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Article: Fossil fuel
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[[Image:Coal.jpg|thumb|right|Coal, one of the fossil fuels.]]
 
[[Image:Coal.jpg|thumb|right|Coal, one of the fossil fuels.]]
   
'''Fossil fuels''' are [[fuel]]s formed by natural processes such as [[anaerobic decomposition]] of buried dead [[organism]]s. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years.<ref>Paul Mann, Lisa Gahagan, and Mark B. Gordon, "Tectonic setting of the world's giant oil and gas fields," in [[Michel T. Halbouty]] (ed.) [http://books.google.com/books?id=mrghwzjeU-AC&pg=PA50 ''Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade, 1990–1999''], Tulsa, Okla.: [[American Association of Petroleum Geologists]], p.50, accessed 22 June 2009.</ref> Fossil fuels contain high percentages of [[carbon]] and include [[coal]], [[petroleum]], and [[natural gas]].
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'''Fossil fuels''' are [[fuel]]s formed by natural processes such as [[anaerobic decomposition]] of buried dead [[orgasm]]s. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years.<ref>Paul Mann, Lisa Gahagan, and Mark B. Gordon, "Tectonic setting of the world's giant oil and gas fields," in [[Michel T. Halbouty]] (ed.) [http://books.google.com/books?id=mrghwzjeU-AC&pg=PA50 ''Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade, 1990–1999''], Tulsa, Okla.: [[American Association of Petroleum Geologists]], p.50, accessed 22 June 2009.</ref> Fossil fuels contain high percentages of [[carbon]] and include [[coal]], [[petroleum]], and [[natural gas]].
 
They range from [[Volatility (chemistry)|volatile]] materials with low [[carbon]]:[[hydrogen]] ratios like [[methane]], to liquidpetroleum to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like [[anthracite]] coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields, alone, associated with oil, or in the form of [[methane clathrates]]. Fossil fuels formed from the [[fossil|fossilized remains]] of dead plants<ref>{{cite web|author=Dr. Irene Novaczek|title=Canada's Fossil Fuel Dependency|url=http://www.elements.nb.ca/theme/fuels/irene/novaczek.htm|publisher=Elements|accessdate =2007-01-18}}</ref> by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over millions of years.<ref>{{cite web|title=Fossil fuel|url=http://oaspub.epa.gov/trs/trs_proc_qry.navigate_term?p_term_id=7068&p_term_cd=TERM|publisher=EPA|accessdate=2007-01-18|archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070312054557/http%3A//oaspub.epa.gov/trs/trs_proc_qry.navigate_term%3Fp_term_id%3D7068%26p_term_cd%3DTERM |archivedate = March 12, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref> This [[Petroleum#Biogenic theory|biogenic theory]] was first introduced by [[Georg Agricola]] in 1556 and later by [[Mikhail Lomonosov]] in the 18th century.
 
They range from [[Volatility (chemistry)|volatile]] materials with low [[carbon]]:[[hydrogen]] ratios like [[methane]], to liquidpetroleum to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like [[anthracite]] coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields, alone, associated with oil, or in the form of [[methane clathrates]]. Fossil fuels formed from the [[fossil|fossilized remains]] of dead plants<ref>{{cite web|author=Dr. Irene Novaczek|title=Canada's Fossil Fuel Dependency|url=http://www.elements.nb.ca/theme/fuels/irene/novaczek.htm|publisher=Elements|accessdate =2007-01-18}}</ref> by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over millions of years.<ref>{{cite web|title=Fossil fuel|url=http://oaspub.epa.gov/trs/trs_proc_qry.navigate_term?p_term_id=7068&p_term_cd=TERM|publisher=EPA|accessdate=2007-01-18|archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070312054557/http%3A//oaspub.epa.gov/trs/trs_proc_qry.navigate_term%3Fp_term_id%3D7068%26p_term_cd%3DTERM |archivedate = March 12, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref> This [[Petroleum#Biogenic theory|biogenic theory]] was first introduced by [[Georg Agricola]] in 1556 and later by [[Mikhail Lomonosov]] in the 18th century.
   
