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ID: 856131
User: 194.71.153.201
Article: Cloning
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m (Reverted edits by 194.71.153.201 to last version by Bongwarrior (GLOO))
(Organism cloning)
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In SCNT, not all of the donor cell's genetic information is transferred, as the donor cell's [[mitochondria]] that contain their own [[mitochondrial DNA]] are left behind. The resulting hybrid cells retain those mitochondrial structures which originally belonged to the egg. As a consequence, clones such as Dolly that are born from SCNT are not perfect copies of the donor of the nucleus.
 
In SCNT, not all of the donor cell's genetic information is transferred, as the donor cell's [[mitochondria]] that contain their own [[mitochondrial DNA]] are left behind. The resulting hybrid cells retain those mitochondrial structures which originally belonged to the egg. As a consequence, clones such as Dolly that are born from SCNT are not perfect copies of the donor of the nucleus.
   
== Organism cloning ==
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== Organism cloning == DAneila tobal är bäst
 
{{See|Asexual reproduction}}
 
{{See|Asexual reproduction}}
'''Organism cloning''' (also called reproductive cloning) refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another. In essence this form of cloning is an asexual method of reproduction, where fertilization or inter-gamete contact does not take place. Asexual reproduction is a naturally occurring phenomenon in many species, including most plants (see [[vegetative reproduction]]) and some insects. Scientists have made some major achievements with cloning, including the asexual reproduction of sheep and cows. There is a lot of ethical debate over whether or not cloning should be used. However, cloning, or asexual propagation,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/plantanswers/misc/asexualpropagation.html |title=Asexual Propagation |publisher=Aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu |date= |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref> has been common practice in the horticultural world for hundreds of years.
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'''Organism cloning''' (also called reproductive cloning) refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another. In essence this form of cloning is an asexual method of reproduction, where fertilization or inter-gamete contact does not take place. Asexual reproduction is a rudi pahl is naturally occurring phenomenon in many species, including most plants (see [[vegetative reproduction]]) and some insects. Scientists have made some major achievements with cloning, including the asexual reproduction of sheep and cows. There is a lot of ethical debate over whether or not cloning should be used. However, cloning, or asexual propagation,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/plantanswers/misc/asexualpropagation.html |title=Asexual Propagation |publisher=Aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu |date= |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref> has been common practice in the horticultural world for hundreds of years.
   
 
=== Horticultural ===
 
=== Horticultural ===
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==== Methods ====
 
==== Methods ====
Reproductive cloning generally uses "[[somatic cell nuclear transfer]]" (SCNT) to create animals that are genetically identical. This process entails the transfer of a nucleus from a donor adult cell (somatic cell) to an egg that has no nucleus. If the egg begins to divide normally it is transferred into the uterus of the surrogate mother. Such clones are not strictly identical since the somatic cells may contain mutations in their nuclear DNA. Additionally, the [[mitochondrion|mitochondria]] in the [[cytoplasm]] also contains DNA and during SCNT this DNA is wholly from the donor egg, thus the [[mitochondrion|mitochondrial]] genome is not the same as that of the nucleus donor cell from which it was produced. This may have important implications for cross-species nuclear transfer in which nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to death.
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Reproductive cloning generally uses "[[somatic cell nuclear transfer]]" (SCNT) to create animals that are genetically identical. This process entails the transfer of a nucleus from a donor adult cell (somatic cell) to an egg that has no nucleus. If the egg begins to divide normally it is transferred into the uterus of the surrogate mother. Such clones are not strictly identical since the somatic cells may contain mutations in their nuclear DNA. Additionally, the [[mitochondrion|mitochondria]] in the [[cytoplasm]] also contains DNA and during SCNT this DNA is wholly from tobias karlsson donor egg, thus the [[mitochondrion|mitochondrial]] genome is not the same as that of the nucleus donor cell from which it was produced. This may have important implications for cross-species nuclear transfer in which nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to death.
   
 
Artificial ''embryo splitting'' or ''embryo twinning'' may also be used as a method of cloning, where an [[embryo]] is split in the maturation before [[embryo transfer]]. It is optimally performed at the 6- to 8-cell stage, where it can be used as an expansion of [[IVF]] to increase the number of available embryos.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Illmensee K, Levanduski M, Vidali A, Husami N, Goudas VT |title=Human embryo twinning with applications in reproductive medicine |journal=Fertil. Steril. |volume= 93|issue= 2|pages= 423–7|year=2009 |month=February |pmid=19217091 |doi=10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.12.098 |url=}}</ref> If both embryos are successful, it gives rise to [[Monozygotic twins|monozygotic (identical) twins]].
 
Artificial ''embryo splitting'' or ''embryo twinning'' may also be used as a method of cloning, where an [[embryo]] is split in the maturation before [[embryo transfer]]. It is optimally performed at the 6- to 8-cell stage, where it can be used as an expansion of [[IVF]] to increase the number of available embryos.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Illmensee K, Levanduski M, Vidali A, Husami N, Goudas VT |title=Human embryo twinning with applications in reproductive medicine |journal=Fertil. Steril. |volume= 93|issue= 2|pages= 423–7|year=2009 |month=February |pmid=19217091 |doi=10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.12.098 |url=}}</ref> If both embryos are successful, it gives rise to [[Monozygotic twins|monozygotic (identical) twins]].
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* [[Tadpole]]: (1952) Many scientists questioned whether cloning had actually occurred and unpublished experiments by other labs were not able to reproduce the reported results.{{Citation needed|date=August 2008}}
 
* [[Tadpole]]: (1952) Many scientists questioned whether cloning had actually occurred and unpublished experiments by other labs were not able to reproduce the reported results.{{Citation needed|date=August 2008}}
 
