="SIMEK140-142">Simek (2007:140—142).</ref>
===Migration Period===
[[Image:Bonifacius by Emil Doepler.jpg|thumb|Boniface bears his crucifix after felling Thor's Oak in ''Bonifacius'' (1905) by Emil Doepler]]
The first recorded instance of the name of the god appears in the [[Migration Period]], where a piece of jewelry (a [[Fibula (brooch)|fibula]]), the [[Nordendorf fibula]], dating from the 7th century AD and found in [[Bavaria]], bears an [[Elder Futhark]] inscription that contains the name "Þonar", i.e. "Donar", the southern Germanic form of the god's name.<ref name="SIMEK235-236">Simek (2007:235—236).</ref>
According to ''[[Vita Bonifatii auctore Willibaldo]]'', in 723 the Christian missionary [[Saint Boniface]] felled an [[oak tree]] dedicated to "Jove," the [[Donar Oak]] near [[Fritzlar]], [[Hesse]], [[Germany]].<ref name=SIMEK238>Simek (2007:238) and Robinson (1916:63).</ref> Around the second half of the 8th century, [[Old English]] tales of a figure named "Thunor"—the Old English form of Thor's name—are recorded, a figure who likely refers to an Old English cult of the god. In relation, ''Thunor'' is sometimes used in Old English texts to gloss ''Jupiter'', the god may be referenced in the poem ''[[Solomon and Saturn]]'', and the Old English expression ''þunnorad'' ("thunder ride") may refer to the god's thunderous, goat-led chariot.<ref name="THUNOR">See North (1998:238—241) for ''þunnorad'' and tales regarding Thunor, see Encyclopædia Britannica (1910:608) regarding usage of ''Thunor'' as an Old English gloss for ''Jupiter'' and ''[[Týr|Tiw]]'' employed as a gloss for ''Mars''.</ref> A 9th century AD codex from [[Mainz]], Germany, known as the ''[[Old Saxon Baptismal Vow]]'' records the name of three Old Saxon gods; UUôden (Old Saxon "[[Wodan]]"), [[Seaxnēat|Saxnôte]], and Thunaer (Old Saxon "Thor") for use in [[Christianization of the Germanic peoples|Christianizing Germanic pagans]] by way of renouncing their native gods as demons.<ref name="SIMEK276">Simek (2007:276).</ref>
[[File:Olaus Magnus - On the three Main Gods of the Geats.jpg|thumb|A 16th century depiction of Norse gods by [[Olaus Magnus]]; from left to right, [[Frigg]], Thor, and Odin]]
===Viking Age===
In the 11th century, chronicler [[Adam of Bremen]] records in his ''[[Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum]]'' that a statue of Thor, who Adam describes as "mightiest", sits in the [[Temple at Uppsala]] in the center of a triple throne (flanked by [[Woden]] and "Fricco") located in [[Gamla Uppsala]], [[Sweden]]. Adam details that "Thor, they reckon, rules the sky; he governs thunder and lightning, winds and storms, fine weather and fertility" and that "Thor, with his mace, looks like Jupiter". Adam details that the people of Uppsala had appointed [[Gothi|priests]] to each of the gods, and that the priests were to offer up [[Blót|sacrifices]]. In Thor's case, he continues, these sacrifices were done when plague or famine threatened.<ref name="ORCHARD168-169">Orchard (1997:168—169).</ref> Earlier in the same work, Adam relays that in 1030 an English preacher by the name of Wulfred was [[lynching|lynched]] by assembled Germanic pagans for "profaning" a representation of Thor.<ref name="NORTH236">North (1998:236).</ref>
Two objects with [[runic alphabet|runic]] inscriptions invoking Thor date from the 11th century, one from [[England]] and one from Sweden. The first, the [[Canterbury Charm]] from [[Canterbury]], [[England]], calls upon Thor to heal a wound by banishing a [[thurs]].<ref name="MCLEOD-MEES-120">McLeod, Mees (2006:120).</ref> The second, the [[Kvinneby amulet]], invokes protection by both Thor and his hammer.<ref name="MCLEOD-MEES-28">McLeod, Mees (2006:28).</ref>
===Post-Viking Age===
In the 12th century, centuries after Norway was "officially" Christianized, Thor was still being invoked by the population, as evidenced by a stick bearing a runic message found among the [[Bryggen inscriptions]] in [[Bergen]], [[Norway]]. On the stick, both Thor and Odin are called upon for help; Thor is asked to "receive" the reader, and Odin to "own" them.<ref name="MCLEOD-MEES-30">McLeod, Mees (2006:30).</ref> Also around the 12th century, iconography of the Christianizing 11th century king [[Olaf II of Norway]] absorbed elements of the native Thor; Olaf II had become a familiarly red-bearded, hammer-wielding figure.<ref name="DUMEZIL125">Dumézil (1973:125).</ref>