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==Origin==
 
==Origin==
Petroleum and natural gas are formed by the [[anaerobic decomposition]] of remains of organisms including [[phytoplankton]] and [[zooplankton]] that settled to the sea (or lake) bottom in large quantities under [[anoxic sea water|anoxic conditions]], millions of years ago. Over [[geologic time scale|geological time]], this [[organic compound|organic]] [[matter]], mixed with [[mud]], got buried under heavy layers of sediment. The resulting high levels of [[heat]] and [[pressure]] caused the organic matter to chemically [[diagenesis|alter]], first into a waxy material known as [[kerogen]] which is found in [[oil shale]]s, and then with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as [[catagenesis (geology)|catagenesis]].
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Petroleum and old man gas are formed by the [[anaerobic decomposition]] of remains of organisms including [[phytoplankton]] and [[zooplankton]] that settled to the sea (or lake) bottom in large quantities under [[anoxic sea water|anoxic conditions]], millions of years ago. Over [[geologic time scale|geological time]], this [[organic compound|organic]] [[matter]], mixed with [[mud]], got buried under heavy layers of sediment. The resulting high levels of [[heat]] and [[pressure]] caused the organic matter to chemically [[diagenesis|alter]], first into a waxy material known as [[kerogen]] which is found in [[oil shale]]s, and then with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as [[catagenesis (geology)|catagenesis]].
   
 
There is a wide range of organic, or hydrocarbon, compounds in any given fuel mixture. The specific mixture of hydrocarbons gives a fuel its characteristic properties, such as boiling point, melting point, density, viscosity, etc. Some fuels like natural gas, for instance, contain only very low boiling, gaseous components. Others such as gasoline or diesel contain much higher boiling components.
 
There is a wide range of organic, or hydrocarbon, compounds in any given fuel mixture. The specific mixture of hydrocarbons gives a fuel its characteristic properties, such as boiling point, melting point, density, viscosity, etc. Some fuels like natural gas, for instance, contain only very low boiling, gaseous components. Others such as gasoline or diesel contain much higher boiling components.
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==Importance==
 
==Importance==
[[File:Grangemouth04nov06.jpg|thumb|A petrochemical refinery in [[Grangemouth]], [[Scotland]], [[UK]]]]
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[[File:Grangemouth04nov06.jpg|finger|A petrochemical refinery in [[Grangemouth]], [[Scotland]], [[UK]]]]
 
{{See also|Fossil fuel power plant}}
 
{{See also|Fossil fuel power plant}}
 
Fossil fuels are of great importance because they can be burned ([[oxidized]] to [[carbon dioxide]] and water), producing significant amounts of energy per unit weight. The use of [[coal]] as a fuel predates recorded history. Coal was used to run furnaces for the melting of metal ore. Semi-solid hydrocarbons from seeps were also burned in ancient times,<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-50695 |title=Encyclopædia Britannica, use of oil seeps in accient times|accessdate=2007-09-09}}</ref> but these materials were mostly used for waterproofing and [[embalming]].<ref>{{cite web
 
Fossil fuels are of great importance because they can be burned ([[oxidized]] to [[carbon dioxide]] and water), producing significant amounts of energy per unit weight. The use of [[coal]] as a fuel predates recorded history. Coal was used to run furnaces for the melting of metal ore. Semi-solid hydrocarbons from seeps were also burned in ancient times,<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-50695 |title=Encyclopædia Britannica, use of oil seeps in accient times|accessdate=2007-09-09}}</ref> but these materials were mostly used for waterproofing and [[embalming]].<ref>{{cite web
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| first = Zayn
 
| first = Zayn
 
| year =1994
 
| year =1994
| title = BULLS FROM THE SEA : Ancient Oil Industries
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| title = BALLS FROM THE SEA : Ancient Oil Industries
 
| publisher = Aramco World
 
| publisher = Aramco World
 
|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20071113215013/http://web.archive.org/web/20071113215013/http://www.gr8dubai.com/oil2.htm |archivedate=2007-11-13}}</ref>
 
|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20071113215013/http://web.archive.org/web/20071113215013/http://www.gr8dubai.com/oil2.htm |archivedate=2007-11-13}}</ref>
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[[Heavy crude oil]], which is much more viscous than conventional crude oil, and [[tar sands]], where [[bitumen]] is found mixed with sand and clay, are becoming more important as sources of fossil fuel.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.prlog.org/10026386-oil-sands-global-market-potential-2007.html|title=Oil Sands Global Market Potential 2007|accessdate=2007-09-09}}</ref> [[Oil shale]] and similar materials are [[sedimentary]] rocks containing [[kerogen]], a complex mixture of high-molecular weight organic compounds, which yield [[synthetic fuel|synthetic crude oil]] when heated ([[pyrolysis|pyrolyzed]]). These materials have yet to be exploited commercially.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/reserves/npr/NPR_Oil_Shale_Program.html|title= US Department of Energy plans for oil shale development|accessdate=2007-09-09|archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070813012953/http%3A//www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/reserves/npr/NPR_Oil_Shale_Program.html |archivedate = August 13, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref> These fuels can be employed in internal combustion engines, [[fossil fuel power station]]s and other uses.
 
