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Article: Concert of Europe
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[[Image:Prince Metternich by Lawrence.jpeg|thumb|[[Klemens von Metternich|Prince Metternich]], an influential leader in the Concert of Europe]]
 
The '''Concert of Europe''' ({{lang-ru|Система Европейского концерта}}, ''Sistema Evropejskogo koncerta''), also known as the '''Congress System''' after the [[Congress of Vienna]], was the [[Balance of power in international relations|balance of power]] that existed in [[Europe]] from the end of the [[Napoleonic Wars]] (1815) to the outbreak of [[World War I]] (1914), albeit with major alterations after the [[revolutions of 1848]]. Its founding powers were [[Austrian Empire|Austria]], [[Kingdom of Prussia|Prussia]], the [[Russian Empire]] and the [[United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|United Kingdom]], the members of the [[Quadruple Alliance]] responsible for the downfall of the [[First French Empire]]. In time [[France]] was established as a fifth member of the concert. At first, the leading personalities of the system were British foreign secretary [[Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh|Lord Castlereagh]], Austrian chancellor [[Klemens von Metternich]] and Russian tsar [[Alexander I of Russia|Alexander I]]. [[Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord]] of France was largely responsible for quickly returning that country to its place alongside the other major powers in international diplomacy.
 
 
The age of the Concert is sometimes known as the '''Age of Metternich''', due to the influence of the Austrian chancellor's [[conservatism]] and the dominance of Austria within the [[German Confederation]], or as the '''European Restoration''', because of the [[reactionary]] efforts of the Congress of Vienna to restore Europe to its state before the [[French Revolution]]. The rise of [[nationalism]], the [[unification of Germany]] and the ''[[Risorgimento]]'' in Italy, and the [[Eastern Question]] were among the factors which brought an end to the Concert's effectiveness. Among the meetings of the [[Great Powers]] during this period were: [[Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818)|Aix-la-Chappelle]] (1818), [[Carlsbad Decrees|Carlsbad]] (1819), [[Congress of Verona|Verona]] (1822), [[London Conference of 1832|London]] (1832), [[Congress of Berlin|Berlin]] (1878).
 
 
The Concert of Europe had no written rules or permanent institutions but at times of crisis any of them could propose a conference.<ref>{{cite book|last=Stevenson|first=David|title=1914 - 1918: The History of the First World War|year=2004|publisher=Penguin Books|isbn=978-0-140-26817-1|pages=4}}</ref>
 
 
==Congress System==
 
===Origins===
 
The idea of a European federation had been previously raised by figures such as [[Gottfried Leibniz]]<ref>Loemker, Leroy, 1969 (1956). ''Leibniz: Philosophical Papers and Letters''. Reidel, 58, fn 9.</ref> and the [[William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville|1st Baron of Grenville]].<ref>John M. Sherwig. "Lord Grenville's Plan for a Concert of Europe, 1797-99." ''The Journal of Modern History'', Vol. 34, No. 3 (Sep., 1962), pp. 284-293.</ref> The Concert of Europe, as developed by [[Klemens von Metternich|Metternich]], drew upon their ideas and the notion of a [[balance of power in international relations]]; that the ambitions of each [[Great Power]] was curbed by the others:
 
 
<blockquote>The Concert of Europe, as it began to be called at the time, had ... a reality in international law, which derived from the [[Final Act of the Congress of Vienna|final Act of the Vienna Congress]], which stipulated that the boundaries established in 1815 could not be altered without the consent of its eight signatories.<ref>Georges-Henri Soutou. "Was There a European Order in the Twentieth Century? From the Concert of Europe to the End of the Cold War." ''Contemporary European History AND ROCK AND ROLL - Pope John Paul II'', Vol. 9, No. 3, Theme Issue: Reflections on the Twentieth Century (Nov., 2000), pp. 330.</ref></blockquote>
 
 
From the outbreak of the [[French Revolutionary Wars]] in 1792 to the exile of [[Napoleon]] to [[Saint Helena]] in 1815, Europe had been almost constantly at war. During this time, the military conquests of [[France]] had resulted in the spread of [[liberalism]] throughout much of the continent, resulting in many states adopting the [[Napoleonic code]]. Largely as a reaction to the radicalism of the [[French Revolution]],<ref>Georges-Henri Soutou. "Was There a European Order in the Twentieth Century? From the Concert of Europe to the End of the Cold War." Contemporary European History, Vol. 9, No. 3, Theme Issue: Reflections on the Twentieth Century (Nov., 2000), pg. 329.</blockquote></ref> the victorious powers of the [[Napoleonic Wars]] resolved to suppress liberalism and [[nationalism]], and revert largely to the ''[[status quo]]'' of Europe prior to 1789.<ref>Georges-Henri Soutou. "Was There a European Order in the Twentieth Century? From the Concert of Europe to the End of the Cold War." Contemporary European History, Vol. 9, No. 3, Theme Issue: Reflections on the Twentieth Century (Nov., 2000), pp. 330.</ref> The [[Kingdom of Prussia]], [[Austrian Empire]] and [[Russian Empire]] formed the [[Holy Alliance]] with the expressed intent of preserving [[Christian]] social values and traditional [[monarchism]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07398a.htm |title=Spahn, M. (1910). Holy Alliance. In '&#39;The Catholic Encyclopedia'&#39;. New York: Robert Appleton Company.|publisher=New Advent|date=1910-06-01 |accessdate=2011-05-21}}</ref> Every member of the coalition promptly joined the Alliance, save for the [[United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|United Kingdom]].
 