====''Poetic Edda''====
In the ''[[Poetic Edda]]'', compiled in the 13th century from traditional source material reaching into the pagan period, Thor appears (or is mentioned) in the poems ''[[Völuspá]]'', ''[[Grímnismál]]'', ''[[Skírnismál]]'', ''[[Hárbarðsljóð]]'', ''[[Hymiskviða]]'', ''[[Lokasenna]]'', ''[[Þrymskviða]]'', ''[[Alvíssmál]]'', and ''[[Hyndluljóð]]''.<ref name="LARRINGTON320">Larrington (1999:320).</ref>
[[File:The death of Thor and Jörmungandr by Frølich.jpg|thumb|The foretold death of Thor as depicted (1895) by [[Lorenz Frølich]]]]
In the poem ''Völuspá'', a dead [[völva]] recounts the history of the universe and foretells the future to the disguised god Odin, including the death of Thor. Thor, she foretells, will do battle with the [[Jörmungandr|great serpent]] during the immense mythical war waged at [[Ragnarök]], and there he will slay the monstrous snake, yet after he will only be able to take nine steps before succumbing to the venom of the beast:
<small>[[Benjamin Thorpe]] translation:</small>
:Then comes the mighty son of [[Hlôdyn]]:
:(Odin's son goes with the monster to fight);
:[[Midgard|Midgârd]]'s [[List of names of Thor|Veor]] in his rage will slay the worm.
:Nine feet will go [[Fjörgyn and Fjörgynn|Fiörgyn's]] son,
:bowed by the serpent, who feared no foe.
:All men will their homes forsake.<ref name="THORPE7">Thorpe (1907:7).</ref>
<small>[[Henry Adams Bellows]] translation:</small>
:Hither there comes the son of Hlothyn,
:The bright snake gapes to heaven above;
:. . . . . . . .
:Against the serpent goes Othin's son.
:In anger smites the warder of earth,—
:Forth from their homes must all men flee;—
:Nine paces fares the son of Fjorgyn,
:And, slain by the serpent, fearless he sinks.<ref name="BELLOWS23">Bellows (1923:23).</ref>
Afterwards, says the völva, the sky will turn black before fire engulfs the world, the stars will disappear, flames will dance before the sky, steam will rise, the world will be covered in water, and then it will be raised again; green and fertile (see ''Prose Edda'' section below for the survival of the sons of Thor, who return after these events with Thor's hammer).<ref name="LARRINGTON11-12">Larrington (1999:11—12).</ref>
[[File:Thor wades while the æsir ride by Frølich.jpg|thumb|Thor wades through a river while the [[Æsir]] ride across the bridge [[Bifröst]] (1895) by [[Lorenz Frølich]]]]
In the poem ''[[Grímnismál]]'', the god Odin, in disguise as ''[[List of names of Odin|Grímnir]]'', and tortured, starved and thirsty, imparts in the young [[Agnarr Geirröðsson|Agnar]] cosmological lore, including that Thor resides in [[Þrúðheimr]], and that, every day, Thor wades through the rivers [[Körmt and Örmt]], and the two [[Kerlaugar]]. There, Grímnir says, Thor sits as judge at the immense cosmological world tree, [[Yggdrasil]].<ref name="LARRINGTON57">Larrington (1999:57).</ref>
In ''[[Skírnismál]]'', the god [[Freyr]]'s messenger, [[Skírnir]], threatens the fair [[Gerðr]], who Freyr is smitten with, with numerous threats and curses, including that Thor, Freyr, and Odin will be angry with her, and that she risks their "potent wrath".<ref name="LARRINGTON66">Larrington (1999:66).</ref>
Thor is the main character of ''[[Hárbarðsljóð]]'', where, after traveling "from the east", Thor encounters a ferryman at an inlet by the name of [[Hárbarðr]] (Odin, again in disguise), who he attempts to hail a ride from. The ferryman, shouting from the inlet, is immediately rude and obnoxious to Thor and refuses to ferry him. At first, Thor holds his tongue, but Hárbarðr only becomes more aggressive, and the poem soon becomes a [[flyting]] match between Thor and Hárbarðr, all the while revealing lore about the two, including Thor's killing of several jötnar in "the east" and berzerk women on Hlesey (now the Danish island of [[Læsø]]). In the end, Thor ends up walking instead.<ref name="LARRINGTON69-75">Larrington (1999:69-75).</ref>