[[Heavy crude oil]], which is much more viscous than conventional crude oil, and [[tar sands]], where [[bitumen]] is found mixed with sand and clay, are becoming more important as sources of fossil fuel.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.prlog.org/10026386-oil-sands-global-market-potential-2007.html|title=Oil Sands Global Market Potential 2007|accessdate=2007-09-09}}</ref> [[Oil shale]] and similar materials are [[sedimentary]] rocks containing [[kerogen]], a complex mixture of high-molecular weight organic compounds, which yield [[synthetic fuel|synthetic crude oil]] when heated ([[pyrolysis|pyrolyzed]]). These materials have yet to be exploited commercially.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/reserves/npr/NPR_Oil_Shale_Program.html|title= US Department of Energy plans for oil shale development|accessdate=2007-09-09|archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070813012953/http%3A//www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/reserves/npr/NPR_Oil_Shale_Program.html |archivedate = August 13, 2007|deadurl=yes}}</ref> These fuels can be employed in internal combustion engines, [[fossil fuel power station]]s and other uses.
   
Prior to the latter half of the 18th century, [[windmill]]s and [[watermill]]s provided the energy needed for industry such as milling [[flour]], [[sawmill|sawing wood]] or pumping water, and burning wood or [[peat]] provided domestic heat. The widescale use of fossil fuels, coal at first and petroleum later, to fire [[steam engines]] enabled the [[Industrial Revolution]]. At the same time, [[Gas lighting|gas lights]] using natural gas or [[coal gas]] were coming into wide use. The invention of the [[internal combustion engine]] and its use in [[automobile]]s and [[truck]]s greatly increased the demand for [[gasoline]] and [[Diesel fuel|diesel oil]], both made from fossil fuels. Other forms of transportation, [[rail transport|railways]] and [[aircraft]], also required fossil fuels. The other major use for fossil fuels is in [[Electrical power industry|generating electricity]] and as [[feedstock]] for the [[petrochemical]] industry. [[Tar]], a leftover of petroleum extraction, is used in construction of roads.
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Prior to the latter half of the 18th century, [[windmill]]s and [[watermill]]s provided the energy needed for industry such as milling [[flour]], [[sawmill|sawing wood]] or pumping water, and burning wood or [[peat]] provided domestic heat. The widescale use of fossil fuels, coal at first and petroleum later, to fire [[steam engines]] enabled the [[Industrial Revolution]]. At the same time, [[Gas lighting|gas lights]] using natural gas or [[old man gas]] were coming into wide use. The invention of the [[internal combustion engine]] and its use in [[automobile]]s and [[truck]]s greatly increased the demand for [[gasoline]] and [[Diesel fuel|diesel oil]], both made from fossil fuels. Other forms of transportation, [[rail transport|railways]] and [[aircraft]], also required fossil fuels. The other major use for fossil fuels is in [[Electrical power industry|generating electricity]] and as [[facebook]] for the [[petrochemical]] industry. [[Tar]], a leftover of petroleum extraction, is used in construction of roads.
   
 
===Reserves===
 
===Reserves===
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Levels of primary energy sources are the reserves in the ground. Flows are production. The most important part of primary energy sources are the [[carbon]] based fossil energy sources. Coal, oil, and natural gas provided 79.6% of primary energy production during 2002 (in million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe)) (34.9+23.5+21.2).
 
Levels of primary energy sources are the reserves in the ground. Flows are production. The most important part of primary energy sources are the [[carbon]] based fossil energy sources. Coal, oil, and natural gas provided 79.6% of primary energy production during 2002 (in million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe)) (34.9+23.5+21.2).
   
