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ID: 888987
User: 209.7.244.20
Article: Cystic fibrosis
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==Signs and symptoms==
 
==Signs and symptoms==
   
[[File:Cystic fibrosis manifestations.png|400px|thumb|right|A diagram showing clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis<ref name="isbn0-8089-2325-0">{{cite book | author = Kliegman, Robert; Richard M Kliegman | authorlink = | editor = | others = | title = Nelson essentials of pediatrics | edition = | language = | publisher = Elsevier Saunders | location = St. Louis, Mo | year = 2006 | origyear = | pages = | quote = | isbn = 0-8089-2325-0 | oclc = | doi = | url = | accessdate = }}</ref>]]
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[[File:Cystic fibrosis manifestations.png|400px|thumb|right|A diagram showing clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis<ref name="isbn0-8089-2325-0">{{cite book | author = Kliegman, Robert; Richard M Kliegman | authorlink = | editor = | others = | title = Nelson essentials of pediatrics | edition = | language = | publisher = Elsevier Saunders | location = St. Louis, Mo | year = 2006 | origyear = | pages = | quote = | isbn = 0-8089-\cnvdjzc
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c = | doi = | url = | accessdate = }}</ref>]]
 
The hallmark symptoms of cystic fibrosis are salty tasting [[skin]],<ref name="pmid17557942">{{cite journal | author = Quinton PM | title = Cystic fibrosis: lessons from the sweat gland | journal = Physiology (Bethesda) | volume = 22 | issue = 3| pages = 212–25 | year = 2007 | month = June | pmid = 17557942 | doi = 10.1152/physiol.00041.2006 | url = http://nips.physiology.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17557942 }}</ref> poor growth and poor weight gain despite a normal food intake,<ref name="pmid15339250">{{cite journal | author = Hardin DS | title = GH improves growth and clinical status in children with cystic fibrosis -- a review of published studies | journal = Eur. J. Endocrinol. | volume = 151 Suppl 1 | issue = | pages = S81–5 | year = 2004 | month = August | pmid = 15339250 | doi = 10.1530/eje.0.151S081 | url = http://eje-online.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15339250 }}</ref> accumulation of thick, sticky mucus,<ref name="pmid19726878">{{cite journal | author = De Lisle RC | title = Pass the bicarb: the importance of HCO3- for mucin release | journal = J. Clin. Invest. | volume = 119 | issue = 9 | pages = 2535–7 | year = 2009 | month = September | pmid = 19726878 | pmc = 2735941| doi = 10.1172/JCI40598 }}</ref> frequent chest infections and coughing or shortness of breath.<ref name="pmid19393108">{{cite journal | author = O'Malley CA | title = Infection control in cystic fibrosis: cohorting, cross-contamination, and the respiratory therapist | journal = Respir Care | volume = 54 | issue = 5 | pages = 641–57 | year = 2009 | month = May | pmid = 19393108 | doi = 10.4187/aarc0446| url = http://www.rcjournal.com/contents/05.09/05.09.0641.pdf }}</ref> Males can be [[infertility|infertile]] due to [[congenital absence of the vas deferens]].<ref name="pmid19535829">{{cite journal | author = Makker K, Agarwal A, Sharma R | title = Oxidative stress & male infertility | journal = Indian J. Med. Res. | volume = 129 | issue = 4 | pages = 357–67 | year = 2009 | month = April | pmid = 19535829 | doi = | url = http://www.icmr.nic.in/ijmr/2009/april/0403.pdf }}</ref> Symptoms often appear in infancy and childhood, such as [[bowel obstruction]] due to [[meconium ileus]] in newborn babies.<ref name="pmid17030173">{{cite journal | author = Blackman SM, Deering-Brose R, McWilliams R, ''et al.'' | title = Relative contribution of genetic and nongenetic modifiers to intestinal obstruction in cystic fibrosis | journal = Gastroenterology | volume = 131 | issue = 4 | pages = 1030–9 | year = 2006 | month = October | pmid = 17030173 | pmc = 1764617 | doi = 10.1053/j.gastro.2006.07.016 | url = http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0016-5085(06)01659-3 }}</ref> As the child grows, they must exercise to release mucus in the alveoli.<ref name="pmid19393104">{{cite journal | author = Ratjen FA | title = Cystic fibrosis: pathogenesis and future treatment strategies | journal = Respir Care | volume = 54 | issue = 5 | pages = 595–605 | year = 2009 | month = May | pmid = 19393104 | doi = 10.4187/aarc0427| url = http://www.rcjournal.com/contents/05.09/05.09.0595.pdf }}</ref> [[cilium|Ciliated]] [[epithelium|epithelial cells]] in the patient have a mutated protein that leads to abnormally viscous mucus production.<ref name="pmid19726878" /> The poor growth in children typically presents as an inability to gain weight or height at the same rate as their peers and is occasionally not diagnosed until investigation is initiated for poor growth. The causes of growth failure are multi-factorial and include chronic lung infection, poor absorption of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract, and increased metabolic demand due to chronic illness.<ref name="pmid15339250" />
 