[[File:Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr by Frølich.jpg|thumb|Týr looks on as Thor discovers that one of [[Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr|his goats]] is lame in the leg (1895) by Lorenz Frølich]]
Thor is again the main character in the poem ''[[Hymiskviða]]'', where, after the gods have been hunting and have eaten their prey, they have an urge to drink. They "sh[ake] the twigs" and interpret what they say. The gods decide that they would find suitable cauldrons at [[Ægir]]'s home. Thor arrives at Ægir's home and finds him to be cheerful, looks into his eyes, and tells him that he must prepare feasts for the gods. Annoyed, Ægir tells Thor that the gods must first bring to him a suitable cauldron to brew ale in. The gods search but find no such cauldron anywhere. However, Týr tells Thor that he may have a solution; east of [[Élivágar]] lives Hymir, and he owns such a deep kettle.<ref name="LARRINGTON78-79">Larrington (1999:78—79).</ref>
So, after Thor secures his goats at [[Egil]]'s home, Thor and [[Týr]] go to Hymir's hall in search of a [[cauldron]] large enough to brew [[ale]] for them all. They arrive, and Týr sees his nine-hundred-headed grandmother and his gold-clad mother, the latter of which welcomes them with a horn. After Hymir—who is not happy to see Thor—comes in from the cold outdoors, Týr's mother helps them find a properly strong cauldron. Thor eats a big meal of two oxen (all the rest eat but one), and then goes to sleep. In the morning, he awakes and informs Hymir that he wants to go fishing the following evening, and that he will catch plenty of food, but that he needs bait. Hymir tells him to go get some bait from his pasture, which he expects should not be a problem for Thor. Thor goes out, finds Hymir's best ox, and rips its head off.<ref name="LARRINGTON78-80">Larrington (1999:79—80).</ref>
After a [[Lacuna (manuscripts)|lacuna]] in the manuscript of the poem,''Hymiskviða'' abruptly picks up again with Thor and Hymir in a boat, out at sea. Hymir catches a few [[whale]]s at once, and Thor baits his line with the head of the ox. Thor casts his line and the monstrous serpent Jörmungandr bites. Thor pulls the serpent on board, and violently slams him in the head with his hammer. Jörmungandr shrieks, and a noisy commotion is heard from underwater before another lacuna appears in the manuscript.<ref name="LARRINGTON81">Larrington (1999:81).</ref>
After the second lacuna, Hymir is sitting in the boat, unhappy and totally silent, as they row back to shore. On shore, Hymir suggests that Thor should help him carry a whale back to his farm. Thor picks both the boat and the whales up, and carries it all back to Hymir's farm. After Thor successfully smashes a crystal goblet by throwing it at Hymir's head on Týr's mother's suggestion, Thor and Týr are given the cauldron. Týr cannot lift it, but Thor manages to roll it, and so with it they leave. Some distance from Hymir's home, an army of many-headed beings led by Hymir attacks the two, but are killed by the hammer of Thor. Although one of [[Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr|his goats]] is lame in the leg, the two manage to bring the cauldron back, have plenty of ale, and so, from then on, return to Ægir's for more every winter.<ref name="LARRINGTON82-83">Larrington (1999:82—83).</ref>
[[File:Loki leaves the hall and threatens the Æsir with fire by Frølich.jpg|thumb|Thor raises his hammer as Loki leaves Ægir's hall (1895) by Lorenz Frølich]]
In the poem ''[[Lokasenna]]'', the half-god [[Loki]] angrily [[flyt]]s with the gods in the sea entity [[Ægir]]'s hall. Thor does not attend the event, however, as he is away in the east for unspecified purposes. Towards the end of the poem, the flyting turns to Sif, Thor's wife, who Loki then claims to have slept with. The god [[Freyr]]'s servant [[Beyla]] interjects, and says that, since all of the mountains are shaking, she thinks that Thor is on his way home. Beyla adds that Thor will bring peace to the quarrel, to which Loki responds with insults.<ref name="LARRINGTON84-94">Larrington (1999:84 and 94).</ref>