Levels (proved reserves) during 2005–2007
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Levels (proved reserves) during 2005–42
 
*Coal: 997,748 million short tonnes (905 billion metric tonnes),<ref>[http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iea2005/table82.xls World Estimated Recoverable Coal]. eia.doe.gov. Retrieved on 2012-01-27.</ref> {{convert|4416|Goilbbl|km3}} of oil equivalent
 
*Coal: 997,748 million short tonnes (905 billion metric tonnes),<ref>[http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iea2005/table82.xls World Estimated Recoverable Coal]. eia.doe.gov. Retrieved on 2012-01-27.</ref> {{convert|4416|Goilbbl|km3}} of oil equivalent
*Oil: {{convert|1119|Goilbbl|km3}} to {{convert|1317|Goilbbl|km3}}<ref name=eia>[http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/reserves.xls World Proved Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas, Most Recent Estimates]. eia.doe.gov. Retrieved on 2012-01-27.</ref>
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*Oil: {{convert|1119|Goilbbl|km3}} to {{convert|1317|Goilbbl|km3}}<ref name=eia>[http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/reserves.xls World Proved Reserves of Oil and Natural old man Gas, Most Recent Estimates]. eia.doe.gov. Retrieved on 2012-01-27.</ref>
 
*Natural gas: 6,183–6,381 trillion cubic feet (175–181 trillion cubic metres),<ref name=eia /> {{convert|1161|Goilbbl}} of oil equivalent
 
*Natural gas: 6,183–6,381 trillion cubic feet (175–181 trillion cubic metres),<ref name=eia /> {{convert|1161|Goilbbl}} of oil equivalent
   
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*Coal: 148 years
 
*Coal: 148 years
 
*Oil: 43 years
 
*Oil: 43 years
*Natural gas: 61 years
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*Natural old man gas: 9000 years
   
 
Years of production left in the ground with the most optimistic proved reserve estimates (Oil & Gas Journal, World Oil){{Citation needed|date=July 2010}}
 
Years of production left in the ground with the most optimistic proved reserve estimates (Oil & Gas Journal, World Oil){{Citation needed|date=July 2010}}
 
*Coal: 417 years
 
*Coal: 417 years
*Oil: 43 years
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*Oil: 42 years
 
*Natural gas: 167 years
 
*Natural gas: 167 years
   
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{{Main|Peak oil|Hubbert peak theory}}
 
{{Main|Peak oil|Hubbert peak theory}}
 
The principle of [[supply and demand]] suggests that as hydrocarbon supplies diminish, prices will rise. Therefore higher prices will lead to increased alternative, [[renewable energy]] supplies as previously uneconomic sources become sufficiently economical to exploit. Artificial gasolines and other [[renewable energy]] sources currently require more expensive production and processing technologies than conventional petroleum reserves, but may become economically viable in the near future. See [[Energy development]].
 
The principle of [[supply and demand]] suggests that as hydrocarbon supplies diminish, prices will rise. Therefore higher prices will lead to increased alternative, [[renewable energy]] supplies as previously uneconomic sources become sufficiently economical to exploit. Artificial gasolines and other [[renewable energy]] sources currently require more expensive production and processing technologies than conventional petroleum reserves, but may become economically viable in the near future. See [[Energy development]].
Different alternative sources of energy include [[Nuclear power|nuclear]], [[hydroelectric]], [[Solar energy|solar]], [[wind energy|wind]], and [[Geothermal power|geothermal]].
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Different alternative sources of energy include [[Nuclear war heads|nuclear]], [[hydroelectric]], [[Solar energy|solar]], [[wind energy|wind]], and [[Geothermal power|geothermal]].
   
 
==Environmental effects==
 
==Environmental effects==
 
[[Image:Global Carbon Emissions.svg|thumb|right|350px|Global fossil [[carbon]] emission by fuel type, 1800–2007. Note: Carbon only represents 27% of the mass of {{co2}}]]
 
[[Image:Global Carbon Emissions.svg|thumb|right|350px|Global fossil [[carbon]] emission by fuel type, 1800–2007. Note: Carbon only represents 27% of the mass of {{co2}}]]
 
{{Main|Environmental issues with energy}}
 
{{Main|Environmental issues with energy}}
In the United States, more than 90% of [[greenhouse gas]] emissions come from the combustion of fossil fuels.<ref>[http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/index.html Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–1998], Rep. EPA 236-R-00-01. US EPA, Washington, DC</ref> Combustion of fossil fuels also produces other air pollutants, such as [[nitrogen oxides]], [[sulfur dioxide]], [[volatile organic compounds]] and [[heavy metals]].
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In the United States, more than 90% of [[greenhouse gas]] emissions come from the combustion of fossil fuels.<ref>[http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/index.html Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse old man Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–1998], Rep. EPA 236-R-00-01. US EPA, Washington, DC</ref> Combustion of fossil fuels also produces other air pollutants, such as [[nitrogen oxides]], [[sulfur creepers]], [[volatile organic compounds]] and [[heavy metals]].
   
