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ID: 991184
User: 202.176.202.138
Article: Eskimo
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The term "Eskimo" is also used worldwide in linguistic or ethnographic works to denote the larger branch of Eskimo–Aleut languages, the smaller branch being Aleut.
 
The term "Eskimo" is also used worldwide in linguistic or ethnographic works to denote the larger branch of Eskimo–Aleut languages, the smaller branch being Aleut.
   
  +
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==Languages==
 
{{Main|Eskimo–Aleut languages}}
 
[[File:Welcome to Barrow, Alaska.jpg|thumb|left|260px|English (''Welcome to Barrow'') and [[Inupiat language|Inupiat]] (''Paġlagivsigiñ Utqiaġvigmun''), [[Barrow, Alaska]]]]
 
The [[Eskimo–Aleut languages|Eskimo–Aleut]] family of languages includes two cognate branches: the [[Aleut language|Aleut]] (Unangan) branch and the Eskimo branch. The Eskimo sub-family consists of the [[Inuit language]] and Yupik language sub-groups.<ref name="FortecueM">{{Cite journal | title = Comparative Eskimo Dictionary with Aleut Cognates | coauthors = Michael Fortescue, Steven Jacobson, and Lawance Kaplan | publisher = [[Alaska Native Language Center]], [[University of Alaska Fairbanks]]}}</ref> The [[Sireniki Eskimo language|Sirenikski language]], which is virtually extinct, is sometimes regarded as a third branch of the Eskimo language family, but other sources regard it as a group belonging to the Yupik branch.<ref name="FortecueM"/><ref name="kaplanB">Kaplan, Lawrence. (2001-12-10). [http://www.uaf.edu/anlc/yupik_inuit.html "Comparative Yupik and Inuit"]. [[Alaska Native Language Center]], [[University of Alaska Fairbanks]]. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.</ref>
 
 
Inuit languages comprise a [[dialect continuum]], or dialect chain, that stretches from [[Unalakleet, Alaska|Unalakleet]] and [[Norton Sound]] in Alaska, across northern Alaska and Canada, and east all the way to Greenland. Changes from western (Inupiaq) to eastern dialects are marked by the dropping of vestigial Yupik-related features, increasing consonant assimilation (e.g., ''kumlu'', meaning "thumb," changes to ''kuvlu'', changes to ''kublu'',<ref name=livingdict/> changes to ''kulluk'',<ref name=livingdict/> changes to ''kulluq''<ref name=livingdict>{{cite web|url=http://www.livingdictionary.com/search/viewResults.jsp?language=en&searchString=thumb&languageSet=all |title=thumb|work=Asuilaak Living Dictionary|accessdate=2007-11-25}}</ref>), and increased consonant lengthening, and lexical change. Thus, speakers of two adjacent Inuit dialects would usually be able to understand one another, but speakers from dialects distant from each other on the dialect continuum would have difficulty understanding one another.<ref name="kaplanB"/> [[Seward Peninsula]] dialects in Western Alaska, where much of the [[Inupiat people|Inupiat]] culture has only been in place for perhaps less than 500 years, are greatly affected by phonological influence from the Yupik languages. Eastern Greenlandic, at the opposite end of the Inuit range has had significant word replacement due to a unique form of ritual name avoidance.<ref name="FortecueM"/><ref name="kaplanB"/>
 
 
The four [[Yupik languages]], including Alutiiq (Sugpiaq), Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Naukan (Naukanski), and Siberian Yupik are distinct languages with phonological, morphological, and lexical differences, and demonstrating limited mutual intelligibility.<ref name="FortecueM"/> Additionally, both Alutiiq and Central Yup'ik have considerable dialect diversity. The northernmost Yupik languages — Siberian Yupik and Naukanski Yupik — are linguistically only slightly closer to Inuit than is Alutiiq, which is the southernmost of the Yupik languages. Although the grammatical structures of Yupik and Inuit languages are similar, they have pronounced differences phonologically, and differences of vocabulary between Inuit and any of one of the Yupik languages is greater than between any two Yupik languages.<ref name="kaplanB"/> Even the dialectal differences within Alutiiq and Central Alaskan Yup'ik sometimes are relatively great for locations that are relatively close geographically.<ref name="kaplanB"/>
 
 
While grammatical structures of Yupik and Inuit languages are similar, they have pronounced differences phonologically and differences of vocabulary between Inuit and any of one of the Yupik languages is greater than between any two Yupik languages.<ref name="kaplanB"/>
 
 
The Sirenikski language is sometimes regarded as a third branch of the Eskimo language family, but other sources regard it as a group belonging to the Yupik branch.<ref name="kaplanB"/>
 
 
An overview of the '''Eskimo–Aleut''' languages family is given below:
 
:'''Aleut'''
 
::[[Aleut language]]
 
:::Western-Central dialects: Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Bering (60–80 speakers)
 
:::Eastern dialect: Unalaskan, Pribilof (400 speakers)
 
:'''Eskimo''' (Yup'ik, Yuit, and Inuit)
 
::[[Yupik languages|Yupik]]
 
:::[[Central Alaskan Yup'ik language|Central Alaskan Yup'ik]] (10,000 speakers)
 
:::[[Alutiiq]] or Pacific Gulf Yup'ik (400 speakers)
 
:::[[Siberian Yupik language|Central Siberian Yupik]] or Yuit (Chaplinon and St Lawrence Island, 1,400 speakers)
 
:::[[Naukan language|Naukan]] (700 speakers)
 
::[[Inuit language|Inuit]] or Inupik (75,000 speakers)
 
:::[[Inupiaq language|Iñupiaq]] (northern Alaska, 3,500 speakers)
 
:::[[Inuvialuktun]] (western Canada; together with [[Siglitun]], [[Natsilingmiutut]], [[Inuinnaqtun]] and [[Uummarmiutun]] 765 speakers)
 
:::[[Inuktitut]] (eastern Canada; together with [[Inuktun]] and [[Inuinnaqtun]], 30,000 speakers)
 
:::[[Greenlandic language|Kalaallisut]] (Greenland, 47,000 speakers)
 
::::[[Inuktun language|Inuktun]] (Avanersuarmiutut, Thule dialect or Polar Eskimo, approximately 1,000 speakers)
 
::::[[Tunumiit language|Tunumiit oraasiat]] (East Greenlandic known as Tunumiisut, 3,500 speakers)
 
::'''[[Sirenik Eskimo language]] (Sirenikskiy)''' (extinct)
 
   
 
==Inuit==
 
==Inuit==
Reason: ANN scored at 0.970614
Reporter Information
Reporter: JimmiXzS (anonymous)
Date: Friday, the 14th of October 2016 at 11:24:23 AM
Status: Reported
Monday, the 5th of January 2015 at 09:16:13 AM #97518
gordon (anonymous)

72uxuR http://www.QS3PE5ZGdxC9IoVKTAPT2DBYpPkMKqfz.com

Friday, the 14th of October 2016 at 11:24:23 AM #106499
JimmiXzS (anonymous)

OvjpSU http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com

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