Thor arrives and tells Loki to be silent, and threatens to rip Loki's head from his body with his hammer. Loki asks Thor why he is so angry, and comments that Thor will not be so daring to fight "the wolf" ([[Fenrir]]) when it eats Odin (a reference to the foretold events of [[Ragnarök]]). Thor again tells him to be silent, and threatens to throw him into the sky, where he will never be seen again. Loki says that Thor should not brag of his time in the east, as he once crouched in fear in the thumb of a glove (a story involving deception by the magic of [[Útgarða-Loki]], recounted in the ''Prose Edda'' book ''Gylfaginning'')—which, he comments, "was hardly like Thor". Thor again tells him to be silent, threatening to break every bone in Loki's body. Loki responds that he intends to live a while yet, and again insults Thor with references to his encounter with Útgarða-Loki. Thor responds with a fourth call to be silent, and threatens to send Loki to [[Hel (location)|Hel]]. At Thor's final threat, Loki gives in, commenting that only for Thor will he leave the hall, for "I know alone that you do strike", and the poem continues.<ref name="LARRINGTON94-95">Larrington (1999:94—95).</ref>
[[File:Ah, what a lovely maid it is! by Elmer Boyd Smith.jpg|thumb|Thor is unhappily dressed by the goddess [[Freyja]] and her attendants as herself in ''Ah, what a lovely maid it is!'' (1902) by [[Elmer Boyd Smith]]]]
In the comedic poem ''[[Þrymskviða]]'', Thor again plays a central role. In the poem, Thor wakes and finds that his powerful hammer, [[Mjöllnir]], is missing. Thor turns to Loki, and tells him that nobody knows that the hammer has been stolen. The two go to the dwelling of the goddess [[Freyja]], and so that he may attempt to find Mjöllnir, Thor asks her if he may borrow her feather cloak. Freyja agrees, and says she would lend it to Thor even if it were made of silver or gold, and Loki flies off, the feather cloak whistling.<ref name=LARRINGTON97>Larrington (1999:97).</ref>
In [[Jötunheimr]], the jötunn [[Þrymr]] sits on a [[tumulus|barrow]], plaiting golden collars for his female dogs, and trimming the manes of his horses. Þrymr sees Loki, and asks what could be amiss among the [[Æsir]] and the [[Elf#Norse_mythology|elves]]; why is Loki alone in Jötunheimr? Loki responds that he has bad news for both the elves and the Æsir—that Thor's hammer, Mjöllnir, is gone. Þrymr says that he has hidden Mjöllnir eight leagues beneath the earth, from which it will be retrieved, but only if Freyja is brought to him as his wife. Loki flies off, the feather cloak whistling, away from Jötunheimr and back to the court of the gods.<ref name=LARRINGTON97-98>Larrington (1999:97–98).</ref>
Thor asks Loki if his efforts were successful, and that Loki should tell him while he is still in the air as "tales often escape a sitting man, and the man lying down often barks out lies." Loki states that it was indeed an effort, and also a success, for he has discovered that Þrymr has the hammer, but that it cannot be retrieved unless Freyja is brought to Þrymr as his wife. The two return to Freyja and tell her to put on a bridal head dress, as they will drive her to Jötunheimr. Freyja, indignant and angry, goes into a rage, causing all of the halls of the Æsir to tremble in her anger, and her necklace, the famed [[Brísingamen]], falls from her. Freyja pointedly refuses.<ref name=LARRINGTON98>Larrington (1999:98).</ref>
As a result, the gods and goddesses meet and hold a [[Thing (assembly)|thing]] to discuss and debate the matter. At the thing, the god [[Heimdallr]] puts forth the suggestion that, in place of Freyja, Thor should be dressed as the bride, complete with jewels, women's clothing down to his knees, a bridal head-dress, and the necklace Brísingamen. Thor rejects the idea, yet Loki interjects that this will be the only way to get back Mjöllnir. Loki points out that, without Mjöllnir, the jötnar will be able to invade and settle in [[Asgard]]. The gods dress Thor as a bride, and Loki states that he will go with Thor as his maid, and that the two shall drive to Jötunheimr together.<ref name=LARRINGTON99>Larrington (1999:99).</ref>
