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ID: 950292
User: 76.226.133.171
Article: Species
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(Biologists' working definition)
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A usable definition of the word "species" and reliable methods of identifying particular species is essential for stating and testing biological theories and for measuring [[biodiversity]]. Traditionally, multiple examples of a proposed species must be studied for unifying characters before it can be regarded as a species. It is generally difficult to give precise taxonomic rankings to extinct species known only from fossils.
 
A usable definition of the word "species" and reliable methods of identifying particular species is essential for stating and testing biological theories and for measuring [[biodiversity]]. Traditionally, multiple examples of a proposed species must be studied for unifying characters before it can be regarded as a species. It is generally difficult to give precise taxonomic rankings to extinct species known only from fossils.
   
Some biologists may view species as statistical phenomena, as opposed to the traditional idea, with a species seen as a class of organisms. In that case, a species is defined as a separately evolving lineage that forms a single [[gene pool]]. Although properties such as DNA-sequences and morphology are used to help separate closely related lineages,<ref>Koch, H. 2010. Combining morphology and DNA barcoding resolves the taxonomy of Western Malagasy ''Liotrigona'' Moure, 1961. ''[[African Invertebrates]]'' '''51''' (2): 413-421.[http://www.africaninvertebrates.org.za/Koch_2010_51_2_474.aspx][http://www.tb1.ethz.ch/PublicationsEO/PDFpapers/Koch_AFRICAN_INVERTEBRATES_2010_51_413-421.pdf PDF fulltext]</ref> this definition has fuzzy boundaries.<ref>{{cite journal |author=De Queiroz K |title=Species concepts and species delimitation |journal=Syst. Biol. |volume=56 |issue=6 |pages=879–86 |year=2007 |month=December |pmid=18027281 |doi=10.1080/10635150701701083 |postscript=.}}</ref> However, the exact definition of the term "species" is still controversial, particularly in [[prokaryotes]],<ref>{{cite journal |author=Fraser C, Alm EJ, Polz MF, Spratt BG, Hanage WP |title=The bacterial species challenge: making sense of genetic and ecological diversity |journal=Science |volume=323 |issue=5915 |pages=741–6 |year=2009 |month=February |pmid=19197054 |doi=10.1126/science.1159388 |postscript=.}}</ref> and this is called the [[species problem]].<ref name=Queiroz>{{cite journal |author=de Queiroz K |title=Ernst Mayr and the modern concept of species |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=102 |issue= Suppl 1 |pages=6600–7 |year=2005 |month=May |pmid=15851674 |pmc=1131873 |doi=10.1073/pnas.0502030102 |url=http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15851674 |postscript=.}}</ref> Biologists have proposed a range of more precise definitions, but the definition used is a pragmatic choice that depends on the particularities of the species of concern.<ref name=Queiroz/>
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I CAN COUNT TO POTATO Some biologists may view species as statistical phenomena, as opposed to the traditional idea, with a species seen as a class of organisms. In that case, a species is defined as a separately evolving lineage that forms a single [[gene pool]]. Although properties such as DNA-sequences and morphology are used to help separate closely related lineages,<ref>Koch, H. 2010. Combining morphology and DNA barcoding resolves the taxonomy of Western Malagasy ''Liotrigona'' Moure, 1961. ''[[African Invertebrates]]'' '''51''' (2): 413-421.[http://www.africaninvertebrates.org.za/Koch_2010_51_2_474.aspx][http://www.tb1.ethz.ch/PublicationsEO/PDFpapers/Koch_AFRICAN_INVERTEBRATES_2010_51_413-421.pdf PDF fulltext]</ref> this definition has fuzzy boundaries.<ref>{{cite journal |author=De Queiroz K |title=Species concepts and species delimitation |journal=Syst. Biol. |volume=56 |issue=6 |pages=879–86 |year=2007 |month=December |pmid=18027281 |doi=10.1080/10635150701701083 |postscript=.}}</ref> However, the exact definition of the term "species" is still controversial, particularly in [[prokaryotes]],<ref>{{cite journal |author=Fraser C, Alm EJ, Polz MF, Spratt BG, Hanage WP |title=The bacterial species challenge: making sense of genetic and ecological diversity |journal=Science |volume=323 |issue=5915 |pages=741–6 |year=2009 |month=February |pmid=19197054 |doi=10.1126/science.1159388 |postscript=.}}</ref> and this is called the [[species problem]].<ref name=Queiroz>{{cite journal |author=de Queiroz K |title=Ernst Mayr and the modern concept of species |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=102 |issue= Suppl 1 |pages=6600–7 |year=2005 |month=May |pmid=15851674 |pmc=1131873 |doi=10.1073/pnas.0502030102 |url=http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15851674 |postscript=.}}</ref> Biologists have proposed a range of more precise definitions, but the definition used is a pragmatic choice that depends on the particularities of the species of concern.<ref name=Queiroz/>
   
 
===Common names and species===
 
===Common names and species===
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Reporter: JimmiXzS (anonymous)
Date: Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:37:48 PM
Status: Reported
Friday, the 7th of August 2015 at 09:04:43 PM #100376
Bradley (anonymous)

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Thursday, the 13th of October 2016 at 02:37:48 PM #106402
JimmiXzS (anonymous)

k1dSNi http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

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