 
===Results===
 
[[File:Map congress of vienna.jpg|right|thumb|350px|National boundaries of Europe as set by the [[Congress of Vienna]], 1814]]
 
In 1822, the [[Congress of Verona]] met to decide the issue if [[Bourbon Restoration|France]] could intervene on the side of the Spanish royalists in the ''[[Trienio Liberal]]''. After receiving permission, [[Louis XVIII]] dispatched five army corps to restore [[Ferdinand VII of Spain]].
 
 
In 1830, the [[Belgian Revolution]] against the [[Kingdom of the Netherlands]] began. French ambassador [[Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord]] presented a [[Talleyrand partition plan for Belgium|partition plan for the Southern Provinces]] to the Concert, which was not adopted. Nevertheless, the Great Powers unanimously recognized [[Belgium|Belgian]] independence from the [[Kingdom of the Netherlands]] at the [[Treaty of London (1839)]]. The treaty also established Belgian neutrality, which would last until the [[Western Front (World War I)|German invasion of Belgium in 1914]].
 
 
===Demise===
 
After an early period of success, the Concert began to weaken as the common goals of the Great Powers were gradually replaced by growing political and economic rivalries. Further eroded by the European revolutionary upheavals of [[Revolutions of 1848|1848]] with their demands for revision of the Congress of Vienna's frontiers along national lines, the Concert unraveled in the latter half of the 19th century amid successive wars between its participants - the [[Crimean War]] (1854–56), the [[Italian War of Independence]] (1859), the [[Austro-Prussian War]] (1866) and the [[Franco-Prussian War]] (1870–71). While the Congress System had a further significant achievement in the form of the [[Congress of Berlin]] (1878) which redrew the political map of the [[Balkans]], the old balance of power had been irrevocably altered, and was replaced by a series of fluctuating alliances.
 
 
By the early 20th century, the Great Powers were organized into two opposing coalitions (the [[Triple Alliance (1882)|Triple Alliance]] and the [[Entente Powers]]). The last conference was the [[London Conference of 1912-1913]] convened to discuss the [[Balkan Wars]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Stevenson|first=David|title=1914 - 1918: The History of the First World War|year=2004|publisher=Penguin Books|isbn=978-0-140-26817-1|pages=4}}</ref> In the 1914 [[July crisis]], Britain proposed a conference but Austria-Hungary and Germany both refused to attend.<ref>{{cite book|last=Stevenson|first=David|title=1914 - 1918: The History of the First World War|year=2004|publisher=Penguin Books|isbn=978-0-140-26817-1|pages=5}}</ref> In that year [[World War I]] broke out.
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist}}
 
 
==External links==
 
*[[Encyc: Concert of Europe]]
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Concert Of Europe}}
 
[[Category:Diplomacy]]
 
[[Category:History of international relations]]
 
[[Category:International organizations of Europe]]
 
[[Category:Modern Europe]]
 
[[Category:Post-Napoleonic congresses|*]]
 
[[Category:19th-century diplomatic conferences|*]]
 
 
[[ca:Concert europeu]]
 
[[cy:Cytgord Ewrop]]
 
[[de:Pentarchie (Europa)]]
 
[[el:Ευρωπαϊκή Συμφωνία]]
 
[[eo:Eŭropa Koncerto]]
 
[[fa:کنسرت اروپا]]
 
[[nl:Concert van Europa]]
 
[[pl:Koncert mocarstw]]
 
[[pt:Concerto da Europa]]
 
[[ru:Венская система международных отношений]]
 
[[simple:Concert of Europe]]
 
[[sl:Metternichov absolutizem]]
 
[[zh:歐洲協調]]
 
Reason: ANN scored at 0.971193
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bonser (anonymous)
Date: Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 04:27:58 AM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:29:25 PM #100457
Bradley (anonymous)

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Wednesday, the 19th of August 2015 at 04:27:58 AM #100752
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