After riding together in Thor's [[Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr|goat-driven chariot]], the two, disguised, arrive in Jötunheimr. Þrymr commands the jötnar in his hall to spread straw on the benches, for Freyja has arrived to be his wife. Þrymr recounts his treasured animals and objects, stating that Freyja was all that he was missing in his wealth.<ref name=LARRINGTON100>Larrington (1999:100).</ref>
Early in the evening, the disguised Loki and Thor meet with Þrymr and the assembled jötnar. Thor eats and drinks ferociously, consuming entire animals and three casks of [[mead]]. Þrymr finds the behaviour at odds with his impression of Freyja, and Loki, sitting before Þrymr and appearing as a "very shrewd maid", makes the excuse that "Freyja's" behaviour is due to her having not consumed anything for eight entire days before arriving due to her eagerness to arrive. Þrymr then lifts "Freyja's" veil and wants to kiss "her". Terrifying eyes stare back at him, seemingly burning with fire. Loki says that this is because "Freyja" has not slept for eight nights in her eagerness.<ref name=LARRINGTON100/>
The "wretched sister" of the jötnar appears, asks for a bridal gift from "Freyja", and the jötnar bring out Mjöllnir to "sanctify the bride", to lay it on her lap, and marry the two by "the hand" of the goddess [[Vár]]. Thor laughs internally when he sees the hammer, takes hold of it, strikes Þrymr, beats all of the jötnar, kills their "older sister", and so gets his hammer back.<ref name=LARRINGTON101>Larrington (1999:101).</ref>
[[File:Sun shines in the Hall.jpg|thumb|In ''Sun Shines in the Hall'' (1908) by [[W.G. Collingwood]], Thor clasps the hand of his daughter and chuckles at the "all-wise" dwarf, whom he has outwitted]]
In the poem ''[[Alvíssmál]]'', Thor tricks a [[Dwarf (Germanic mythology)|dwarf]], [[Alvíss]], to his doom upon finding that he seeks to wed his daughter (unnamed, possibly [[Þrúðr]]). As the poem starts, Thor meets a dwarf who talks about getting married. Thor finds the dwarf repulsive and, apparently, realizes that the bride is his daughter. Thor comments that the wedding agreement was made among the gods while Thor was gone, and that the dwarf must seek his consent. To do so, Thor says, Alvíss must tell him what he wants to know about [[Norse cosmology|all of the worlds]] that the dwarf has visited. In a long question and answer session, Alvíss does exactly that; he describes natural features as they are known in the languages of various races of beings in the world, and gives an amount of cosmological lore.<ref name="ALL-WISE">Larrington (1999:109—113). For Þrúðr hypothesis, see Orchard (1997:164—165).</ref>
However, the question and answer session turns out to be a ploy by Thor, as, although Thor comments that he has truly never seen anyone with more wisdom in their breast, Thor has managed to delay the dwarf enough for the Sun to turn him to stone; "day dawns on you now, dwarf, now sun shines on the hall".<ref name="LARRINGTON113">Larrington (1999:113).</ref>
In the poem ''[[Hyndluljóð]]'', Freyja offers to the jötunn woman [[Hyndla]] to [[blót]] (sacrifice) to Thor so that she may be protected, and comments that Thor does not care much for jötunn women.<ref name="LARRINGTON-254">Larrington (1999:254).</ref>
====''Prose Edda'', ''Heimskringla'', and sagas====
{{expand section|date=November 2011}}
In the prologue to his ''[[Prose Edda]]'', [[Snorri Sturluson]] [[euhemerism|euhemerises]] Thor as a prince of [[Troy]], and the son of king [[Memnon (mythology)|Memnon]] by Troana, a daughter of [[Priam]]. Thor, also known as ''Tror'', is said to have married the prophetess [[Sibyl]] (identified with [[Sif]]). Thor is further said here to have been raised in [[Thrace]] by a chieftain named [[Lorikus]], whom he later slew to assume the title of 'king of Thrace', to have had hair "fairer than gold", and to have been strong enough to lift ten bearskins.