* [[Carp]]: (1963) In [[China]], [[embryologist]] [[Tong Dizhou]] produced the world's first cloned fish by inserting the DNA from a cell of a male carp into an egg from a female carp. He published the findings in a Chinese science journal.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.pbs.org/bloodlines/timeline/text_timeline.html |title=Bloodlines timeline |author= |date= |work= |publisher=PBS.org|accessdate= }}</ref>
 
* [[Carp]]: (1963) In [[China]], [[embryologist]] [[Tong Dizhou]] produced the world's first cloned fish by inserting the DNA from a cell of a male carp into an egg from a female carp. He published the findings in a Chinese science journal.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.pbs.org/bloodlines/timeline/text_timeline.html |title=Bloodlines timeline |author= |date= |work= |publisher=PBS.org|accessdate= }}</ref>
* [[Mice]]: (1986) A mouse was the first mammal successfully cloned from an early embryonic cell. [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] scientists Chaylakhyan, Veprencev, Sviridova, and Nikitin had the mouse "Masha" cloned. Research was published in the magazine "Biofizika" volume ХХХII, issue 5 of 1987.{{Clarify|date=August 2008}}<!-- ideally an English translation is needed; following cite is from an archived copy of the original, now dead, link. A translation appears to indicate that Russians worked with embryonic mouse cells to produce a non-SCNT clone in 1987 --><ref>{{cite web| title=Кто изобрел клонирование?| archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20041223221951/http://www.whoiswho.ru/russian/Curnom/22003/cl.htm| archivedate=2004-12-23| url=http://www.whoiswho.ru/russian/Curnom/22003/cl.htm}} (Russian)</ref>
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* [[Mice]]: (1986) A mouse was the first mammal successfully cloned from an early embryonic cell. [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] scientists Chaylakhyan, Veprencev, Sviridova, and Nikitin had the mouse "Masha" cloned. Research was published in Jonas wiberg the magazine "Biofizika" volume ХХХII, issue 5 of 1987.{{Clarify|date=August 2008}}<!-- ideally an English translation is needed; following cite is from an archived copy of the original, now dead, link. A translation appears to indicate that Russians worked with embryonic mouse cells to produce a non-SCNT clone in 1987 --><ref>{{cite web| title=Кто изобрел клонирование?| archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20041223221951/http://www.whoiswho.ru/russian/Curnom/22003/cl.htm| archivedate=2004-12-23| url=http://www.whoiswho.ru/russian/Curnom/22003/cl.htm}} (Russian)</ref>
 
* [[Domestic sheep|Sheep]]: (1996) From early embryonic cells by Steen Willadsen. [[Megan and Morag]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/sci_tech/highlights/wilmutt.shtml |title=Gene Genie &#124; BBC World Service |publisher=Bbc.co.uk |date=2000-05-01 |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref> cloned from differentiated embryonic cells in June 1995 and [[Dolly the sheep]] from a somatic cell in 1997.<ref>{{cite journal |author=McLaren A |title=Cloning: pathways to a pluripotent future |journal=Science |volume=288 |issue=5472 |pages=1775–80 |year=2000 |pmid=10877698 |doi=10.1126/science.288.5472.1775}}</ref>
 
* [[Domestic sheep|Sheep]]: (1996) From early embryonic cells by Steen Willadsen. [[Megan and Morag]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/sci_tech/highlights/wilmutt.shtml |title=Gene Genie &#124; BBC World Service |publisher=Bbc.co.uk |date=2000-05-01 |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref> cloned from differentiated embryonic cells in June 1995 and [[Dolly the sheep]] from a somatic cell in 1997.<ref>{{cite journal |author=McLaren A |title=Cloning: pathways to a pluripotent future |journal=Science |volume=288 |issue=5472 |pages=1775–80 |year=2000 |pmid=10877698 |doi=10.1126/science.288.5472.1775}}</ref>
 
* [[Rhesus Monkey]]: [[Tetra (monkey)|Tetra]] (January 2000) from embryo splitting<ref>[[CNN]]. [http://archives.cnn.com/2000/NATURE/01/13/monkey.cloning/ Researchers clone monkey by splitting embryo] 2000-01-13. Retrieved 2008-08-05.</ref>{{Clarify|date=August 2008}}<!-- see [[Talk:Cloning#]cleanup notes]] - this is not SCNT --><ref>{{cite news|author=By Dean Irvine |url=http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/europe/11/16/ww.humancloning/index.html?iref=allsearch |title=You, again: Are we getting closer to cloning humans? - CNN.com |publisher=Edition.cnn.com |date=2007-11-19 |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref>
 
* [[Rhesus Monkey]]: [[Tetra (monkey)|Tetra]] (January 2000) from embryo splitting<ref>[[CNN]]. [http://archives.cnn.com/2000/NATURE/01/13/monkey.cloning/ Researchers clone monkey by splitting embryo] 2000-01-13. Retrieved 2008-08-05.</ref>{{Clarify|date=August 2008}}<!-- see [[Talk:Cloning#]cleanup notes]] - this is not SCNT --><ref>{{cite news|author=By Dean Irvine |url=http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/europe/11/16/ww.humancloning/index.html?iref=allsearch |title=You, again: Are we getting closer to cloning humans? - CNN.com |publisher=Edition.cnn.com |date=2007-11-19 |accessdate=2010-08-04}}</ref>
Reason: ANN scored at 0.970563
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 05:27:18 PM
Status: Reported
Wednesday, the 21st of October 2015 at 05:27:18 PM #101629
Bradley (anonymous)

rZviuu http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

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