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Michael of Hungary
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Michael (; after 960–995 or c. 997) was a member of the House of Árpád, a younger son of Taksony, Grand Prince of the Hungarians. Most details of his life are uncertain. Almost all kings of Hungary after 1046 descended from him.

According to the Hungarian historian, György Györffy, Michael received a ducatus or duchy from his brother, Grand Prince Géza. Slovak historians specify that he administered the "Duchy of Nitra" between around 971 and 997. However, neither of these theories have universally been accepted by historians.

Life

Anonymus, the unknown author of the late 12th-century Gesta Hungarorum narrates that Michael's father, Taksony took his wife "from the land of the Cumans". However, the lands which were dominated by the Cumans at Anonymus's time had been controlled by the Pechenegs up until the 1050s. Accordingly, Györffy proposes that Taksony's wife was the daughter of a Pecheneg tribal leader. Other historians, including Zoltán Kordé and Gyula Kristó, say that Anonymous's report may refer either to her Khazar or to her Volga Bulgarian origin.

Michael was Taksony's younger son. Györffy writes that he was still a minor when he was baptized around 972. He received baptism together with his elder brother, Géza, who succeeded their father as Grand Prince around that time. Michael was named after the Archangel Michael. According to Györffy, the frequent use of the name "Béla" by his descendantsfour kings and two dukes from the House of Árpád bore this nameimplies that it was Michael's original pagan name. He also writes that the "a" ending of his name excludes that it was borrowed from a Slavic language, because "a" is a feminine ending in these languages. Instead he proposes, that the name derived from the Turkic bojla title.

According to Györffy, Michael was a close ally of his brother, since there is no proof that their relationship was ever tense. Therefore, Györffy continues, Géza "probably gave one of the ducatus" in the Principality of Hungary to Michael, although there is no record of these events. According to Steinhübel, Michael received the "Duchy of Nitra" around 971. His colleague, Ján Lukačka, adds that it was Michael who broke "the resistance of the native nobles" in this duchy.

Michael's fate is unknown; Györffy proposes that he either died before his brother (who died in 997) or renounced of his duchy in favor of Géza's son, Stephen, without resistance. On the other hand, Steinhübel writes that Michael was murdered in 995, an action "for which his brother Géza was probably responsible".
Lukačka likewise says that Michael "was killed, apparently, on the orders of" Géza. Finally, Vladimír Segeš also says that Géza had Michael murdered, according to him between 976 and 978, but he writes that Michael was succeeded by his own son, Ladislas the Bald.

Family

The name of Michael's two sons, Vazul (Basil) and Ladislas have been preserved. According to Györffy, "it is probable" that Michael's wife was related to Samuel of Bulgaria, because the names of his both sons were popular among Orthodox rulers, including the members of the Cometopuli family. Györffy adds that Michael married his Bulgarian wife when he came of age around 980. The following family tree presents Michael's ancestry and his offspring.

*Whether Menumorut is an actual or an invented person is debated by modern scholars.**A Khazar, Pecheneg or Volga Bulgarian lady.***Györffy writes that she may have been a member of the Bulgarian Cometopuli dynasty.****Kristó writes that she may have been a member of the Rurik dynasty from Kievan Rus' from Kievan Rus'.

References Sources

Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (Edited, Translated and Annotated by Martyn Rady and László Veszprémy) (2010). In: Rady, Martyn; Veszprémy, László; Bak, János M. (2010); Anonymus and Master Roger; CEU Press; ISBN 978-963-9776-95-1.


pl:Michał węgierski

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MIHALY, Duke of Hungary

HUSBAND:

MIHALY. Duke of Hungary. (Michael). [

The Hungarians ]

Born possibly about 960 AD; son of

TAKSONY, Grand Prince of
Hungary

. Michael was named after the Archangel Michael. (S1).

According to the Hungarian historian, György Györffy, Michael received a ducatus or duchy from his brother, Grand Prince Géza. Slovak historians specify that he administered the "Duchy of Nitra" between around 971 and 997. However, neither of these theories have universally been accepted. (S1).

Michael was Taksony's younger son. Györffy writes that he was still a minor when he was baptized around 972 AD. He received baptism together with his elder brother, Géza, who succeeded their father as Grand Prince around that time. (S1).

According to Györffy, Michael was a close ally of his brother, since there is no proof that their relationship was ever tense. Therefore, Györffy continues, Géza "probably gave one of the ducatus" in the Principality of Hungary to Michael, although there is no record of these events. According to Steinhübel, Michael received the "Duchy of Nitra" around 971. His colleague, Ján Lukacka, adds that it was Michael who broke "the resistance of the native nobles" in this duchy. (S1). However, his receipt of the Duchy of Nitra is conjecture.

The name of Michael's two sons, Vazul (Basil) and Ladislas have been preserved. According to Györffy, "it is probable" that Michael's wife was related to Samuel of Bulgaria, because the names of his both sons were popular among Orthodox rulers, including the members of the Cometopuli family. Györffy adds that Michael married his Bulgarian wife when he came of age around 980. (S1). This however is conjecture.

Michael's fate is unknown; Györffy proposes that he either died before his brother (who died in 997) or renounced of his duchy in favor of Géza's son, Stephen, without resistance. On the other hand, Steinhübel writes that Michael was murdered in 995, an action "for which his brother Géza was probably responsible". Lukacka likewise says that Michael "was killed, apparently, on the orders of" Géza. Finally, Vladimír Segeš also says that Géza had Michael murdered, according to him between 976 and 978, but he writes that Michael was succeeded by his own son, Ladislas the Bald. (S1).

