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ID: 944374
User: 199.36.12.92
Article: 5G
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{{Other uses2|5G}}
 
 
'''5G''' ('''5th generation mobile networks''' or '''5th generation wireless systems''') is a name used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the [[4G]]/[[IMT-Advanced]] standards effective since 2011. At present, 5G is not a term officially used for any particular specification or in any official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as [[3GPP]], [[WiMAX]] Forum, or [[ITU-R]]. New standard releases beyond 4G are in progress by standardization bodies, but are at this time not considered as new mobile generations but under the 4G umbrella.
 
 
==Prognosis==
 
Were a 5G family of standards to be implemented, it would likely be around the year 2020, according to some sources.<ref name=Li>Xichun Li, Abudulla Gani, Rosli Salleh, Omar Zakaria, [http://scholar.google.se/scholar?cluster=2623323501984362277&hl=sv&as_sdt=2000&as_ylo=2006 The Future of Mobile Wireless Communication Networks], International Conference on Communication Software and Networks, February 2009, ISBN 978-0-7695-3522-7.</ref> A new mobile generation has appeared every 10th year since the first [[1G]] system ([[Nordic Mobile Telephone|NMT]]) was introduced in 1981, including the 2G ([[GSM]]) system that started to roll out in 1992, 3G ([[W-CDMA]]/[[FOMA]]), which appeared in 2001, and "real" 4G standards fulfilling the [[IMT-Advanced]] requirements, that were ratified in 2011 and products expected in 2012-2013. Predecessor technologies have occurred on the market a few years before the new mobile generation, for example the pre-3G system[[CdmaOne]]/IS95 in 1995, and the pre-4G systems [[Mobile WiMAX]] and [[3GPP Long Term Evolution|LTE]] in 2005 and 2009 respectively.
 
 
The development of the [[2G]] ([[GSM]]) and [[3G]] (IMT-2000 and UMTS) standards took about 10 years from the official start of the [[Research and development|R&D]] projects, and development of 4G systems started in 2001 or 2002.<ref name=Akhtar>{{cite book |url=http://cims.clayton.edu/sakhtar/EncyclopediaPaper.pdf |title=2G-5G Networks: Evolution of Technologies, Standards, and Deployment |first1=Shakil |last1=Akhtar |editor1-first=Margherita |editor1-last=Pagani |origyear=2005 |year=2008 |month=August |edition=Second |publisher=[[IGI Global]] |location=Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States |chapter= |pages=522–532 |format=PDF |isbn=9781605660141 |doi=10.4018/978-1-60566-014-1.ch070 |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5z9JxJryv |archivedate=2011-06-02 |accessdate=2011-06-02 |quote=}}</ref><ref>[http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:SSkGidXvQjAJ:www.safecomprogram.gov/NR/rdonlyres/5C74C631-ACF6-433F-B313-C04D041A5489/0/Look_Future_Wireless_Communications_Beyond3G.pdf+%22generation%22+%2210+years%22+3g+4g&hl=sv&gl=se&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgjbe5SmRauST0LgRZ5itUZ0Z_6dijBQ0Lh_ZSXWb0qz4L2lO7UpmyaN9VhkfA9xjGe2izd-z2UnSbf5NizkMWKpyabu6j80w8nhM40_gQEZ2rob-_8b31sCXW_E7uH8mp2HYxS&sig=AHIEtbRHQIMhi0BSxPyol8tXj8AtlADhIA Emerging Wireless Technologies; A look into the future of wireless communications – beyond 3G], SAFECOM (A U.S. [[Department of Homeland Security]] program) "Since the general model of 10 years to develop a new mobile system is being followed, that timeline would suggest 4G should be operational some time around 2011."</ref> However, still no transnational 5G development projects have officially been launched, and industry representatives have expressed scepticism towards 5G.<ref name=ericsson2011>[http://www.dnaindia.com/money/interview_there-will-be-no-5g-we-have-reached-the-channel-limits-ericsson-cto_1546408 Interview with Ericsson CTO: There will be no 5g - we have reached the channel limits], Daily News and Analysis, 23 May 2011.</ref>
 