The name of the ''aesir'' is explained as "men from [[Asia Minor|Asia]]", ''Asgard'' being the "Asian city", i.e. Troy. Alternatively, Troy is in ''Tyrkland'' (Turkey, i.e. Asia Minor), and ''Asialand'' is the name of [[Scythia]], where Thor founded a new city named Asgard. Odin is a remote descendant of Thor, removed by twelve generations, who led an expedition across Germany, Denmark and Sweden to Norway.
In the ''Prose Edda'', Thor is mentioned in all four books; ''[[Prologue (Prose Edda)|Prologue]]'', ''[[Gylfaginning]]'', ''[[Skáldskaparmál]]'', and ''[[Háttatal]]''.
In ''[[Heimskringla]]'', composed in the 13th century by [[Snorri Sturluson]], Thor or statues of Thor are mentioned in ''[[Ynglinga saga]]'', ''[[Hákonar saga Góða]]'', ''[[Ólafs saga Tryggvason]]'', and ''[[Óláfs saga helga]]''. In ''Ynglinga saga'' chapter 5, a heavily [[Euhemerus|Euhemerized]] account of the gods is provided, where Thor is described as having been a [[gothi]]—a pagan priest—who was given by Odin (who himself is explained away as having been an exceedingly powerful magic-wielding chieftain from the east) a dwelling in the mythical location of [[Þrúðvangr]], in what is now Sweden. The saga narrative adds that numerous names—at the time of the narrative, popularly in use—were derived from ''Thor''.<ref name="HOLLANDER10—11">Hollander (2007:10—11).</ref>
===Modern folklore===
Tales about Thor, or influenced by native traditions regarding Thor, continued into the modern period, particularly in Scandinavia. Writing in the 19th century, scholar [[Jacob Grimm]] records various phrases surviving into Germanic languages that refer to the god, such as Norwegian ''Thorsvarme'' ("Thor's warmth") for lightning, and the Swedish ''godgubben åfar'' ("The good old (fellow) is taking a ride") when it thunders. Grimm comments that, at times, Scandinavians often "no longer liked to utter the god's real name, or they wished to extol his fatherly goodness [...]."<ref name="GRIMM166-177">Grimm (1882:166—177).</ref>
Thor remained pictured as a red-bearded figure, as evidenced by the Danish rhyme that yet referred to him as ''Thor med sit lange skæg'' ("Thor with the long beard") and the [[Frisia]]n curse ''diis ruadhiiret donner regiir!'' ("let red-haired thunder see to that!").<ref name="GRIMM166-177"/>
A Scandinavian folk belief that lightning frightens away [[troll]]s and jötnar appears in numerous Scandinavian folktales, and may be a late reflection of Thor's role in fighting such beings. In connection, the lack of trolls and ettins in modern Scandinavia is explained as a result of the "accuracy and efficiency of the lightning strokes".<ref name="LINDOW89">See Lindow (1978:89), but noted as early as Thorpe (1851:154) who states "The dread entertained by Trolls for thunder dates from the time of paganism, Thor [ . . . ] being the deadly foe of their race".</ref>
==Archaeological record==
==Archaeological record==
Reason: ANN scored at 0.977177
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Thursday, the 22nd of October 2015 at 07:01:01 PM
Status: Reported
Thursday, the 22nd of November 2012 at 11:32:57 AM #89581
Zsfgseg (anonymous)

I want to vandalize wikipedia for days on out, including USer:Bongwarrior's page.

Thursday, the 22nd of October 2015 at 07:01:01 PM #101893
Bradley (anonymous)