He died between 976 AD and 978 AD. (S2).

WIFE: unknown.

Györffy writes that the wife of Mihlay may have been a member of the Bulgarian Cometopuli dynasty. (S1). There appears to be no support for this conjecture.

The wife of Mihaly is also said to be Adelajda of Poland, daughter of Ziemomysl, and sister of Mieszko I of Poland.

Adelajda. (Adleta). Born about 950 AD to 960 AD; daughter of ZIEMOMYSL (and sister of Mieszko I, Prince of Poland) . (S2).

According to Europäische Stammtafeln

, Adelajda was the daughter, not the sister, of Mieszko I Prince of Poland. Adelajda's birth date range is estimated from the supposed dates of birth of her two sons by her first husband and of her three known daughters by her second marriage, after 985 AD. The date range appears chronologically more consistent with her having been the daughter, rather than sister, of Mieszko, but this would be in direct contradiction to the sources quoted above. If she was Mieszko's sister, it is likely that they did not share the same mother, assuming that the estimated birth dates of Mieszko and Adelajda are both accurate. (S2).

She married (1) (between 970 and 975) MIHÁLY Prince of Hungary Duke between March and Gran, son of TAKSONY Prince of Hungary & his wife --- [Kuman Princess]. (S2).

The Annales Kamenzenses

record that "Mesco…rex Polanorum…sororem…Atleydem" married "Iesse rex Ungarie" by whom she was mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie" (S2).

The Breve chronicon Silesiæ

names "Adilheidem" as sister of "primo dux Mesco", adding that she married "Jesse rex Ungarie" and that she was the mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie" born in 975 AD. (S2).

The Kronika Wegiersko-Polska

records that "Iesse" married "sororem Meschonis ducis…Athleitam", adding that she was a Christian and converted her husband to Christianity. (S2).

She married (2) in 985 AD, as his second wife, GEZA Prince of Hungary, son of TAKSONY Prince of Hungary & his wife --- [Kuman Princess] . It is probable that her second marriage was arranged in accordance with the Magyar tradition that the oldest male relative should marry the widow of a deceased relative (originally polygamously) and take care of his children. (S2).

NOTE that her second husband, Geza, married (1) Sarolt, a daughter of an Orthodox Hungarian chieftain. Sarolt is said to have given birth to at least three of Géza's children; Stephen, who succeeded his father on the throne, and two unnamed daughters. Sarolt is said to have survived Géza, which suggests that she was also the mother of Géza's daughters. However, this is conjecture. Based on the

Polish-Hungarian Chronicle

, Szabolcs de Vajay wrote that the daughters' mother was Géza's second wife Adelaide (Adleta) of Poland.

It is said that she died after 997 AD. (S2). However, sources that say Sarolt survived Geza say that she died about 1008 AD. (S1). This must have actually been the death of Adelajda.

*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~* CHILDREN of

Ladislaus the Bald. (Ladislas). The Illuminated Chronicle writes that he took "his wife from Ruthenia". Gyula Kristó says that she was a member of the Rurik dynasty of the Kievan Rus'. He adds that her name was possibly Premislava. (S1).

VAZUL

, Duke of Hungary. (Basil).

SOURCES:

[S1]. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. QUOTES as sources:

Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (Edited, Translated and Annotated by Martyn Rady and László Veszprémy) (2010). In: Rady, Martyn; Veszprémy, László; Bak, János M. (2010); Anonymus and Master Roger; CEU Press; ISBN 978-963-9776-95-1.


Györffy, György (1994). King Saint Stephen of Hungary. Atlantic Research and Publications. ISBN 0-88033-300-6.

(Hungarian) Györffy, György (2000). István király és muve [=King Stephen and his Work]. Balassi Kiadó.

(Hungarian) Kordé, Zoltán (1994). "Taksony". In Kristó, Gyula; Engel, Pál; Makk, Ferenc. Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9-14. század) [=Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th-14th centuries)]. Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 659. ISBN 963-05-6722-9.

(Hungarian) Kristó, Gyula; Makk, Ferenc (1996). Az Árpád-ház uralkodói [=Rulers of the House of Árpád]. I.P.C. Könyvek. ISBN 963-7930-97-3.

Lukacka, Ján (2011). "The beginnings of the nobility in Slovakia". In Teich, Mikuláš; Kovác, Dušan; Brown, Martin D. Slovakia in History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 30–37. ISBN 978-0-521-80253-6.

Segeš, Vladimír (2002). "Nitra Appanage Duchy". In Bartl, Július; Cicaj, Viliam; Kohútova, Mária; Letz, Róbert; Segeš, Vladimír; Škvarna, Dušan. Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Slovenské Pedegogické Nakladatel'stvo. p. 278. ISBN 0-86516-444-4.

Steinhübel, Ján (2011). "The Duchy of Nitra". In Teich, Mikuláš; Kovác, Dušan; Brown, Martin D. Slovakia in History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–29. ISBN 978-0-521-80253-6.

[S2]. Medieval Lands. Poland. Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm QUOTES as sources:

Pertz, G. H. (ed.) (1866) Annales Poloniæ, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum (Hannover), Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.

Breve chronicon Silesiæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 34.

Bielowski, A. (ed.) (1864) Monumenta Poloniæ Historica (Lwów) Kronika Wegiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, 3, pp. 498-9.

Europäische Stammtafeln [S3].