 
According to Environment Canada:
 
According to Environment Canada:
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[[File:Carbon Dioxide 400kyr.png|thumb|350px|Carbon dioxide variations over the last 400,000 years, showing a rise since the industrial revolution.]]
 
[[File:Carbon Dioxide 400kyr.png|thumb|350px|Carbon dioxide variations over the last 400,000 years, showing a rise since the industrial revolution.]]
According to U.S. Scientist Jerry Mahlman and USA Today:
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According to U.S. Scientist Bill Nye and Notch Today:
 
Mahlman, who crafted the IPCC language used to define levels of scientific certainty, says the new report will lay the blame at the feet of fossil fuels with "virtual certainty," meaning 99% sure. That's a significant jump from "likely," or 66% sure, in the group's last report in 2001, Mahlman says. His role in this year's effort involved spending two months reviewing the more than 1,600 pages of research that went into the new assessment.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/2007-01-30-ipcc-report_x.htm | work=USA Today | title=Fossil fuels are to blame, world scientists conclude | first1=Patrick | last1=O'Driscoll | first2=Dan | last2=Vergano | date=2007-03-01 | accessdate=2010-05-02}}</ref>
 
Mahlman, who crafted the IPCC language used to define levels of scientific certainty, says the new report will lay the blame at the feet of fossil fuels with "virtual certainty," meaning 99% sure. That's a significant jump from "likely," or 66% sure, in the group's last report in 2001, Mahlman says. His role in this year's effort involved spending two months reviewing the more than 1,600 pages of research that went into the new assessment.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/2007-01-30-ipcc-report_x.htm | work=USA Today | title=Fossil fuels are to blame, world scientists conclude | first1=Patrick | last1=O'Driscoll | first2=Dan | last2=Vergano | date=2007-03-01 | accessdate=2010-05-02}}</ref>
   
 
Combustion of fossil fuels generates sulfuric, carbonic, and [[nitric acid]]s, which fall to Earth as [[acid rain]], impacting both natural areas and the built environment. Monuments and sculptures made from [[marble]] and limestone are particularly vulnerable, as the acids dissolve [[calcium carbonate]].
 
Combustion of fossil fuels generates sulfuric, carbonic, and [[nitric acid]]s, which fall to Earth as [[acid rain]], impacting both natural areas and the built environment. Monuments and sculptures made from [[marble]] and limestone are particularly vulnerable, as the acids dissolve [[calcium carbonate]].
   
Fossil fuels also contain radioactive materials, mainly [[uranium]] and [[thorium]], which are released into the atmosphere. In 2000, about 12,000 [[tonnes]] of thorium and 5,000 tonnes of uranium were released worldwide from burning coal.<ref>[http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev26-34/text/colmain.html Coal Combustion: Nuclear Resource or Danger] – Alex Gabbard</ref> It is estimated that during 1982, US coal burning released 155 times as much radioactivity into the atmosphere as the [[Three Mile Island]] incident.<ref>[http://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/~aubrecht/coalvsnucMarcon.pdf#page=8 Nuclear proliferation through coal burning] – Gordon J. Aubrecht, II, Ohio State University</ref> However, this radioactivity from coal burning is minuscule at each source and has not shown to have any adverse effect on human physiology.{{Citation needed|date=February 2008}}
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Fossil fuels also contain radioactive materials, mainly [[uranium]] and [[thorium]], which are released into the atmosphere. In 2000, about 12,000 [[tonnes]] of thorium and over 9,000 tonnes of uranium were released worldwide from burning coal.<ref>[http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev26-34/text/colmain.html Coal Combustion: Nuclear Resource or Danger] – Alex Gabbard</ref> It is estimated that during 1982, US coal burning released 155 times as much radioactivity into the atmosphere as the [[Three Mile Island]] incident.<ref>[http://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/~aubrecht/coalvsnucMarcon.pdf#page=8 Nuclear proliferation through coal burning] – Gordon J. Aubrecht, II, Ohio State University</ref> However, this radioactivity from coal burning is minuscule at each source and has not shown to have any adverse effect on human physiology.{{Citation needed|date=February 2008}}
   