 
New mobile generations are typically assigned new frequency bands and wider spectral bandwidth per frequency channel (1G up to 30&nbsp;kHz, 2G up to 200&nbsp;kHz, 3G up to 5&nbsp;MHz, and 4G up to 40&nbsp;MHz), but sceptics argue that there is little room for new frequency bands or larger channel bandwidths.<ref name=ericsson2011/> From users point of view, previous mobile generations have implied substantial increase in [[bitrate|peak bitrate]] (i.e. physical layer [[net bitrate]]s for short-distance communication). However, no source suggests 5G peak download and upload rates of more than the 1 [[Gbps#Gigabit_per_second|Gbps]] to be offered by [[4G#ITU_Requirements_and_4G_wireless_standards|ITU-R]]'s definition of 4G systems.<ref name=Akhtar/> If 5G appears, and reflects these prognoses, the major difference from a user point of view between 4G and 5G techniques must be something else than increased [[maximum throughput]]; for example lower battery consumption, lower outage probability (better coverage), high bit rates in larger portions of the coverage area, cheaper or no traffic fees due to low infrastructure deployment costs, or higher aggregate capacity for many simultaneous users (i.e. higher [[system spectral efficiency|system level spectral efficiency]]). Those are the objectives in several of the research papers below.
 
 
==Research==
 
Key concepts suggested in scientific papers discussing 5G and beyond [[4G]] wireless communications are:
 
* [[Pervasive network]]s providing ''ubiquitous computing'': The user can simultaneously be connected to several wireless access technologies and seamlessly move between them (See [[Media independent handover]] or [[vertical handover]], [[IEEE 802.21]], also expected to be provided by future 4G releases. See also [[multihoming]].). These access technologies can be 2.5G, 3G, 4G, or 5G mobile networks, [[Wi-Fi]], [[Wireless personal area network|WPAN]], or any other future access technology. In 5G, the concept may be further developed into multiple concurrent data transfer paths.<ref name=Gani>Abdullah Gani, Xichun Li, Lina Yang, Omar Zakaria, Nor Badrul Anuar, [http://scholar.google.se/scholar?cluster=3811125365894876229&hl=sv&as_sdt=2000&as_ylo=2008 Multi-Bandwidth Data Path Design for 5G Wireless Mobile Internets], WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications archive, Volume 6, Issue 2, February 2009. ISSN:1790-0832.</ref>
 
* [[cooperative diversity|Group cooperative relay]]: A major issue in beyond 4G systems is to make the high bit rates available in a larger portion of the cell, especially to users in an exposed position in between several base stations. In current research, this issue is addressed by [[cellular repeater]]s and [[macro-diversity]] techniques, also known as [[cooperative diversity|group cooperative relay]], as well as by [[Multi-user MIMO|beam division multiple access]].<ref>The Korean IT R&D program of [[Ministry of Knowledge Economy|MKE]]/IITA: 2008-F-004-01 “5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation”.</ref>
 
* [[Cognitive radio]] technology, also known as smart-radio: allowing different radio technologies to share the same spectrum efficiently by adaptively finding unused spectrum and adapting the transmission scheme to the requirements of the technologies currently sharing the spectrum. This dynamic [[radio resource management]] is achieved in a distributed fashion, and relies on [[software-defined radio]].<ref>[http://www.infoworld.com/t/networking/tomorrows-5g-cell-phone-007 Tomorrow's 5g cell phone; Cognitive radio, a 5g device, could forever alter the power balance from wireless service provider to user], Infoworld Newsletters / Networking, February 28, 2003</ref><ref>Cornelia-Ionela Badoi, Neeli Prasad, Victor Croitoru and Ramjee Prasad, [http://scholar.google.se/scholar?cluster=4275683645402207918&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5 5G based cognitive radio], Wireless Personal Communications, Volume 57, Number 3, 441–464, DOI: 10.1007/s11277-010-0082-9, Springer.</ref> See also the [[IEEE 802.22]] standard for Wireless Regional Area Networks.
 