The hallmark symptoms of cystic fibrosis are salty tasting [[skin]],<ref name="pmid17557942">{{cite journal | author = Quinton PM | title = Cystic fibrosis: lessons from the sweat gland | journal = Physiology (Bethesda) | volume = 22 | issue = 3| pages = 212–25 | year = 2007 | month = June | pmid = 17557942 | doi = 10.1152/physiol.00041.2006 | url = http://nips.physiology.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17557942 }}</ref> poor growth and poor weight gain despite a normal food intake,<ref name="pmid15339250">{{cite journal | author = Hardin DS | title = GH improves growth and clinical status in children with cystic fibrosis -- a review of published studies | journal = Eur. J. Endocrinol. | volume = 151 Suppl 1 | issue = | pages = S81–5 | year = 2004 | month = August | pmid = 15339250 | doi = 10.1530/eje.0.151S081 | url = http://eje-online.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15339250 }}</ref> accumulation of thick, sticky mucus,<ref name="pmid19726878">{{cite journal | author = De Lisle RC | title = Pass the bicarb: the importance of HCO3- for mucin release | journal = J. Clin. Invest. | volume = 119 | issue = 9 | pages = 2535–7 | year = 2009 | month = September | pmid = 19726878 | pmc = 2735941| doi = 10.1172/JCI40598 }}</ref> frequent chest infections and coughing or shortness of breath.<ref name="pmid19393108">{{cite journal | author = O'Malley CA | title = Infection control in cystic fibrosis: cohorting, cross-contamination, and the respiratory therapist | journal = Respir Care | volume = 54 | issue = 5 | pages = 641–57 | year = 2009 | month = May | pmid = 19393108 | doi = 10.4187/aarc0446| url = http://www.rcjournal.com/contents/05.09/05.09.0641.pdf }}</ref> Males can be [[infertility|infertile]] due to [[congenital absence of the vas deferens]].<ref name="pmid19535829">{{cite journal | author = Makker K, Agarwal A, Sharma R | title = Oxidative stress & male infertility | journal = Indian J. Med. Res. | volume = 129 | issue = 4 | pages = 357–67 | year = 2009 | month = April | pmid = 19535829 | doi = | url = http://www.icmr.nic.in/ijmr/2009/april/0403.pdf }}</ref> Symptoms often appear in infancy and childhood, such as [[bowel obstruction]] due to [[meconium ileus]] in newborn babies.<ref name="pmid17030173">{{cite journal | author = Blackman SM, Deering-Brose R, McWilliams R, ''et al.'' | title = Relative contribution of genetic and nongenetic modifiers to intestinal obstruction in cystic fibrosis | journal = Gastroenterology | volume = 131 | issue = 4 | pages = 1030–9 | year = 2006 | month = October | pmid = 17030173 | pmc = 1764617 | doi = 10.1053/j.gastro.2006.07.016 | url = http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0016-5085(06)01659-3 }}</ref> As the child grows, they must exercise to release mucus in the alveoli.<ref name="pmid19393104">{{cite journal | author = Ratjen FA | title = Cystic fibrosis: pathogenesis and future treatment strategies | journal = Respir Care | volume = 54 | issue = 5 | pages = 595–605 | year = 2009 | month = May | pmid = 19393104 | doi = 10.4187/aarc0427| url = http://www.rcjournal.com/contents/05.09/05.09.0595.pdf }}</ref> [[cilium|Ciliated]] [[epithelium|epithelial cells]] in the patient have a mutated protein that leads to abnormally viscous mucus production.<ref name="pmid19726878" /> The poor growth in children typically presents as an inability to gain weight or height at the same rate as their peers and is occasionally not diagnosed until investigation is initiated for poor growth. The causes of growth failure are multi-factorial and include chronic lung infection, poor absorption of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract, and increased metabolic demand due to chronic illness.<ref name="pmid15339250" />
   
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Reporter: JimmiXzS (anonymous)
Date: Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:39:46 PM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:29:05 PM #100454
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Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:39:46 PM #106424
JimmiXzS (anonymous)

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