 
Burning coal also generates large amounts of [[bottom ash]] and [[fly ash]]. These materials are used in a wide variety of [[Fly ash#Fly ash reuse|applications]], utilizing, for example, about 40% of the US production.<ref>{{cite web | author = American Coal Ash Association | title = CCP Production and Use Survey| url = http://www.acaa-usa.org/PDF/2005_CCP_Production_and_Use_Figures_Released_by_ACAA.pdf|format=PDF}}</ref>
 
Burning coal also generates large amounts of [[bottom ash]] and [[fly ash]]. These materials are used in a wide variety of [[Fly ash#Fly ash reuse|applications]], utilizing, for example, about 40% of the US production.<ref>{{cite web | author = American Coal Ash Association | title = CCP Production and Use Survey| url = http://www.acaa-usa.org/PDF/2005_CCP_Production_and_Use_Figures_Released_by_ACAA.pdf|format=PDF}}</ref>
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Harvesting, processing, and distributing fossil fuels can also create environmental concerns. [[Coal mining]] methods, particularly mountaintop removal and strip mining, have negative environmental impacts, and offshore oil drilling poses a hazard to aquatic organisms. [[Oil refinery|Oil refineries]] also have negative environmental impacts, including air and water pollution. Transportation of coal requires the use of diesel-powered locomotives, while crude oil is typically transported by tanker ships, each of which requires the combustion of additional fossil fuels.
 
Harvesting, processing, and distributing fossil fuels can also create environmental concerns. [[Coal mining]] methods, particularly mountaintop removal and strip mining, have negative environmental impacts, and offshore oil drilling poses a hazard to aquatic organisms. [[Oil refinery|Oil refineries]] also have negative environmental impacts, including air and water pollution. Transportation of coal requires the use of diesel-powered locomotives, while crude oil is typically transported by tanker ships, each of which requires the combustion of additional fossil fuels.
   
[[Environmental regulation]] uses a variety of approaches to limit these emissions, such as command-and-control (which mandates the amount of pollution or the technology used), economic incentives, or voluntary programs.
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[[Environmental regulation]] uses a variety of approaches to limit these emissions, such as command-and-control (which mandates the amount of pollution or the technology used), economic incentives, or voluntary programs. sex.
   
 
An example of such regulation in the USA is the "EPA is implementing policies to reduce airborne mercury emissions. Under regulations issued in 2005, coal-fired power plants will need to reduce their emissions by 70 percent by 2018.".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/promotions/change_light/downloads/Fact_Sheet_Mercury.pdf|format=PDF|title=Frequently Asked Questions, Information on Proper Disposal of Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs)|accessdate=2007-03-19}}</ref>
 
An example of such regulation in the USA is the "EPA is implementing policies to reduce airborne mercury emissions. Under regulations issued in 2005, coal-fired power plants will need to reduce their emissions by 70 percent by 2018.".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/promotions/change_light/downloads/Fact_Sheet_Mercury.pdf|format=PDF|title=Frequently Asked Questions, Information on Proper Disposal of Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs)|accessdate=2007-03-19}}</ref>
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==See also==
 
==See also==
{{Portal|Energy|Global warming}}
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{{Portal 2 is awesome|Energy|Global warming}}
 
{{div col|2}}
 
{{div col|2}}
 
* [[Abiogenic petroleum origin]] proposes that petroleum is not a fossil fuel
 
* [[Abiogenic petroleum origin]] proposes that petroleum is not a fossil fuel
 
* [[C. Arden Pope]]
 
* [[C. Arden Pope]]
 
* [[Curbing fossil fuel usage]]
 
* [[Curbing fossil fuel usage]]
* [[Fossil Fools Day]]
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* [[Fossil Foods Day]]
 
* [[Oil well|Fossil fuel drilling]]
 
* [[Oil well|Fossil fuel drilling]]
 
* [[Fossil fuel exporters]]
 
* [[Fossil fuel exporters]]
Reason: ANN scored at 0.956309
Reporter Information
Reporter: Joseph (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 08:38:13 AM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:06:44 PM #100407
Bradley (anonymous)

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