*[[Wireless ad hoc network|Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Networks]] (DAWN),<ref name=Akhtar/> essentially identical to [[Mobile ad hoc network]] (MANET), [[Wireless mesh network]] (WMN) or [[wireless grid]]s, combined with [[smart antenna]]s and flexible modulation.
 
* [[Vandermonde]]-subspace frequency division multiplexing ([[VFDM]]): a modulation scheme to allow the co-existence of macro-cells and [[cognitive radio]] small-cells in a two-tiered LTE/4G network.<ref>Leonardo S. Cardoso, Marco Maso, Mari Kobayashi and Mérouane Debbah, [http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00555215/icc_abstract.pdf Orthogonal LTE two-tier Cellular Networks], 2011 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). p. 1-5 , July 2011.</ref> <!-- (The article does not mention 5g) -->
 
* [[IPv6]], where a visiting care-of [[mobile IP]] address is assigned according to location and connected network.<ref name=Gani/>
 
* [[High-altitude platform|High-altitude stratospheric platform station]] (HAPS) systems.<ref>Shingo Ohmori, Yasushi Yamao and Nobuo Nakajima, [http://scholar.google.se/scholar?cluster=14750263747341471424&hl=sv&as_sdt=2000 The Future Generations of Mobile Communications Based on Broadband Access Technologies], [[IEEE]] communications magazine. Vol. 38, no. 12, p. 134-142, December 2000.</ref>
 
* [[wearable technology|Wearable devices]] with [[artificial intelligence|AI]] capabilities.<ref name=Akhtar/>
 
* One unified global standard.<ref name=Akhtar/>
 
* ''Real wireless world'' with no more limitation with access and zone issues.<ref name=Gani/>
 
* ''User centric'' (or ''cell phone developer initiated'') network concept instead of operator-initiated (as in 1G) or system developer initiated (as in 2G, 3G and 4G) standards<ref name=Janevski>Toni Janevski, [http://scholar.google.se/scholar?cluster=5636363244897775156&hl=en&as_sdt=0 5G Mobile Phone Concept], Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, 2009 6th IEEE [1-4244-2308-2].</ref>
 
* ''World wide wireless web'' (WWWW), i.e. comprehensive wireless-based web applications that include full multimedia capability beyond 4G speeds.<ref name=Akhtar/>
 
 
==See also==
 
* [[Femtocell]]
 
* [[Head-mounted display]] (HMD)
 
* [[Picocell]]
 
* [[Ultra-wideband]] (UWB)
 
* [[Virtual retinal display]]
 
* [[Web 2.0]]
 
* [[Web 3.0]]
 
 
==Footnotes==
 
<references/>
 
 
<!--==References== -->
 
<!-- Only published reliable sources. Footnotes is more prefereable than this list. -->
 
<!-- * Imthiyaz Ali, [http://www.4gwirelessjobs.com/pdf/5G_NanoCore.pdf 5G the Nanocore], White paper report on 4G and 5G. Latest version: 5 March 2011. (Continuously updated) This source is hidden because current version is not published, it does not provide new research results, and the reasoning is unclear.-->
 
 
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{{s-bef|before=[[4G|4th Generation (4G)]]}}
 
{{s-ttl|title=[[Mobile telephony|Mobile Telephony Generations]]
 
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<!-- {{s-aft|after=6th Generation (6G) (''a future standard'')}} -->
 
{{s-end}}
 
 
{{Mobile telecommunications standards}}
 
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:5g}}
 
[[Category:Technology forecasting]]
 
 
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Reason:
Reporter Information
Reporter: Bradley (anonymous)
Date: Friday, the 23rd of October 2015 at 08:57:35 AM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 23rd of October 2015 at 08:57:35 AM #101938
Bradley (anonymous)

fzpEjm http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

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